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Encyclopedia > Palani
  ?Palani
Tamil Nadu • India
Map indicating the location of Palani
 Palani 
Coordinates: 10°27′01″N 77°30′38″E / 10.45037, 77.510429
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
District(s) Dindigul
Population 67,175 (2001)

Coordinates: 10°27′01″N 77°30′38″E / 10.45037, 77.510429 Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links India_Tamil_Nadu_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The divisions of a district. ... Dindigul district is an administrative region in the south of Tamil Nadu, India. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Palani is a city and a municipality in Dindigul district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Palani is pronounced using the special 'L' used in Tamil and is also spelt as "Pazhani" in English. It is located about 60km from the city of Dindigul. It is a famous pilgrimage town and every year more than 7 million devotees visit the Palani Murugan Temple and offer their prayers to the Lord Muruga. This temple draws the largest number of devotees in Tamil Nadu. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Dindigul district is an administrative region in the south of Tamil Nadu, India. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Dindigul (Tamil: திண்டுக்கல்) is a City and municipality in the Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... It is one of the most famous Murugan temples in India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity Skanda; for the Buddhist bodhisattva Skanda, see Skanda (Bodhisattva). ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...

Contents

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[1] Palani had a population of 67,175. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Palani has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 69%. In Palani, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. The most prominent festivals of Palani temple are " Thaipoosam " and " Panguni Utthiram ". 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


Mr.Sethuraman or Mr. Samandham was the first Municipal Chairman.

Palni Hills seen from the road leading to Kodaikanal
Palni Hills seen from the road leading to Kodaikanal

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4734x1685, 1705 KB) Summary Palani Hills en route Kodaikanal Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kodaikanal Palani Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4734x1685, 1705 KB) Summary Palani Hills en route Kodaikanal Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kodaikanal Palani Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from...

Geography

A most impressive back-drop to the town is formed by the picturesque slopes of an offshoot of the Western Ghauts, the Palni Hills, whereon lies the esteemed hill-station of Kodaikanal. The ranges extending east-west, to the south of the town, frame the town presenting a most inimitable sight. The view within the town is dominated by the two hills, Sivagiri and Sakthigiri, on the former of which lies the famous and much resorted to temple of Lord Subrahmanyan as Bala-Dhandaayudhapaani (translated as, the young lord wielding a mace). The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... , Kodaikanal (also known as Kodai) is a city and a Taluk division of Dindigul district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, South India. ...


At the foot of the hills lie several lakes, the largest of which, the Vaiyyapuri Kolam, used, in days past, to serve as the primary water reservoir to the inhabitants of the town. At its greatest expanse during and immediately after the monsoons rains, the lake drains to the Shanmughanadi, a short distance from the town. Though shrunken in expanse due to encroachments and overgrown with weeds, the lake still remains an extensive water sheet during the rainy season.


The Shanmughanadi, a tributary of the River Amaravathi, takes its source on the slopes of the Palni Hills and runs not very far from the town. On this river, a few short kilometres from the suburbs, in the lower reaches of the Palni Hills, is built the Varadhaman Nadi Dam, which supplies the town with its supply of fresh water. In Hinduism, Amaravati is the capital of Svarga, a temporary paradise where the dead live. ...


Although Palani lies in a geologically stable area, construction of a dam at Idukki, in neighbouring Kerala State, has been known to cause tremors occasionally. Idukki district and town in Kerala Idukki is one among the 14 districts of Kerala state, India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


History

Unfortunately, not much is known about the earliest history of the area. References exist to the place in ancient Tamil devotional texts. A local tradition holds that a tribal chieftain named Bayhun (பேகன்-கடை ஏழு வள்ளல்களில் ஒருவர்), once came upon a peacock in the forests shivering in the cold and chose to cover it using his own upper garment and face the cold, rather than let it die. Although the legend may be apocryphal, it reveals some interesting facts - that the people of the area were numerous enough to have a chieftain of some standing, that peacocks were as plentiful as, if not more than, they are today, that the people venerated peacocks and held them to be sacred to Lord Subrahmanyan as they do today and lastly, that the weather was cold enough to justify a warm upper garment, a circumstance encountered primarily higher up in the hills today.


