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Encyclopedia > Palatine nerves
Nerve: Palatine nerves
The sphenopalatine ganglion and its branches. (Anterior palatine at bottom right, middle palatine at bottom center, and posterior palatine at bottom right.)
Latin nervi palatini
Gray's subject #200 893
MeSH [1]
Dorlands/Elsevier n_05/12566391

The palatine nerves (descending branches) are distributed to the roof of the mouth, soft palate, tonsil, and lining membrane of the nasal cavity. The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ... The Palatine tonsils with the soft palate, uvula, and tongue visible. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ...

Most of their fibers are derived from the sphenopalatine branches of the maxillary nerve. The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ...

In older texts, they are usually categorized as three in number: anterior, middle, and posterior. (In newer texts, and in Terminologia anatomica, they are broken down into "greater palatine nerve" and "lesser palatine nerve".) The Nomina Anatomica was one of the most popular systems for providing topographical codes in the 20th century. ...



The anterior palatine nerve (n. palatinus anterior) descends through the pterygopalatine canal, emerges upon the hard palate through the greater palatine foramen, and passes forward in a groove in the hard palate, nearly as far as the incisor teeth. On the posterior part of the maxillary surface of the palatine bone is a deep vertical groove, converted into the pterygopalatine canal, by articulation with the maxilla; this canal transmits the descending palatine vessels, and the anterior palatine nerve. ... The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth. ... Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ...

It supplies the gums, the mucous membrane and glands of the hard palate, and communicates in front with the terminal filaments of the nasopalatine nerve. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... One branch of the posterior superior nasal branches, longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve. ...

While in the pterygopalatine canal, it gives off posterior inferior nasal branches, which enter the nasal cavity through openings in the palatine bone, and ramify over the inferior nasal concha and middle and inferior meatuses; at its exit from the canal, a palatine branch is distributed to both surfaces of the soft palate. The palatine bone is a bone situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid. ... The inferior nasal concha (Concha Nasalis Inferior; Inferior Turbinated Bone) extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity [Fig. ...


The middle palatine nerve (n. palatinus medius) emerges through one of the minor palatine canals and distributes branches to the uvula, tonsil, and soft palate.

It is occasionally wanting.


The posterior palatine nerve (n. palatinus posterior) descends through the pterygopalatine canal, and emerges by a separate opening behind the greater palatine foramen; it supplies the soft palate, tonsil, and uvula.

The middle and posterior palatine join with the tonsillar branches of the glossopharyngeal to form a plexus (circulus tonsillaris) around the tonsil. PLEXUS (Physics Learning EXperience Using Software) is a name of project that was started by Vibor Cipan, physics student form Croatia and it is based on utilization of usage of computer technology to enhance learning of physics. ...

External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. Georgetown University is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a neighborhood of Washington, D.C. It is both the oldest Roman Catholic and oldest Jesuit university in the United States, having been founded on January 23, 1789 by Archbishop John Carroll. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Cranial nerves

I-IV: olfactory - optic - oculomotor - trochlear Grays Fig. ... The olfactory nerve, or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye away from the nose and also moves the eye downward. ...

