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Encyclopedia > Palenque
The Palace, Ruins of Palenque
The Palace, Ruins of Palenque

Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at 17°29′0″N, 92°2′59″W about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). It is a medium-sized site, much smaller than such huge sites as Tikal or Copán, but it contains some of the finest architecture, sculpture, and bas-relief carvings the Maya produced. The Palace, Palenque Ruins. ... The Palace, Palenque Ruins. ... The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... The Usumacinta River, taken from Chiapas. ... The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or Mexico) comprises 31 states (estados) and one federal district (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... Puente El Zacatal, the bridge connecting Ciudad del Carmen to the mainland. ... Tikal Temples I, II and III Tikal (or Tik’al, according to the more current orthography) is the largest of the ancient ruined cities of the Maya civilization. ... Location of Copán The Pre-Columbian city now known as Copán is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Copán Department, near to the Guatemalan border. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ...

Contents

The name

The site was already long abandoned when the Spanish arrived in Chiapas. The first European to visit the ruins and publish an account was Father Pedro Lorenzo de la Nada in 1567; at the time the local Chol Maya called it Otolum meaning "Land with strong houses", de la Nada roughly translated this into Spanish to give the site the name "Palenque", meaning "fortification". (The similarity with the name of the mythical mayan hero Ixbalanque is coincidental.) Palenque also became the name for the town (Santo Domingo del Palenque) which was built over some peripheral ruins down in the valley from the main ceremonial center of the ancient city. Rocky landscape with ruins, by Nicolaes Berchem, ca. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... In Maya-Quiché mythology, Ixbalanque or Xbalanque is a son of Hun-Hunahpu and Xquic, the daughter of one of the lords of the underworld. ...


An ancient name for the city was Lakam Ha, which translates as "Big Water" or "Wide Water", for the numerous springs and wide cascades that are found within the site. Palenque was the capital of the important classic-age Maya city-state of B'aakal (Bone)[citation needed].


The Maya Classic city

Temple of the Cross
Temple of the Cross

While the site was occupied by the middle Pre-Classic, it did not gain importance until several hundred years later. By 600 the first of the famous structures now visible were being constructed. Situated in the western reaches of Maya territory, on the edge of the southern highlands, B'aakal was a large and vital center of Maya civilization from the 5th century AD to the 9th century. Image File history File links Palenquecarving. ... Image File history File links Palenquecarving. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 186 KB) Jami Dwyer http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 186 KB) Jami Dwyer http://www. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


The B'aakal state had a chequered career. Its original dynasts were perhaps Olmec. Politically, the city experienced diverse fortunes, being disastrously defeated by Kalakmul in 599 and again in 611. B'akaal was an important part of the Maya civilization during the fifth and ninth centuries, during which there were epochs of glory, catastrophe, alliances, and wars. At one point B'aakal allied with Tikal, the other large city at the time, in particular to contain the expansion of the belligerent Calakmul, also known as the "Rein of the Serpent." Calakmul emerged victorious twice in 599 and 611. Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... Calakmul is the name of both a municipality and a major archeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, in the central part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ... Alternate meaning: phone number 6-1-1 Events Kalakmul defeats Palenque Cynegils becomes King of Wessex Births Deaths Ceolwulf of Wessex Categories: 611 ...


Nevertheless, B'aakal produced what is arguably the best-known Maya Ajaw (king or lord), Pacal the Great, who ruled from 615 to 683, and left one of the most magnificent tomb-works of ancient Mesoamerica, beneath the Temple of Inscriptions. This is a grand temple atop a step pyramid dedicated in 692; inside is an elaborate, long hieroglyphic text carved in stone detailing the city's ruling dynasty and the exploits of Pacal the Great. A stone slab in the floor could be lifted up, revealing a passageway (filled in shortly before the city's abandonment and reopened by archeologists) to a long interior stairway leading back down to ground level and the shrine/tomb of the semi-divine Pacal. Over his crypt is an elaborate stone showing him falling into the underworld, and taking the guise of one of the Maya Hero Twins in the Popul Vuh who defeated the lords of the underworld to achieve immortality. AJAW is the title in the Mayan language of the King of a Precolumbian city state of the Maya people on the (now Mexican) Yucatan peninsula (explicitely attested in Palenque and in Tikal) and in neighbouring Central America, in Guatemala and Belize (the former British Honduras). ... Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the most recent work gives his full name as Kinich Janaab Pakal[1] (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque. ... Events The Edict of Paris grants extensive rights to the Frankish nobility. ... Events Umayyad caliph Yazid I (680 - 683) succeeded by Muawiya II ibn Yazid (683 - 684) End of the reign of Pacal the Great, ruler of Maya state of Palenque Births Emperor Mommu of Japan Bilge Khan, emperor of the Gokturks I Sin, Chinese astronomer Deaths Pope Leo II Tang Gao... The cultural areas of Mesoamerica The term Mesoamérica is used to refer to a geographical region that extends roughly from the Tropic of Cancer in central Mexico down through Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua to northwestern Costa Rica, and which is characterized by the particular cultural homogeneity... Events The Quinisext Council (also said in Trullo), held in Constantinople, laid the foundation for the Orthodox Canon Law The Arabs conquer Armenia. ... The Hero Twins feature prominently in Maya mythology. ... The Popol Vuh (Council Book or Book of the Community; Popol Wuj in modern Quiché spelling) is the book of scripture of the Quiché, a Kingdom of the Maya civilization in Guatemala. ...