The area seems to have been under the influence of the rulers of Madurai and Coimbatore, at various points of time. The temple of the Goddess Periyanayaki Amman within the town, serves as the point of reference. The Pandyan motif of two fishes is repeatedly to be encountered in its interior, in relief, which leads one to believe that the area was under the domination of the Pandyan kings of Madurai in the first millennium A.D. However, the mandapam (pavilion) right in front of the temple is more in keeping with the architecture of the Nayaka kings of Madurai, who were appointed to the administration of that city by the Kings of Vijayanagar by the 14th and 15th centuries. It is therefore logical to presume that the area came under the sway of the Nayakas in their heyday. A tradition in the surrounding area asserts that their kings remained proudly independent and did not become vassals of the Pandyas or the various rulers of Coimbatore. This, when read with historic accounts of the wars of those kings, may lend credence to the fact that certain vassals of the Pandya kings at times turned refractory and at others remained staunch allies of theirs in the numerous wars they prosecuted.


Our source of information for the next period of history comes from the records of Hyder Ali and his son, Tippoo Sultaun, which were handed over to the British on the surrender of the Dindigul district after the Third Anglo-Mysore War. Herefrom, it is learnt that Palani was then under the rule of the poligars or palayakarars (literally, town-keepers) of Balasamudram, who retained control of its brick-fort in return for a nominal tribute to the Sultaun's administrator and representative at Coimbatore. Considering the fact that there are numerous people of the Nayakar caste (the same as the Nayaka kings of Madurai), who claim descent from what is modern-day Andhra Pradesh and who retain some vestiges of the Telugu tongue, in Balasamudram, it is more than probable that their forebears were given charge of the fort of that place by the kings of Madurai, and retained its control long after their sovereigns had been displaced. Hyder Ali or Haidar Ali (c. ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ... The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792) was a war in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... A poligar or polygar is the title of a class of officials or chiefs who governed portions of southern India from the 16th to the 18th centuries. ...


Another interesting fact is the existence of a Saurashtra Street in Palani. Since 'Saurashtra' is the term commonly used in Tamil to refer to the numerous people who emigrated to the South in the wake of the Mahratta rulers of Tanjore and Madurai, it seems to be likely that Palani came under the dominance of either the Serfojis of Tanjore or their counterparts of Madurai, in the period between the fall of the Nayaka Kings of Madurai and Hyder Ali's ascent to power in the 18th century.


We have numerous references to Palani, and its famous temple, in British Gazetteers and land survey documents of the late 18th and early 19th century. The first known painting of Palani and its surroundings was made by a captain of the English East India Company's Madras Army in September, 1792, who was presumably sent to the area to assist in the investiture of the nearby fortress of Dindigul during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and who may have been one of a party sent to ensure the lack of resistance from the numerous small hill-forts that lay between Dindigul and Coimbatore after the fall of the former's fortress. The painting clearly shows the Sivagiri with the temple atop it and a wall at its base, besides a large tank, presumably the Vaiyyapuri Kolam, against a background of the Palni Hills as seen from the direction of Coimbatore. Palani is also named as being one of the most prosperous towns of the Dindigul district in a gazetteer from 1821.


Although it is known that the Dindigul District experienced a cholera outbreak of epidemic proportions in 1811, leading to a 70% decrease in population of the district, its effects as particularly applicable to Palani are not known.


The laying of a railway line may have brought an additional spurt of growth to the town since one of its chief roads is named the Railway Feeder Road, presumably because it links the highway to the District Headquarter Dindigul with the railway line.


The highway that runs from Palani to the nearby town of Dharapuram is remarkably straight and level, without the numerous windings and turns that characterise old roads. It is known that the area experienced a sudden surge in unempoyment during, or immediately after, the Second World War necessitating the development of schemes to provide employment. The road was a product of one such project floated by the administration.


The area experienced a severe famine in the early 1950s, an occurrence that is still remembered with fear by the inhabitants of the area, considering the privations they underwent. More recently, the Shanmughanadi river was subjected to annual floods in the early 1990s, which cut off links with other towns nearby, and caused some inconvenience.


People

The people of Palani, for the major part, belong to the Pillai and Pandaram castes, while there are numerous Nayakars (Naidus) in the nearby village of Balasamudram, on account of the circumstances narrated under 'History' above. Brahmins, although dispersed all over the town, have two particular enclaves - namely the Chinnakalyamputthur Agraharam, a short distance from the town, and the Gurukkal Street near the Periyanayaki Amman Temple.


The language spoken is, for the most part, Tamil of the Coimbatore dialect with a strong infusion of the Madurai dialect, which may be attributable to the proximity of Dindigul, the district head-quarters, where the latter dialect prevails.


Temples

Palani is home to one of the most sacred shrines of the god Subrahmanyan, as worshipped in the Hindu cult of Koumaram. The temple situated atop the Sivagiri is small but attracts a flood of devotees from all over the country. The architecture of the temple appears to be of the Pandya school. The garbagriham is surmounted by a gold gopuram, most admirably worked. Steps are hewn into the rock, besides a wide path meant for the ascent of elephants, up the hill. In addition, a funicular railway with three tracks and a rope-way have been provided more recently for the comfort of the pilgrims.


