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Encyclopedia > Palatinate

A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crown's overlordship. This article discusses the historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Palatinate of the Rhine or Electoral Palatinate (German: Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein, Kurpfalz). Image File history File links Armoiries_Palatinat. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ...


The historical Electoral Palatinate was a much larger territory than that which later became known as the Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz), on the left bank of the Rhine. The Electoral Palatinate also included territory that lay on the right bank of the Rhine, containing the cities of Heidelberg and Mannheim. The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... Heidelberg is a scenic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, halfway between Stuttgart and Frankfurt. ... Basic information Country: Germany Federal state: Land Baden-Württemberg Regions: Rhein-Neckar District: Independent municipality Population: 324,787 (Mai 2005) Additional information Area: 144. ...

Contents


History

The Palatinate emerged from the County Palatine of Lotharingia, which came into existence in the 10th century. During the 11th century it was dominated by the Ezzonian dynasty, who governed several counties on both banks of the Rhine. From about 1085/1086, after the death of the last Ezzonian palatine count, Herman II of Lotharingia (+1085), the Palatinate lost its military importance in Lotharingia. The territorial authority of the count palatine was reduced to his counties along the Rhine, from then on called County Palatine of the Rhine.


The first hereditary Count Palatine of the Rhine was Conrad of Hohenstaufen who was the younger brother of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The territories attached to this hereditary office started from those held by the Hohenstaufens in Franconia and Rhineland (other branches of the Hohenstaufens received Swabian lands, Franche-Comté, and so forth). Much of this was from their imperial ancestors, the Franconian emperors, and a part from Conrad's maternal ancestry, the Saarbrucken. These backgrounds explain the composition of Upper and Rhenish Palatinate in the inheritance centuries onwards. Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ...


In the early 13th century, the territory fell to the Wittelsbach Dukes of Bavaria, who were also counts palatine of Bavaria. During a later division of territory among the heirs of Duke Louis II of Upper Bavaria in 1294, the elder branch of the Wittelsbachs came into possession of both the Rhenish Palatinate and the territories in the Bavarian "Nordgau" (Bavaria north of the Danube river) with the centre around the town of Amberg. As this region was politically connected to the Rhenish Palatinate, the name Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) became common from the early 16th century in contrast to the Lower Palatinate along the Rhine. The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Map of Germany showing Amberg (currently incorrect) Amberg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ...


In the Golden Bull of 1356, the Palatinate was recognized as one of the secular electorates, and given the hereditary offices of Archsteward (Erztruchseß) of the Empire and Imperial Vicar (Reichsverweser) of the western half of Germany. From this time forth, the Count Palatine of the Rhine was usually known as the Elector Palatine (Kurfürst von der Pfalz). The position as prince-elector had existed already earlier (see the record of how votes went when there was an outcome of two kings becoming elected in 1257) though it is difficult to pinpoint any exact start of that office. The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...


Due to the practice of division of territories among different branches of the family, by the early 16th century junior lines of the Palatine Wittelsbachs came to rule in Simmern, Kaiserslautern, and Zweibrücken in the Lower Palatinate, and in Neuburg and Sulzbach in the Upper Palatinate. The Elector Palatine, now based in Heidelberg, converted to Lutheranism in the 1530s. Simmern (pronounced zi-MANN), town in Germany in the western state of Rhineland-Palatinate and seat of the Simmern enclave of the Rhein-Hunsrück district or Kreis. ... Kaiserslautern is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland of Rheinland-Pfalz at the edge of the Palatine Forest (Pfälzer Wald). ... Zweibrücken is a city of Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, on the Schwarzbach river at the border of the Palatine Forest. ... Neuburg can refer to: Neuburg an der Donau, a town which is the administrative seat of the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district, in the state of Bavaria, Germany Neuburg-Schrobenhausen, a district in the state of Bavaria in Germany The Count Palatine of Neuburg — see Palatinate This is a disambiguation page — a... Sulzbach can refer to: places in Germany: Sulzbach-Rosenberg, a town in the district Amberg-Sulzbach, Bavaria. ... Heidelberg is a scenic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, halfway between Stuttgart and Frankfurt. ...