V: trigeminal: semilunar ganglion
V1: ophthalmic: lacrimal - frontal (supratrochlear, supraorbital) - nasociliary (long root of ciliary, long ciliary, infratrochlear, ethmoidal) - ciliary ganglion - short ciliary
V2: maxillary: middle meningeal - in the pterygopalatine fossa (zygomatic, zygomaticotemporal, zygomaticofacial, sphenopalatine, posterior superior alveolar)
in the infraorbital canal (middle superior alveolar, anterior superior alveolar)
on the face (inferior palpebral, external nasal, superior labial, infraorbital plexus) - pterygopalatine ganglion (deep petrosal, nerve of pterygoid canal)
branches of distribution (palatine, nasopalatine, pharyngeal)
V3: mandibular: nervus spinosus - internal pterygoid - anterior (masseteric, deep temporal, buccinator, external pterygoid)
posterior (auriculotemporal, lingual, inferior alveolar, mylohyoid, mental) - otic ganglion - submaxillary ganglion The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The Semilunar Ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or trigeminal ganglion) occupies a cavity (cavum Meckelii) in the dura mater covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Lacrimal Nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic. ... The Frontal Nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic, and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve. ... The supratrochlear nerve, smaller than the Supraorbital nerve, passes above the pulley of the Obliquus superior, and gives off a descending filament, to join the infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve. ... The supraorbital nerve arises from the orbit by the supraorbital foramen and supplies the upper eyelid and forehead integuments. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The long root of the ciliary ganglion usually arises from the nasociliary between the two heads of the Rectus lateralis. ... The long ciliary nerves, two or three in number, are given off from the nasociliary, as it crosses the optic nerve. ... The infratrochlear nerve is given off from the nasociliary just before it enters the anterior ethmoidal foramen. ... The ethmoidal branches supply the ethmoidal cells; the posterior branch leaves the orbital cavity through the posterior ethmoidal foramen and gives some filaments to the sphenoidal sinus. ... The ciliary ganglion is small parasympathetic ganglion lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle that is associated with the nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve). ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Middle Meningeal Nerve (meningeal or dural branch) is given off from the maxillary nerve directly after its origin from the semilunar ganglion; it accompanies the middle meningeal artery and supplies the dura mater. ... In the skull, the pterygopalatine fossa is the space between the lateral pterygoid plate (which is part of the sphenoid bone), and the palate. ... One of the canals of the orbital surface of the maxilla, the infraorbital canal, opens just below the margin of the orbit. ... The middle superior alveolar nerve is a nerve that drops from the infraorbital portion of the maxillary nerve to supply the sinus mucosa, the roots of the maxillary premolars, and the mesiobuccal root of the first molar. ... The Anterior Superior Alveolar Branch (anterior superior dental branch), of considerable size, is given off from the nerve just before its exit from the infraorbital foramen; it descends in a canal in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and divides into branches which supply the incisor and canine teeth. ... The Inferior Palpebral Branches (palpebral branches) ascend behind the Orbicularis oculi. ... The external nasal branches (or external nasal nerve) supply the skin of the side of the nose and of the septum mobile nasi, and join with the terminal twigs of the nasociliary nerve. ... The superior labial branches descend behind the Quadratus labii superioris, and are distributed to the skin of the upper lip, the mucous membrane of the mouth, and labial glands. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The deep petrosal nerve (large deep petrosal nerve) is given off from the carotid plexus, and runs through the carotid canal lateral to the internal carotid artery. ... The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve), formed by the junction of the great petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve in the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, passes forward, through the pterygoid canal, with the corresponding artery, and is joined by a small ascending sphenoidal branch... One branch of the posterior superior nasal branches, longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... The Nervus Spinosus (recurrent or meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve) enters the skull through the foramen spinosum with the middle meningeal artery. ... The Internal Pterygoid Nerve (or medial pterygoid nerve) —The nerve to the Pterygoideus internus is a slender branch, which enters the deep surface of the muscle; it gives off one or two filaments to the otic ganglion. ... The Masseteric Nerve passes lateralward, above the Pterygoideus externus, in front of the temporomandibular articulation, and behind the tendon of the Temporalis; it crosses the mandibular notch with the masseteric artery, to the deep surface of the Masseter, in which it ramifies nearly as far as its anterior border. ... The Deep Temporal Nerves are two in number, anterior and posterior. ... A branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve), the buccal nerve transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. ... External Pterygoid Nerve (or lateral pterygoid nerve): The nerve to the Pterygoideus externus frequently arises in conjunction with the buccinator nerve, but it may be given off separately from the anterior division of the mandibular nerve. ... The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (Viii) and supplies motor fibres to the temporomandibular joint and parasympathetic fibres to the parotid glands. ... The Lingual Nerve supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). ... The mylohyoid nerve is derived from the inferior alveolar just before it enters the mandibular foramen. ... The mental nerve emerges at the mental foramen, and divides beneath the Triangularis muscle into three branches: one descends to the skin of the chin. ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ...