In keeping with the traditions of all temples of the god Subrahmanyan, another temple is dedicated to his worship near the foot of the Sivagiri. It goes by the name of Thiru Avinankudi, and is remarkable for the exquisite appearance of the chief deity besides other sculptures.


Besides this, right at the foot of the Sivagiri is a small shrine dedicated to the god Ganapathi, where he goes by the name Pada Vinayakar. It is common amongst the pilgrims to pay their obeisances at this shrine before commencing their ascent of the hill to worship the Lord Subrahmanyan. A particular offering here is the breaking of coconuts, by flinging them against an enclosed stone before the shrine, of which many hundreds are broken by the devotees in the course of a day.


Within the town is another temple dedicated to the goddess Parvathi as Periyanayaki Amman. It popularly goes by the name of the 'Oorkovil' - the town's chief temple. A particularly intriguing aspect of the temple is that, although it is referred to as the temple of Periyanayaki Amman, the central sanctum, the sanctum of supreme honour in Hindu temple architecture, is accorded to the Lord Subrahmanyan. The temple is large in expanse and displays an interesting blend of Pandya and Nayaka architecture. A tradition associated with the temple is that, formerly, a subterranean passage connected it with the Periya Avudaiyar temple some distance from the town, and was used to convey the idols under a peculiar circumstance of duress - when a Nawab attacked; however, beyond the fact, obvious from his title, that he was a Muslim, nothing is known of the Nawab or of his attack. Some evidence may be said to exist of an attack since some of the sculptures in the Nayaka mandapam in front of the temple have their limbs missing.


A short distance from the town is a temple dedicated to Shiva as Periya Avudaiyar. This temple, located right on the banks of the Shanmugha Nadi, is situated in particularly peaceful environs far-removed from the bustle of the town.


Near the Periya Nayaki Amman temple are two others - the Mariyamman Temple and the Perumal Temple. The former is particularly resorted to in times of epidemics, the goddess there being regarded as the protectress against illnesses.


Banks at Palani

  • State Bank of India (With ATM)
  • ICICI (With ATM)
  • Indian Bank ((With ATM)
  • Indian Overseas Bank
  • Canara Bank (With ATM)
  • Lakshmi Vilas Bank (With ATM)
  • Karur Vaisya Bank (with ATM)

தமிழ் இலக்கிய மன்றம் (Tamil Ilaykkiya Mandram)

Palani has an organised இலக்கிய மன்றம் which is engaged in promoting Tamil Literature related activities.[citation needed]


How to Reach Palani

A good number of buses are operated by SETC(Govt) and private transport agencies from Chennai, or take the frequent buses to Tiruchi?Dindugul and from there frequent buses are available to Palani

  • 110 km From Coimbatore Bus and Train facility available from Coimbatore to Palani
  • 115 km From Madurai Bus and Train facility available from Madurai to Palani
  • 57 km From Didigul(District Head Quarters)Bus and Train facility available from Dindigul to Palani many Buses are equipped with colour TVs to entertain u in Journey.
  • Kodaikanal, the picturesque hill-station, is around 60 km from Palani. Transport by buses is available

Educational Institutions

The Devastanam Board runs several institution based on culture and education.

  1. Arulmigu Palaniandavar Arts College (Men)
  2. Arulmigu Palaniandavar Arts College (Women)
  3. Arulmigu Palaniadavar Polytechnic
  4. Matriculation High school

Sri Subramaniya College of Engineering and Technology is an institute of higher technical education located near Palani on the way towards Udumalpet.


The Municipal Schools in Palani are:

  1. Municipal Higher Secondary school (MHS SCHOOL)For Boys
  2. Gurukulam Tuvakka Palli(Gurukulam Primary School)
  3. Government Girls' Higher Secondary school

Further, there are various private schools in Palani: For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ...

  1. Arulmigu Palani Andavar Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  2. Devi Matriculation School
  3. St. Josephs Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  4. Akshaya Academy Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  5. St. Peters Matriculation School
  6. Vivekananda Vidyalaya matriculation Higher Secondary School
  7. Sankar Ponnar Higher Secondary School
  8. Standard Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  9. Swamy Matriculation School
  10. Thiruvalluvar Higher Matriculation School
  11. ITO Higher Secondary School
  12. Madanisa High School

References

  1. ^ Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns. (Provisional). Census Commission of India. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


 
 

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