The B'aakal government claimed that their lineage could be traced back to the remote past, some even boasting that a lineage back the prehistoric times with the mythological creation of the world in 3114 BCE. Modern archeological theorists believe that perhaps the first dynasty of B'aakal were Olmec.


Early Classic period.

The first ajaw, or king, of B'aakal that we know of was K'uk Balam (Quetzal Jaguar), who governed for four years starting in the year 431. After him, a king came to power, nicknamed Gasparín by archeologists. The two next kings were probably Gasparín's sons. Little was known about the first of these, B'utz Aj Sak Chiik, until 1994, when a tablet was found describing a ritual for the king. The first tablet mentioned his successor Ahkal Mo' Naab I as a teenage prince, and therefore it is believed that there was a family relation between them. For unknown reasons, Akhal Mo' Naab I had great prestige, so the Kings who succeeded him were proud to be his descendants.


When Ahkal Mo' Naab I died in 524, there was an interregnum of four years, before the following king was coronated en Toktán in 529. K'an Joy Chitam I governed for 36 years. His sons Ahkal Mo' Naab II and K'an B'alam I were the first kings who used the title Kinich, which means the great son. This word was used also by later kings. B'alam I was succeeded in 583 by Yok Iknal, who is supposedly his daughter. The inscriptions found in Palenque document a battle that occurred under her government in which troops from Calakmul invaded and sacked Palenque, a military feat without known precedents. These events took place on April 21, 599. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ...


A second victory by Calakmul occurred some twelve years later, in 611, under the government of Aj Ne'Ohl Mat, son of Yol Iknal. In this occasion, the king of Calakmul entered Palenque in person, consolidating a significant military disaster, the which was followed by an epoch of political disorder. Aj Ne'Ohl Mat was to die in 612.


Late Classic Period.

B'aakal began the Late Classic period in the throes of the disorder created by the defeats before Calakmul. The texts written in 613 are pessimistic: "Lost is the divine lady, lost is the king." [citation needed] These sources also tell of some fundamental rites that were not actually done. Mentions of the government at the time have not been found.


It is believed that after the death of Aj Ne'Ohl Mat, Janaab Pakal, sometimes called Pakal I, took power thanks to a political agreement. Janaab Pakal assumed the functions of the ajaw (king) but never was coronated; and he was succeeded in 612 by his daughter, the queen Sak K'uk, who governed for only three years. (see citation hereof in Spanish wikipedia). It is considered that the dynasty was reestablished from then on, so B'aakal retook the path of glory and splendor.


The son of Janaab Pakal is the most famous of the Mayan Kings, K'inich Janaab' Pakal, also known as Pakal the Great. Starting at twelve years of age, he reigned in Palenque from 615-683. Known as the favorite of the gods, he carried Palenque to new levels of splendor, in spite of having come to power when the city was at a low point. Pakal married the princess of Oktán in 624 and had two children. Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the name is sometimes rendered as Pakal) (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was king of the Maya kingdom of Palenque. ...


During his government, most of the palaces and temples of Palenque were constructed; the city flourished as never before, eclipsing Tikal. The central complex, known as The Palace, was enlarged and remodeled on various occasions, notably in the years 654, 661, and 668. In this structure, is a text describing how in that epoch Palenque was newly allied with Tikal, and also with Yaxchilan, and that they were able to capture the six enemy kings of the alliance. Not much more had been translated from the text.


