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Encyclopedia > Pale of Settlement

The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости, chertA osEdlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to live near the border with central Europe. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other uses, see Pale (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The word pale derives ultimately from the Latin word palus, meaning stake. (Palisade is derived from the same root.) From this derivation came the figurative meaning of 'boundary', and the concept of a pale as an area within which local laws were valid. The phrase "beyond the pale" derives from this meaning of pale. Palisade and Moat A palisade is a Medieval wooden fence or wall of variable height, used as a defensive structure. ...


Though comprising only 20% of the territory of European Russia, the Pale corresponded to historical borders of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and included much of present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Moldova, Ukraine, and parts of western Russia. Additionally, a number of cities within the pale were excluded from it. A limited number of categories of Jews were allowed to live outside the pale. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Map of the Pale of Settlement
Map of the Pale of Settlement

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (536x666, 101 KB) Summary Source: [1] See also [2], [3] This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (536x666, 101 KB) Summary Source: [1] See also [2], [3] This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this...

History

For more information about life in the Pale, see: History of the Jews in Poland and History of the Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ...


The Pale was first created by Catherine the Great in 1791, after several failed attempts by her predecessors, notably the Empress Elizabeth, to remove Jews from Russia entirely unless they converted to Russian Orthodoxy. The reasons for its creation were primarily economic and nationalist. While Russian society had traditionally been divided mainly into nobles, serfs, and clergy, industrial progress led to the emergence of a middle class, which was rapidly being filled by Jews, who did not belong to any sector. By limiting their area of residence, the imperial powers attempted to ensure the growth of a non-Jewish middle class. Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Charles van Loo. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Categories of Russian nobility and royalty Kniaz (as ancient ruler) Velikiy Kniaz Boyar Tsar (Emperor), Tsarina (Empress, Empress consort) Tsar family Tsarevich, Tsarevna Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Duke) (as title), Velikaya Knyaginya (Grand Duchess), Velikaya Knyazhna (Grand Duchess) Dvoryanstvo Titled Dvoryanstvo Earl Baron Kniaz (as title) Related article Table of Ranks... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ...


The institution of the Pale became especially important to the Russian authorities following the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 . While Russia's Jewish population had, until then, been rather limited, the annexation of Polish-Lithuanian territory increased the Jewish population substantially. At its heyday, the Pale, which included the new Polish and Lithuanian territories, had a Jewish population of over 5 million, which represented the largest concentration (40 percent) of world Jewry at that time. The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ...


Between 1791 and 1917, when the Pale officially ceased to exist, there were various reconfigurations of its boundaries, so that certain areas were open or shut to Jewish settlement, such as the Caucasus. Similarly, Jews were forbidden to live in agricultural communities (as well as in Kiev, Sevastopol and Yalta), and forced to move to small provincial towns, fostering the rise of the shtetls (from Yiddish שטעטל shtetl "little town/little city", from שטאָט shtot "town/city"; cf. Standard German Stadt "town/city", Städtchen/Städtlein "little city/little town", dialectal German Städtl/Städtel "little town/city"). Jewish merchants of the 1st guild, people with higher or special education, artisans, soldiers, drafted in accordance with the Recruit Charter of 1810, and their descendants had the right to live outside the Pale of Settlement. In some periods, special dispensations were given for Jews to live in the major imperial cities, but these were tenuous, and several thousand Jews were expelled to the Pale from Saint Petersburg and Moscow as late as 1891 . During the Second World War, the whole area of the former Pale found itself within the furthest extent of Nazi German control on the Eastern front, resulting in many mass killing sites by the so-called Einsatzgruppen in one of the Nazis' largest planned systematic operation of Jewish extermination, as part of the Holocaust. This led to the virtual disappearance of Jewish life in the area of its once greatest concentration. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... A shtetl (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט, town, pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutiveStädtle, little town) was typically a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ... By the High German consonant shift, the former Dutch-German dialect continuum. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The term descendant or descendent has several meanings, some of which are listed below: A living being, like a plant, animal or person, that belongs to a particular lineage. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Life in the Pale

Life in the shtetls (Yiddish שטעטלעך shtetlekh "townlets/little towns/little cities"; דאָרף dorf "village", דערפֿער derfer "villages") of the Pale of Settlement was hard and stricken by poverty. A sophisticated system of volunteer Jewish social welfare organizations developed to meet the needs of the population, following the time-honored Jewish tradition of tzedakah (charity). Various organizations supplied clothes to poor students, provided kosher food to Jewish soldiers conscripted into the Czar's army, dispensed free medical treatment for the poor, offered dowries and household gifts to destitute brides, and arranged for technical education for orphans. According to historian Martin Gilbert's Atlas of Jewish History, no province in the Pale had less than 14% of Jews on relief; Lithuanian and Ukrainian Jews supported as much as 22% of their poor populations[1]. A shtetl (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט, town, pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutiveStädtle, little town) was typically a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...


