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Encyclopedia > Palais Garnier
The Palais Garnier, Paris
The Palais Garnier, Paris

The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier or Grand Opera House[1], but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2,200 seat opera house in Paris, France. A grand landmark designed by Charles Garnier in the Neo-Baroque style, it is regarded as one of the architectural masterpieces of its time. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x764, 440 KB) Description Summary Le Palais Garnier; Opera de Paris Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : December 2005 This image has been cleaned up: lossless jpegtran crop of black borders. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x764, 440 KB) Description Summary Le Palais Garnier; Opera de Paris Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : December 2005 This image has been cleaned up: lossless jpegtran crop of black borders. ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Charles Garnier (6 November 1825 - 3 August 1898) was a French architect, designer of the Paris Opéra and the Opéra de Monte-Carlo. ... The foyer of the Paris Opera, built by Charles Garnier Neo-baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style, but are not from the Baroque period proper. ...


Upon its inauguration in 1875, the opera house was officially named the Académie Nationale de Musique - Théâtre de l'Opéra. It retained this title until 1978 when it was re-named the Théâtre National de l'Opéra de Paris. After the opera company chose the Opéra Bastille as their principal theatre upon its completion in 1989, the theatre was re-named as the Palais Garnier, though its more official name, the Académie Nationale de Musique, is still sprawled above the columns of its front façade. In spite of the change of names and the Opera company's relocation to the Opéra Bastille, the Palais Garnier is still known by many people as the Paris Opéra, as have all of the many theatres which have served as the principal venues of the Parisian Opera and Ballet since its founding. An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... The Opéra Bastille L’Opéra de la Bastille (Bastille Opera) is a modern opera house in Paris, France. ...

Contents

History

The Grand Escalier in the main hall
The Grand Escalier in the main hall

King Louis XIV gave a patent to Jean-Baptiste Lully to establish the Académie Royale de Musique in 1672, the great institution of French theatrical art that was comprised of opera, ballet, and music. Although the opera held its own company upon its founding in 1669, the ballet of that time was merely an extension of it, having yet to evolve into an independent form of theatrical art. However Louis XIV, one of the great architects of baroque ballet (the artform which would one day evolve into classical ballet), established the ballet school in 1661 as the Académie Royale de Danse. From 1671 until Lully's death in 1687, the school was under the direction of the great dancing master Pierre Beauchamp, the man who set down the five positions of the feet. Louis XIV redirects here. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (was also known as the Théâtre Impérial de l´Opéra, Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly as the Paris Opéra) was... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Baroque dance is dance of the Baroque era in Europe (roughly 1600–1750), closely linked with Baroque music, theater and opera. ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Pierre Beauchamp (also Beauchamps, sometimes mistakenly called Charles-Louis Beauchamp) (1631–1705) was a French choreographer, dancer and composer, and the probable inventor of Beauchamp-Feuillet notation. ...


In 1713 King Louis XIV made the Opera company a state institution, including a resident company of professional dancers known as Le Ballet de l'Opéra. From that time until the inauguration of the Palais Garnier in 1875, the Académie Royale de Musique went through 13 principal theatres, most of which were destroyed by fires. All of these theatres, regardless of the more "official" names which were bestowed upon them, were all commonly known as the Paris Opéra or Opéra de Paris.


The Palais Garnier was designed as part of the great Parisian reconstruction of the Second French Empire instigated by Emperor Napoleon III, who chose the civic planner Baron Haussmann to supervise the reconstruction. In 1858 the Emperor authorized Haussmann to clear the required 12,000 square metres of land on which to build a second theatre for the world renowned Parisian Opera and Ballet companies. The project was put out to open competition in 1861, and was won by the architect Charles Garnier (1825–1898). The foundation stone was laid in 1861, followed by the start of construction in 1862. Legend has it that the Emperor's wife, the Empress Eugénie, asked Garnier during the construction as to whether or not the building would be built in the Greek or Roman style, to which he replied: "It is in the Napoleon III style Madame!" Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... Charles Garnier (6 November 1825 - 3 August 1898) was a French architect, designer of the Paris Opéra and the Opéra de Monte-Carlo. ... Empress Eugénie Doña María Eugenia Ignacia Agustina de Palafox y Kirkpatrick, Countess de Teba, who became Empress Eugénie [1] [2] [3] (May 5, 1826 – July 11, 1920) was Empress Consort of France (1853-1871), the wife of Napoleon III, emperor of the French. ...

