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Encyclopedia > Palatal consonant
Places of articulation
Labial
Bilabial
Labial-velar
Labial-alveolar
Labiodental
Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Alveolar
Apical
Laminal
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex
Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Uvular-epiglottal
Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
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Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex. Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Labial-velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips. ... A labial-alveolar consonant is a consonant produced with two simultaneous places of articulation: At the lips (labial; a p, b, or m sound), and at the gums (alveolar; a t, d, or n sound). ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Linguolabials are consonants articulated by putting the tongue tip or tongue blade against the upper lip. ... Interdental consonants are produced by placing the blade of the tongue against the upper incisors. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... In phonetics, the labialised palatal approximant is a consonant with two constrictions in the vocal tract: with the tongue on the palate, and rounded at the lips. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A uvular-epiglottal consonant is a doubly articulated consonant pronounced by making a simultaneous uvular consonant and epiglottal consonant. ... Radical consonants are articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, otherwise known as the palatine process of the maxilla, located in the roof of the mouth. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ...


The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant j, which ranks as overall, among the ten most common sounds in the world' languages. The nasal ɲ is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages[1], in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the plosive c, but the affricate . Only a few languages in northern Eurasia, the Americas and central Africa contrast palatal plosives with postalveolar afrricates - the only common ones being Hungarian and Albanian. Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ...


Warning: the IPA symbols <c, ɟ> are commonly used, not for palatal stops, but for the palatalized velar stops [kʲ, ɡʲ], or the palatal affricates [c͡ç, ɟ͡ʝ], or the alveolopalatal affricates [t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ], or even the postalveolar affricates [t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ]. This is an old IPA tradition. True palatal stops are relatively uncommon, so it is a good idea to verify the pronunciation whenever you see <c, ɟ> in the transcription of a language. Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ...


Consonants with other primary articulations may be palatalised, that is, accompanied by the raising of the tongue surface towards the hard palate. For example, English [ʃ] (spelled sh) has such a palatal component, although its primary articulation involves the tip of the tongue and the upper gum (this type of articulation is called palatoalveolar). The palatal consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are: Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA*[1] Meaning
Image:Xsampa-J.png palatal nasal French agneau [aɲo] lamb
Image:Xsampa-c.png voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian hattyú [] swan
Image:Xsampa-Jslash.png voiced palatal plosive Margi ɟaɗí [ɟaɗí] hump of a cow
Image:Xsampa-C2.png voiceless palatal fricative German nicht [çt] not
Image:Xsampa-jslash2.png voiced palatal fricative Spanish yema [ʝema] egg yolk
Image:Xsampa-j2.png palatal approximant English yes [jɛs] yes
Image:Xsampa-L2.png lateral palatal approximant Italian gli [ʎi] the (masculine plural)
Image:Xsampa-Jslash_lessthan.png voiced palatal implosive Swahili hujambo [huʄambo] hello

IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in very many spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-pulmonic. ... The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... IPA symbols, detail from Image:Ipa-chart-consonants-nonpulmonic. ... The voiced palatal implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ian Maddieson (with a chapter contributed by Sandra Ferrari Disner); Patterns of sounds; Cambridge University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-521-26536-3

See also

  Consonants (List, table) See also: IPA, Vowels  
Pulmonics Bilabial Lab'den. Dental Alveolar Postalv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglottal Glottal Non-pulmonics and other symbols
Nasals m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ Clicks  ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ
Plosives p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʡ ʔ Implo­­sives  ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ
Fricatives  ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ Ejec­­tives 
Approximants  β̞ ʋ ð̞ ɹ ɻ j ɰ Other laterals  ɺ ɫ
Trills ʙ r ʀ Co-articulated approximants ʍ w ɥ
Flaps & Taps ѵ̟ ѵ ɾ ɽ Co-articulated fricatives ɕ ʑ ɧ
Lat. Fricatives ɬ ɮ Affricates  ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ
Lat. Appr'mants l ɭ ʎ ʟ Co-articulated stops  k͡p ɡ͡b ŋ͡m
This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged impossible.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Palatal consonant (129 words)
Palatals are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
English [j] (spelt y) is a palatal approximant, and German [ç] (spelt ch after front vowels, as in nicht) is a palatal fricative.
Consonants with other primary articulations may be palatalised, that is, accompanied by the raising of the tongue surface towards the hard palate.
Palatal Rehabilitation After Cleft Palate Surgery (1448 words)
In the cleft palate patient incomplete fusion occurs at the palatal aponeurosis preventing the union of the muscular mass required for secondary palatal formation and function.
Palatal appliances are indicated in patients unable to undergo anesthesia for surgical repair, with badly scarred postoperative palates, in patients refusing surgery, and with persistent palatal fistulae.
At Texas Children's Hospital the cleft palate team is utilizing digital palatal facilitation with pressure being applied to the posterior muscular palate, compressing this flaccid structure posterosuperiorly until contact is made to the posterior pharyngeal wall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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