The concentration of Jews in the Pale made them an easy target for pogroms and massive (and often government-sponsored), anti-Jewish riots. These, along with the repressive May Laws, often devastated whole communities. Though pogroms were staged throughout the existence of the Pale, particularly devastating attacks occurred from 1881-1883 and from 1903-1906, targeting hundreds of communities, killing thousands of Jews, and causing tens of thousands of rubles in property damage. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ...

A melamed (teacher) in 19th-century Podolia. Most primary schools taught only religious texts in a one-room schoolhouse.

A positive outgrowth of the concentration of Jews in a circumscribed area was the development of the modern yeshiva system. Until the beginning of the 19th century, each town supported its own advanced students who learned in the local synagogue with the rabbinical head of the community. Each student would eat his meals in a different home each day, a system known as "essen teg" ("eating days"). Image File history File links A melamed (teacher) in 19th century Podolia. ... Image File history File links A melamed (teacher) in 19th century Podolia. ... A melamed (teacher) in 19th-century Podolia Melamed, Melammed (Hebrew: מלמד, Teacher) is a term which in Biblical times denoted a religious teacher or instructor in general (e. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


The Jewish quota existed for education: since 1886, the percentage of Jewish students could be no more than 10% within the Pale, 5% outside the Pale and 3% in the capitals (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev). The quotas in the capitals were slightly increased in 1908 and 1915. Jewish quota was a percentage that limited the number of Jews in various establishments. ...


Despite the difficult conditions under which the Jewish population lived and worked, the courts of Hasidic dynasties flourished in the Pale. Thousands of followers of rebbes such as the Gerrer Rebbe Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter (known as the Sfas Emes), the Chernobyler Rebbe and the Vizhnitzer Rebbe flocked to their towns for the Jewish holidays and followed their rebbes' minhagim (Jewish practices) in their own homes. Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי (Rabbi). ... Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter (1847 - 1905), also known by the title of his Torah book/s as the Sfas Emes, was born in Warsaw, Poland and died in Ger, Poland. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ...


The tribulations of Jewish life in the Pale of Settlement were immortalized in the writings of Yiddish authors such as humorist Sholom Aleichem, whose stories of Tevye der Milchiger (Tevye the Milkman) in the fictional shtetl of Anatevka form the basis of Fiddler on the Roof. Because of the harsh conditions of day-to-day life in the Pale, some 2 million Jews—primarily non-religious—emigrated from there between 1881 and 1914, mainly to the United States (see History of the Jews in the United States). However, this exodus did not affect the stability of the Jewish population of the Pale, which remained at 5 million people due to the high birthrate. Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Sholem Aleichem ‎, Russian: ; March 2 [O.S. February 18] 1859 – May 13, 1916) was a popular humorist and Russian (geographically, Ukrainian) Jewish author of Yiddish literature, including novels, short stories, and plays. ... For the film, see Fiddler on the Roof (film) Fiddler on the Roof is a well-known Tony Award-winning musical with music by Jerry Bock, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, and book by Joseph Stein, set in Tsarist Russia in 1905. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The history of the Jews in the United States comprises a theological dimension, with a three-way division into Orthodox, Conservative and Reform. ... In demography, the crude birth rate of a population is the number of childbirths per 1000 persons per year. ...


During World War I, the Pale lost its rigid hold on the Jewish population when large numbers of Jews fled into the Russian interior to escape the invading German army. On March 20 (April 2), 1917, the Pale was abolished by the Provisional Government decree, On abolition of confessional and national restrictions (Об отмене вероисповедных и национальных ограничений). A large portion of the Pale, together with its Jewish population, became part of Poland (see History of the Jews in Poland). The Bolshevik Revolution and the wars of 1918-1920 also resulted in many pogroms and military excesses—over 1,236 of them in the Ukraine alone during which, conservatively, 31,000 Jews were killed (Abramson, Henry). “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...


Territories of the Pale

The Pale of Settlement included the following areas.


1791

Ukase of Catherine II, December 23, 1791 Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: Дніпропетровськ, Dnipropetrovs’k; Russian: Днепропетро́вск, Dnepropetrovsk, formerly Екатериносла́в, Yekaterinoslav) is Ukraines third largest city with 1. ... Namestnik (Russian: ) was an office position in the history of Russia. ... A viceroy is somebody who governs a country or province as a substitute for the monarch. ... Coat of arms Capital Simferopol History  - Conquered 1783  - Established 1802  - Disestablished 1918 Area  - 1918 39,497 km² Population  - 1906 est. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...

1794

After the Second partition of Poland, the ukase of June 23, 1794 added more areas. The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Minsk Governorate (Russian: ) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire. ... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... Little Russia, originally Little or Lesser Rus (Russian: , Malorossiya; Ukrainian: , Mala Rus), was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Iziaslav Yaroslavich (1024-1078), Prince of Turaw, Grand Prince of Kiev (since 1054), the oldest son of Yaroslav I the Wise. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... Bratslav (Ukrainian: ; Polish: BracÅ‚aw; Yiddish: ברעסאָבֿ /Breslov/) is a town in the Nemyriv raion of the Vinnytsya Oblast of Ukraine, on the river Southern Bug. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Novhorod-Siversky (Ukrainian: ) or Novgorod-Seversky (Russian: ) is a historic town in the Chernihiv Oblast (province) of Ukraine, on the bank of the Desna River, 200 km from the capital Kiev and 45 km south from the Russian border. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ...