The Grand Salle of the Palais Garnier, with a view of the stage's luxuriant faux curtain
The Grand Salle of the Palais Garnier, with a view of the stage's luxuriant faux curtain

The construction of the opera house was plagued by numerous setbacks. One major problem which postponed the laying of the concrete foundation was the extremely swampy ground under which flowed a subterranean lake, requiring the water to be removed by eight months of continual pumping. More setbacks came as a result of the disastrous Franco-Prussian War, the subsequent fall of the Second French Empire, and the Paris Commune. During this time construction continued sporadically, and it was even rumoured that construction of the opera house might be abandoned. Image File history File links Salle_Opera_Garnier. ... Image File history File links Salle_Opera_Garnier. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of...


An incentive to complete the Palais Garnier came on October 29, 1873, when the old Paris Opéra, known as the Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique, was destroyed by a fire which raged for 27 hours, leaving the whole of Paris in despair (From 1852 until 1855, during the beginnings of the Second French Empire, the opera house was known as the Théâtre de l'Académie Impérial de Musique. In 1855 the opera house was re-named as the Théâtre Impérial de l'Opéra. Upon the fall of the Second French Empire, the opera house was re-named simply as the Théâtre de l´Opéra, a title it retained until its destruction in 1873). The Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique had been the chief venue of the Parisian Opera and Ballet since 1821, and had seen many of the world's greatest masterworks of opera and ballet presented on its stage. The Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique is also famous for playing host to the heyday of the romantic ballet (along with Her Majesty's Theatre in London). is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (also been known as the Théâtre Imperial de l´Opéra , Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly, as the Paris Opéra) was the... Pas de Quatre: Carlotta Grisi, Marie Taglioni, Lucile Grahn and Fanny Cerito The Romantic period in ballet occurred in the early to mid 1800s, and roughly corresponds to Romanticism movements in art and literature. ... A perfomance at Opera House, Haymarket, predecessor of Her Majestys Theatre in circa 1808. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Marc Chagall on ceiling

By late 1874 Garnier and his massive workforce completed the Palais Garnier, much to the celebration of Paris. The Palais Garnier was formally inaugurated on January 15, 1875 with a lavish gala performance. The bill consisted of the third act of Fromental Halévy's 1835 opera La Juive, along with excerpts from Giacomo Meyerbeer's 1836 opera Les Huguenots. The ballet company performed a Grand Divertissement staged by the Paris Opéra's Maître de Ballet en Chef Louis Méranté, which consisted of the celebrated scene Le Jardin Animé from Joseph Mazilier's 1867 revival of his ballet Le Corsaire, set to the music of Léo Delibes. is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Jacques Fromental Halévy Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy (May 27, 1799 - March 17, 1862) was a French composer. ... La Juive (The Jewess) is a opera in five acts by Jacques Halévy to an original libretto by Eugène Scribe. ... Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791 – May 2, 1864) was a noted German-born opera composer, and the first great exponent of Grand Opera. ... Les Huguenots is a French opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer. ... Divertimento is a music genre, with most of its examples stemming from the 18th century. ... Edgar Degas painting of the great balletmaster Jules Perrot conducting rehearsal in the Foyer de la Danse of the Palais Garnier. ... Louis Mérante as Djémil in the Saint-Léon/Delibes La Source, Paris, 1866 Louis Alexandre Méranté (July 23, 1828–Courbevoie, July 17, 1887) was a dancer and choreographer, the Maître de Ballet (First Balletmaster/Chief Choreographer) at the Académie Royale de Musique until it... Joseph Mazilier (1808-1868) Famous 19th century Balletmaster and choreographer, most noted for his ballets Paquita (1844) and Le Corsaire (1856) Category: ... The Bavarian State Ballet in the scene Le Jardin Animé from the companys partial reconstruction of Marius Petipas 1899 revival of Le Corsaire, Munich, 2007 Le Corsaire (The Pirate) is a ballet in three acts, with a libretto based on the poem The Corsair by Lord Byron. ... Maestro Clément Philibert Léo Delibes, Paris, circa 1885 (Clément Philibert) Léo Delibes (February 21, 1836 – January 16, 1891) was a French composer of Romantic music. ...