When the senior branch of the family died out in 1559, the Electorate passed to Frederick III of Simmern, a staunch Calvinist, and the Palatinate became one of the major centers of Calvinism in Europe, supporting Calvinist rebellions in both the Netherlands and France. Frederick III's grandson, Frederick IV, and his adviser, Christian of Anhalt, founded the Evangelical Union of Protestant states in 1608. In 1619 Elector Frederick V (the "Winter King") (the son-in-law of King James I of England) accepted the throne of Bohemia from the Bohmian estates. He was soon defeated by the forces of Emperor Ferdinand II at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620, and Spanish and Bavarian troops soon occupied the Palatinate itself. In 1623, Frederick was put under the ban of the Empire, and his territories and Electoral dignity granted to the Duke (now Elector) of Bavaria, Maximilian I. Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Frederick III, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (February 14, 1515 - October 26, 1576) was a ruler form the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (March 5, 1574-September 19, 1610), only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine, called Frederick the Righteous (in German, Friedrich Der Aufrichtige; in French Frédéric IV le juste). ... This portrait does not represent Christian of Anhalt (1568–1630) but his son Christian II of Anhalt-Bernburg. ... Pre-release advertisement released to the media to promote Adelaide [eu]s annual BBQ. Evangelical Union is the name of a number of Christian students organisations in tertiary educational institutions. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Frederick is also called the Winter King of Bohemia because he reigned for less than three winter months in 1620 after he was installed by a rebellious Protestant faction. ... James VI of Scotland/James I of England (Charles James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ... Bohemia. ... Categories: People stubs | Holy Roman emperors | Rulers of Austria | Rulers of Styria | Hungarian monarchs | Bohemian monarchs | Dukes of Carinthia | 1578 births | 1637 deaths ... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... Events September 6 - English emigrants on the Mayflower depart from Plymouth, England for the future New England and arrive at the end of the year. ... Maximilian I, Elector and Duke of Bavaria and his second wife, Maria Anna of Austria Maximilian I, Elector and Duke of Bavaria (17 April 1573 – 27 September 1651), called the Great,, was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an prince-elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ...


By the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Frederick V's son, Charles Louis, was restored to the Lower Palatinate, and given a new electoral title, but the Upper Palatinate and the senior electoral title remained with the Bavarian line. In 1685, the Simmern line died out, and the Palatinate was inherited by Philip William, Count Palatine of Neuburg ( and who was also Duke of Jülich and Berg), a Catholic. The Neuburg line, which moved the capital from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720, lasted until 1742, when it, too, became extinct, and the Palatinate was inherited by Duke Karl Theodor of Sulzbach. The childless Karl Theodor also inherited Bavaria when its electoral line became extinct in 1777. His heir, Maximilian Joseph, Duke of Zweibrücken (on the French border), brought all the Wittelsbach territories under a single rule in 1799. The Palatinate was dissolved in the Wars of the French Revolution - first its left bank territories were occupied, and then annexed, by France starting in 1795, and then, in 1803, its right bank territories were taken by the Margrave of Baden. In 1806, Baden was raised to a Grand Duchy. The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Karl I Ludwig, Elector Palatine (22 December 1617 - 28 August 1680) was the second son of Friedrich V, the Winter King, and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I of England. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Philipp Wilhelm of Neuburg, Elector Palatine (24 November 1615 - 2 September 1690), was Count Palatine of Neuburg and Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1690. ... The Duchy of Jülich was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (part of Limburg). ... Berg was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Basic information Country: Germany Federal state: Land Baden-Württemberg Regions: Rhein-Neckar District: Independent municipality Population: 324,787 (Mai 2005) Additional information Area: 144. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Karl Theodor Karl Theodor (born in 1724) reigned as Elector and Prince of the Palatinate from 1742 until his death 1799, and also as Duke of Bavaria from 1777 (until his death in 1799). ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Maximilian I Joseph, King of Bavaria. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Baden (disambiguation). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ...


At the Congress of Vienna in 1814 and 1815, the Left Bank Palatinate enlarged by other regions (e.g. the former bishopric of Speyer) was returned to the Wittelsbachs and became a formal part of the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1816 and after this time, it was this region that was principally known as the Palatinate. The area remained a part of Bavaria until after the Second World War, when it was separated and became a part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate, along with former left bank territories of Prussia and Hessen-Darmstadt. The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1894-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ...


Counts Palatine of Lotharingia, 915–1085

  • Wigeric of Lotharingia, count of the Bidgau (abt. 915/916–922)
  • Godfrey, count of the Jülichgau (abt.940)
  • Hermann I of Lotharingia 945–994
  • Ezzo of Lotharingia 994–1034
  • Otto I of Lotharingia, 1034–1045 (Duke of Swabia 1045–1047)
  • Heinrich I of Lotharingia 1045–1061
  • Hermann II of Lotharingia 1061–1085 (between 1061–1064 in tutelage to Anno II, archbishop of Cologne)

Wigeric or Wideric (French: ) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (pagus Bedensis) and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anno (c. ...

Counts Palatine of the Rhine, 1085–1356

  • Heinrich II of Laach 1085–1095
  • Sigfried of Ballenstadt 1095–1113
  • Gottfried of Kalw 1113–1129
  • Wilhelm of Ballenstadt 1129–1139
  • Henry IV Jasomirgott 1139–1142
  • Hermann III of Stahleck 1142–1155
  • Conrad of Hohenstaufen 1156–1195
  • Henry V of Welf 1195–1211
  • Henry VI of Welf 1211–1214

House of Wittelsbach, also dukes of Bavaria Heinrich (Henry) II, (born 1107, died January 13, 1177), Count Palatine of the Rhine 1140-1141, Margrave of Austria from 1141 to 1156, Duke of Bavaria from 1143 to 1156, Duke of Austria 1156-1177, was a prince from the dynasty of Babenberg. ... Conrad of Hohenstaufen (born probably 1134/1136; died 8 November 1195) was the first hereditary Count Palatine of the Rhine. ... Henry (died 28 April 1227) was count palatine of the Rhine from 1195 to 1213. ... The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...