After the death of Pakal in 683, his older son K'inich Kan B'alam assumed the kingship of B'aakal, who in turn was succeeded in 702 by his brother K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II. The first continued the architectural and sculptural works that were began by his father, as well as finishing the construction of the famous tomb of Pakal. Furthermore, he began ambitious projects, like the Group of the Crosses. Thanks to numerous works began during his government, now we have portraits of this king, found in various sculptures. His brother succeeded him continuing with the same enthusiasm of construction and art, reconstructing and enlarging the north side of the Palace. Thanks to the reign of these three kings, B'aakal had a century of growing and splendor.


In 711, Palanque was sacked by the realm of Toniná, and the old king K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II was taken prisoner. It is not known what the final destination of the king was, and it is presumed that he was executed in Toniná. For ten years there was no king. Finally, K'inich Ahkal Mo' Nab' III was coronated in 722. Although the new king belonged to the royalty, there is no reason to be sure that he was the direct inheritor direct of K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II. It is believed, therefore, that this coronation was a break in the dynastic line; and probably K'inich Ahkal Nab' arrived to power after years of maneuvering and forging political alliances. This king, his son and grandson, governed until the end of the century. Little is known about this time period, except that, among other events, the war with Toniná continued, where there are hieroglyphics that record a new defeat of Palenque.


The abandonment of Palenque

During the 8th century, B'aakal came under increasing stress, in concert with most other Classic Mayan city-states, and there was no new elite construction in the ceremonial center sometime after 800. An agricultural population continued to live here for a few generations, then the site was abandoned and was slowly grown over by the forest. The district was very sparsely populated when the Spanish first arrived in the 1520s. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... ...

A view of the main plaza of Palenque from the top of one of the pyramids
A view of the main plaza of Palenque from the top of one of the pyramids

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 982 KB) This is a view of Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico taken from the top of one of the pyramids. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 982 KB) This is a view of Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico taken from the top of one of the pyramids. ...

Important structures

Important structures at Palenque include:

  • The Temple of Inscriptions above the tomb of Pakal the Great (described above).
  • The Palace, actually a complex of several connected and adjacent buildings and courtyards built up over several generations on a wide artificial terrace. The Palace houses many fine sculptures and bas-relief carvings in addition to the distinctive four-story tower.
  • The Temple of the Cross, Temple of the Sun, and Temple of the Foliated Cross. This is a set of graceful temples atop step pyramids, each with an elaborately carved relief in the inner chamber. They commemorate the succession of King Chan Bahlum II to the throne after the death of Pacal the Great, and show the late king passing on his greatness to his successor. These temples were named by early explorers; the cross-like images in two of the reliefs actually depict the tree of creation at the center of the world in Maya mythology.
  • The Aqueduct constructed with great stone blocks with a three-meter-high vault to make the Otulum River flow underneath the floor of Palenque's main plaza.
  • The Temple of The Lion at a distance of some 200 meters south of the main group of temples; its name came from the elaborate bas-relief carving of a king seated on a throne in the form of a jaguar.
  • Structure XII with a bas-relief carving of the God of Death.
  • Temple of the Count another elegant Classic Palenque temple, which got its name from the fact that early explorer Jean Frederic Waldeck lived in the building for some time, and Waldeck claimed to be a Count.

The site also has a number of other temples, tombs, and elite residences, some a good distance from the center of the site, a court for playing the Mesoamerican Ballgame, and an interesting stone bridge over the Otulum River some distance below the Aquaduct. Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the name is sometimes rendered as Pakal) (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was king of the Maya kingdom of Palenque. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... The Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan, is one example of an enormous step pyramid. ... Chan Bahlum in January of 690 Chan Bahlum II, also known as Kinich Kan Balam the younger, (23 May 635 - 20 February 702) was king of the Maya state of Baakal, with the capital in the city now known as Palenque. ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Jean Frederic Maximilien de Waldeck (March 16, 1766 - April 30, 1875) was a French antiquarian, cartographer, artist and explorer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ulama game. ...