1795

After the Third Partition of Poland, the following areas are added

Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania...

1805–1835

The Pale gradually shrinks.

Rural areas for 50 verst from the Western border closed from new settlement. Southwestern Krai (Юго-западный край) was a subdivision (Krai) of the late Imperial Russia, a part of the Western Krai. ... Little Russia, originally Little or Lesser Rus (Russian: , Malorossiya; Ukrainian: , Mala Rus), was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Novorossiya (Russian: , literally New Russia) is a historic area now mostly located in southern Ukraine, and partially in southern Russia. ... Nikolayev may refer to one of the following: A town and an important ship building and naval center of Ukraine and, formerly, of the Soviet Union and Imperial Russia. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... A verst (Russian versta, верста) is an obsolete Russian unit of length. ...


Final

In 1882 it was forbidden for Jews to settle in rural areas. An old map showing the Chernigov Governorate. ... Bryansk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... Taurida Governorate (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Crimean Tatar: ) was a historical governorate of Russia that is now part of Ukraine. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The Kherson Governorate (Russian: , translit. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Velizh (Polish: Wieliź) is a city in Belarus. ... Uyezd or uezd (Russian: ) was an admistrative subdivision of Rus, Muscovy, and Russia used from the 13th century, originally describing groups of several volosts formed around the most important cities. ... Smolensk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Northwestern Krai (Северозападный край) was a subdivision (krai) of the late Imperial Russia, a part of the Western Krai. ... Coat of Arms of Vilna Governorate (1845 - 1915) Vilnа Governorate (Russian: , Vilenskaya guberniya) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire created after Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795 and attached to the Northwestern Krai. ... Kovno Governorate with a center in Kovno (Kaunas) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire. ... Grodno Governorate (Russian: ) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Mogilev, or Mahilyow (Belarusian: ; Russian: , translit. ... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... Coat of arms Pskov Oblast (Russian: , Pskovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Southwestern Krai (Юго-западный край) was a subdivision (Krai) of the late Imperial Russia, a part of the Western Krai. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lublin Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... Motto: none Voivodship Masovian Municipal government Rada Miasta Płock Mayor Mirosław Milewski Area 88 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 128 210 - 1456/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 52°33 N 19°42 E Area code +48 24 Car plates WP Twin towns - Municipal Website P... Kalisz (pronounce: [kaliʃ]) is a city in central Poland with 109,800 inhabitants (1995). ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Łódź Powiat City county Gmina Piotrków Trybunalski Estabilished before 1217 City Rights 13th century Government  - Mayor Krzysztof Chojniak Area  - City 67. ... Map of the centre of Kielce Monastery Exbud headquarters-symbol of todays Kielce City The monument to commemorate of tragedy in New York 11 September 2001 Bishops Palace Building of Stefan Å»eromski Theatre The new stadium in Kielce Bus Station in Kielce of characterisic shape of alien saucer Kielce... Radom (pronounce: [radÉ”m]) is a city in central Poland with 227 309 inhabitants. ... Coat of arms Siedlce Siedlce ( ) (Yiddish: ) is a town in eastern Poland with 77,092 inhabitants (as of 2005). ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlasie Municipal government Urząd Miasta Augustów Mayor Leszek Cieslik Area 80,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30 870 - 387/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°51 N 22°58 E Area code +48 87 Car plates BAU Twin towns - Municipal Website August... Motto: none Voivodship Podlaskie Municipal government Rada miejska w SuwaÅ‚kach Mayor Józef Gajewski Area 65. ... Łomża is a town in north-eastern Poland, located approx. ...


The following cities within the Pale were excluded from it:

Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mykolayiv (Ukrainian Миколаїв), also known by its Russian name Николаев (Nikolaev or Nikolayev) is a city in Southern Ukraine with the population of 514,000 (2001 estimation). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ...

References

  1. ^ An area of Russia where Jews were most oppressed, the Pale of Settlement gave rise to amazingly good things.
  • Abramson, Henry, "Jewish Representation in the Independent Ukrainian Governments of 1917-1920," Slavic Review, Vol. 50, No. 3 (Autumn 1991), pp. 542-550.

The Slavic Review is the leading international journal in Slavic studies with the coverage centered on Russia, Central Eurasia and Eastern and Central Europe. ...

See also

The Pale or the English Pale comprised a region in a radius of twenty miles around Dublin which the English in Ireland gradually fortified against incursion from Gaels. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Pale of Settlement (244 words)
Czar Cathrine II (“The Great”) established the Pale of Settlement in 1791 as a territory for Russian Jews to live.
Created under pressure to rid Moscow of Jewish business competition and "evil" influence on the Russian masses, the Pale of Settlement included the territory of present-day Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belorussia.
The pogroms, boycotts and other anti-Semitic depredations Jews faced in the Pale led to mass immigration to the United States (two million between 1881 and 1914) as well as a string of other developments, such as the controversial Haskalah movement, which sought to modernize Jewish culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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