Duke Louis I of Bavaria (German: Ludwig I der Kelheimer, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) was born 23 December 1173 in Kelheim and died 15 September 1231 in Kelheim. ... Duke Otto II of Bavaria was born 7 April 1206 in Kehlheim and died 29 November 1253 in Landshut. ... Duke Louis II of Bavaria (13 April 1229, Heidelberg–2 February 1294, Heidelberg) (German: Ludwig II der Strenge , Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein), from 1253 Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate). ... Duke Rudolf I of Bavaria (born October 4, 1274 in Basle; died August 12, 1319, (German: Rudolf I , Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein), since 1294 Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatinate. ... Adolf of the Rhine (German: ) (27 September 1300, Wolfratshausen – 29 January 1327, Neustadt). ... Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria the blind (8 August 1306 in Wolfratshausen - 4 October 1353 in Neustadt) was Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) from 1329 to 1353. ...

Electors Palatine, 1356–1803

House of Palatinate-Simmern Rupert II of the Rhine (German: ) (12 May 1325, Amberg – 6 January 1398, Amberg). ... Rupert of the house of Wittelsbach (1352–1410) succeeded his father Rupert II as Rupert III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) and one of the foremost rulers in western Germany in 1398. ... Portrait by Johann David Werl Louis III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (German: ) (23 January 1378 – 30 December 1436, Heidelberg), was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1410–1436. ... Louis IV, Count Palatine of the Rhine (1 January 1424, Heidelberg – 13 August 1449, Worms) was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1436 - 1449. ... Philip of the Rhine and Margarete of Bavaria Philip, Count Palatine of the Rhine (German: ) (14 July 1448, Heidelberg – 28 February 1508, Germersheim) was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1476 - 1508. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Palatinate-Simmern (German: ) is one of the collateral lines of the Palatinate line of the House of Wittelsbach. ...

House of Bavaria Frederick III, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (February 14, 1515 - October 26, 1576) was a ruler form the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim. ... Louis VI, Elector Palatine (4 July 1539, Simmern – 22 October 1583, Heidelberg) was an Elector from the branch of Palatinate-Simmern of the house of Wittelsbach. ... Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (March 5, 1574-September 19, 1610), only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine, called Frederick the Righteous (in German, Friedrich Der Aufrichtige; in French Frédéric IV le juste). ... Frederick is also called the Winter King of Bohemia because he reigned for less than three winter months in 1620 after he was installed by a rebellious Protestant faction. ...

House of Palatinate-Simmern (restored) Maximilian I, Elector and Duke of Bavaria and his second wife, Maria Anna of Austria Maximilian I, Elector and Duke of Bavaria (17 April 1573 – 27 September 1651), called the Great,, was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an prince-elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ...

House of Palatinate-Neuburg Karl I Ludwig, Elector Palatine (22 December 1617 - 28 August 1680) was the second son of Friedrich V, the Winter King, and his wife, Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I of England. ... Karl II, Elector Palatine (31 March 1651 - 26 May 1685) was Elector Palatine from 1680 to 1685. ... Castle of Neuburg Palatinate-Neuburg (German: ) was a in 1505 originated part of the Holy Roman Empire with the capital in Neuburg an der Donau. ...

House of Palatinate-Sulzbach Philipp Wilhelm of Neuburg, Elector Palatine (24 November 1615 - 2 September 1690), was Count Palatine of Neuburg and Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1690. ... Johann Wilhelm II, Elector Palatine, also known as Johann Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg, (April 19, 1658 – June 8, 1716) was Elector Palatine (1690-1716), Duke Palatine of Neuburg/Danube (1690-1716), Duke of Jülich and Berg (1679-1716), and Duke of Oberpfalz and Cham (1707-1714). ... Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine (November 4, 1661 in Neuburg – December 31, 1742 in Mannheim) was also Duke of Jülich and Berg. ...

House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken Karl Theodor (born in 1724) reigned as Duke of Bavaria from 1777 until his death in 1799. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...

Maximilian I Joseph, King of Bavaria. ...

External links

  • Heidelberg and the Palatine elaborate information on history and architecture illustrated with many pictures

  Results from FactBites:
 
Palatinate. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (628 words)
The Rhenish Palatinate extends from the left bank of the Rhine and borders in the S on France and in the W on the Saarland and Luxembourg.
The name of the two regions came from the office known as count palatine, a title used in the Holy Roman Empire to denote the secular prince who ruled a region in the absence of the Holy Roman Emperor; the title was used in other European countries during the medieval and early modern periods.
The Rhenish Palatinate flourished in the 15th and 16th cent., and its capital, Heidelberg, was a center of the German Renaissance and Reformation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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