Rulers

A list of known Maya rulers of the city, with dates of their reigns:

K'inich K'an B'alam II ("Chan Bahlam II")
K'inich K'an B'alam II ("Chan Bahlam II")

King Chan Bahlum II of Palenque. ... King Chan Bahlum II of Palenque. ... Kuk Balam I was founder of the ruling dynasty at the Maya city of Palenque. ... Butz Aj Sak Chiik, also rendered as Butzah Sak Chik, (15 November 459 - 501) was a king of the Maya city of Palenque. ... Ahkal Mo Naab I was a ruler of the Maya city of Palenque. ... Kan Joy Chitam I was a ruler of the Maya city-state of Palenque. ... Ahkal Mo Naab II (3 September 523 - 23 July 570) was a ruler of the Maya city of Palenque, reigning from 4 May 565 until his death. ... Kan Balam I (? - February 3, 583) (also rendered as Chan Balaam) was a ruler of the Maya city of Palenque. ... Yohl Iknal was a female ruler of the Maya city of Palenque, ruling from 583 to 604. ... Aj Ne Ohl Mat was a king of the Maya city of Palenque. ... Pacal I or Pakal I (? - March 9, 612) was a ajawof the Maya city-state of Palenque. ... Lady Zac-Kuk (sometimes rendered as Sac Kuk ) was Queen of the Maya state of Baakal, now known as Palenque, in what is now eastern Mexico. ... Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the most recent work gives his full name as Kinich Janaab Pakal[1] (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque. ... Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the most recent work gives his full name as Kinich Janaab Pakal[1] (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque. ... Chan Bahlum in January of 690 Chan Bahlum II, also known as Kinich Kan Balam the younger, (23 May 635 - 20 February 702) was king of the Maya state of Baakal, with the capital in the city now known as Palenque. ... Kan Xul II (November 5, 644-ca. ... Kinich Ahkal Mo Naab III (678 - c. ...

Modern examinations of Palenque

Palenque is perhaps the most studied and written about of Maya sites.

bas-relief carved tablet in the "Temple of the Lion" as drawn by Waldeck
bas-relief carved tablet in the "Temple of the Lion" as drawn by Waldeck

After de la Nada's brief account of the ruins no attention was paid to them until 1773 when one Don Ramon de Ordoñez y Aguilar examined Palenque and sent a report to the Capitan General in Antigua Guatemala, a further examination was made in 1784 saying that the ruins were of particular interest, so two years later surveyor and architect Antonio Bernasconi was sent with a small military force under Colonel Antonio del Rio to examine the site in more detail. Del Rio's forces smashed through several walls to see what could be found, doing a fair amount of damage to the Palace, while Bernasconi made the first map of the site as well as drawing copies of a few of the bas-relief figures and sculptures. Draughtsman Luciano Castañeda made more drawings in 1807, and the first book on Palenque, Descriptions of the Ruins of an Ancient City, discovered near Palenque, was published in London in 1822 based on the reports of those last two expeditions together with engravings based on Bernasconi and Castañedas drawings; two more publications in 1834 contained descriptions and drawings based on the same sources. Palenque, stucco panel in Temple of the Lion, as drawn by J.F. Waldeck, 1838 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Cathedral of San Francisco Homestead in ruins of a colonial Spanish building; Volcánes de Fuego (left) and Acatenango visible in distance Antigua Guatemala (commonly referred to as just Antigua or La Antigua) is a city in the central mountains of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish New World... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Juan Galindo visited Palenque in 1831, and filed a report with the Central American government. He was the first to note that the figures depicted in Palenque's ancient art looked like the local Native Americans; some other early explorers, even years later, attributed the site to such distant peoples as Egyptians, Polynesians, or the Lost Tribes of Israel. Juan Galindo (1802-1839) was a Central American explorer and army officer. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Brazilian Indian chiefs The scope of this indigenous peoples of the Americas article encompasses the definitions of indigenous peoples and the Americas as established in their respective articles. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to ten of the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that were reported lost after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ...


Starting in 1832 Jean Frederic Waldeck spent two years at Palenque making numerous drawings, but most of his work was not published until 1866. Meanwhile the site was visited in 1840 first by Patrick Walker and Herbert Caddy on a mission from the governor of British Honduras, and then by John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood who published an illustrated account the following year which was greatly superior to the previous accounts of the ruins. 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jean Frederic Maximilien de Waldeck (March 16, 1766 - April 30, 1875) was a French antiquarian, cartographer, artist and explorer. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: (Latin for Under the Shade I Flourish) Anthem: Land of the Free Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Belmopan Largest city Belize City English (significant number of people speak Spanish and Kriol) Government Commonwealth Realm  - Monarch Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Colville Young  - Prime Minister Said Musa Independence From... John Lloyd Stephens (November 28, 1805–October 13, 1852) was a American explorer, writer, and diplomat. ... Frederick Catherwood (February 27, 1799 - September 20, 1854) was an English artist and architect, best remembered for his explorations of ruins of the Maya civilization. ...