VI: abducent The sixth out of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve controls the lateral rectus muscle - this means that the action of this nerve controls each eyes ability to look laterally (away from the midline). ...

VII: facial: nervus intermedius - geniculate - inside facial canal (great petrosal, nerve to the stapedius, chorda tympani)
at exit from stylomastoid foramen (posterior auricular, digastric - stylohyoid)
on face (temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical) The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The nervus intermedius, or intermediate nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). ... Mark Hartley: 01946841665 i am gay and call me for bum sex. ... The great petrosal nerve , a branch of facial nerve arises from the geniculate ganglion. ... The Nerve to the Stapedius (tympanic branch) arises opposite the pyramidal eminence; it passes through a small canal in this eminence to reach the muscle. ... The chorda tympani are nerves of special sensation given off the facial nerve (VII) inside the skull. ... The Posterior Auricular Nerve arises close to the stylo-mastoid foramen, and runs upward in front of the mastoid process; here it is joined by a filament from the auricular branch of the vagus, and communicates with the posterior branch of the great auricular, and with the lesser occipital. ... The digastric branch of facial nerve arises close to the stylomastoid foramen, and divides into several filaments, which supply the posterior belly of the Digastricus; one of these filaments joins the glossopharyngeal nerve. ... The Buccal Branches of the facial nerve (infraorbital branches), of larger size than the rest of the branches, pass horizontally forward to be distributed below the orbit and around the mouth. ... The Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve passes forward beneath the Platysma and Triangularis, supplying the muscles of the lower lip and chin, and communicating with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. ... The cervical branch of the facial nerve runs forward beneath the Platysma, and forms a series of arches across the side of the neck over the suprahyoid region. ...

VIII: vestibulocochlear: cochlear (striae medullares, lateral lemniscus) - vestibular The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves and also known as the auditory nerve. ... The Cochlear nerve (n. ... The lateral lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound to the inferior colliculus of the midbrain. ... The Vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve is the other. ...

IX: glossopharyngeal: fasciculus solitarius - nucleus ambiguus - sympathetic efferent fibers - ganglia (superior, petrous) - tympanic The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The longitudinal fibers in the reticularis grisea of the reticular formation form indeterminate fibers, with the exception of a bundle named the fasciculus solitarius (solitary tract), which is made up of descending fibers of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. ... The nucleus ambiguus (literally ambiguous nucleus) is a region of histologically disperse cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper (rostral) medulla. ... The Tympanic Nerve (nerve of Jacobson) arises from the petrous ganglion, and ascends to the tympanic cavity through a small canal on the under surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone on the ridge which separates the carotid canal from the jugular fossa. ...

X: vagus: ganglia (jugular, nodose) - Alderman's nerve - in the neck (pharyngeal branch, superior laryngeal, recurrent laryngeal) - in the thorax (pulmonary branches, esophageal plexus) - in the abdomen (gastric plexuses, celiac plexus, gastric plexus) The vagus nerve (or pneumogastric nerve) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The vagus presents a well-marked ganglionic enlargement, which is called the jugular ganglion (ganglion of the root); to it the accessory nerve is connected by one or two filaments. ... The nodose ganglion (ganglion of the trunk; inferior ganglion of vagus nerve) is cylindrical in form, of a reddish color, and 2. ... The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The Superior Laryngeal Nerve arises from the middle of the ganglion nodosum and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... The esophageal branches of the vagus nerve are given off both above and below the bronchial branches; the lower are numerous and larger than the upper. ... The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. ... The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. ...

XI: accessory XII: hypoglossal The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Trigeminal nerve - definition of Trigeminal nerve in Encyclopedia (619 words)
The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the ear) and other muscles in the floor of the mouth.
The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla.
Trigeminal neuralgia is an example of a disorder of the trigeminal nerve where the sufferer suffers pain in the territory of the trigeminal nerve innervation.
  More results at FactBites »



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