Désiré Charnay made the first photographs of Palenque in 1858, and returned in 1881 - 1882. Alfred Maudslay encamped at the ruins in 1890 - 1891 and made extensive photographs of all the art and inscriptions he could find, and made paper and plaster molds of many of the inscriptions, setting a high standard for all future investigators to follow. Claude-Joseph Désiré Charnay (2 May 1828 - 24 October 1915) was a French traveller and archaeologist notable both for his explorations of Mexico and Central America, and for the pioneering use of photography to document his discoveries. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Alfred Maudslay (1850-1931) was a British colonial diplomat, explorer and archaeologist. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Several other expeditions visited the ruins before Frans Blom of Tulane University in 1923, who made superior maps of both the main site and various previously neglected outlying ruins and filed a report for the Mexican government on recommendations on work that could be done to preserve the ruins. Frans Blom wearing his characteristic hat with a rattlesnake tail Frans Blom (Frants Ferdinand Blom, August 9, 1893 in Copenhagen - June 23, 1963 in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico) was a Danish explorer and archaeologist. ... Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

A bas-relief in the Palenque museum that depicts Upakal K'inich, the son of K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab III
A bas-relief in the Palenque museum that depicts Upakal K'inich, the son of K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab III

From 1949 through 1952 Alberto Ruz Lhuillier supervised excavations and consolidations of the site for Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH); it was Ruz Lhuillier who was the first person to gaze upon Pacal The Great's tomb in over a thousand years. Further INAH work was done in lead by Jorge Acosta into the 1970s. Download high resolution version (1116x2272, 707 KB) A painted stucco relief in the museum at Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico, from one of the recently excavated buildings. ... Download high resolution version (1116x2272, 707 KB) A painted stucco relief in the museum at Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico, from one of the recently excavated buildings. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Kinich Ahkal Mo Naab III (678 - c. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alberto Ruz Lhuillier (27 January 1906 – 25 August 1979) was a Mexican archaeologist. ... The Mexican Institute Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History known as INAH for its Spanish abbreviation) is the federal government bureau established in 1939 to guarantee the research, preservation, protection, and promotion of the prehistoric, archaeological, anthropological, historical, and paleontological heritage of Mexico. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...

Housing blocks just below the pyramids would have been reserved for the powerful in Maya society.
Housing blocks just below the pyramids would have been reserved for the powerful in Maya society.

In 1973 the first of the very productive Palenque "Mesa Redonda"s (Round tables) was held here on the inspiration of Merle Green Robertson; thereafter every few years leading Mayanists would meet at Palenque to discuss and examine new findings in the field. Meanwhile Robertson was conducting a detailed examination of all art at Palenque, including recording all the traces of color on the sculpture. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 802 KB) Some of the newer archaeological excavations at Palenque in Chiapas, Mexico reveal housing blocks for higher ups in Mayan society. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 802 KB) Some of the newer archaeological excavations at Palenque in Chiapas, Mexico reveal housing blocks for higher ups in Mayan society. ... The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Mayanist is a term which has been in widespread use from the late 19th century onwards, to refer to scholars who have specialised in research and study of the Central American pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


The 1970s also saw a small museum built at the site. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


In the last 15 or 20 years, a great deal more of the site has been excavated, but currently, archaeologists estimate that only 5% of the total city has been uncovered.


Palenque remains much visited, and perhaps evokes more affection in visitors than any other Mesoamerican ruin.




External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Palenque

Coordinates: 17.4833° N 92.0497° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Palenque - a city of the ancient Mayan civilization of Mesoamerica (756 words)
Set in the foothills of the Tumbalá mountains of Chiapas Mexico, Palenque is situated on a ledge overlooking the swampy plains that stretch northward all the way to the Gulf coast.
The vista of the flat plains to the north, and the misty green of the lush mountain backdrop to the south, captures the imagination of modern visitors and most certainly inspired ancient artists and architects.
While the name Palenque comes from a nearby village, it is possible that the village was named after the ancient city or something similar sounding - bahlam kin - jaguar sun - the place where the sun descends into the underworld, the realm of the jaguar.
Palenque, A Photo Gallery by James Q. Jacobs (403 words)
Palenque is a Classic Mayan ruin in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.
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