In 1896, one of the counter-weights for the chandelier fell, killing one. This, as well as the underground lake and other elements of the Opera House, inspired Gaston Leroux to write his classic Gothic novel, The Phantom of the Opera. Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Gaston Leroux. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... This article is about the Gaston Leroux novel. ...


The ceiling area, which surrounds the chandelier, was given a new painting in 1964 by Marc Chagall. This painting proved controversial, with many people feeling Chagall's work clashed with the style of the rest of the theatre. (It was also installed directly onto the old mural, destroying it. The combined weight of both canvases has caused the 19th C. adhesives to fail over time.) Marc Chagall as photographed in 1941 by Carl Van Vechten. ...


In 1969 the theatre was given new electrical facilities, and in 1978 part of the original Foyer de la Danse was converted into new rehearsal space for the Ballet company by the architect Jean-Loup Roubert. In 1994 restoration work began on the theatre, which consisted of modernizing the stage machinery and electrical facilities, while restoring and preserving the opulent décor and strengthening the frame and foundation of the building. The restoration was completed in 2006.


Architecture and style

Le grand foyer
Le grand foyer

Although slightly smaller in scale than its predecessor, the Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique, the Palais Garnier consists of 11,000 square metres (118,404 square feet), seats an audience of roughly 2,200 under a central chandelier which weighs over six tons, and has a huge stage with room to accommodate up to 450 artists. An ornate building, the style is monumental, opulently decorated with elaborate multicolored marble friezes, columns, and lavish statuary, many of which portray the deities from Greek mythology. Between the columns of the theatre's front façade, there are bronze busts of many of the great composers, such as Mozart and Beethoven. The interior consists of interweaving corridors, stairwells, alcoves and landings allowing the movement of large numbers of people and space for socializing during intermission. Rich with velvet, gold leaf, and cherubs and nymphs, the interior is characteristic of Baroque sumptuousness. The Palais Garnier's style is considered Beaux-Arts because it incorporates classical principles (symmetry in design) and exterior ornamentation. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... ...


See also

Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (also been known as the Théâtre Imperial de l´Opéra , Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly, as the Paris Opéra) was the... The Paris Opera Ballet is the ballet company of the Paris Opera. ... Opéra National de Paris is the leading opera company of France. ... This article is about the Gaston Leroux novel. ...

Image gallery

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1680x2550, 2727 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Palais Garnier Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1007x633, 283 KB) Palais Garnier Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... ImageMetadata File history File links PG149. ... ImageMetadata File history File links PG142. ... ImageMetadata File history File links PG147. ...

References

  • Allison, John (ed.), Great Opera Houses of the World, supplement to Opera Magazine, London 2003
  • Beauvert, Thierry, Opera Houses of the World, New York: The Vendome Press, 1995. [ISBN 0-86565-978-8]
  • Guest, Ivor Forbes, Ballet of the Second Empire, London: Wesleyan University Press, 1974
  • Guest, Ivor Forbes, The Paris Opera Ballet, London: Wesleyan University Press, 2006
  • Kleiner, Fred S., Gardner's Art Through The Ages, Belmont: Thomsom Wadsworth, 2006 [ISBN 0-534-63640-3]
  • Zeitz, Karyl Lynn, Opera: the Guide to Western Europe's Great Houses, Santa Fe, New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1991. [ISBN 0-945465-81-5]

Notes

Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

External links

  • Official website (in French)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 48°52′19″N, 2°19′54″E It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Paris. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the ÃŽle de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... Grand Palais in 2004 The Grand Palais (Grand Palace) is a large glass exhibition hall that was built for the Paris Exhibition of 1900. ... People relaxing in front of the Luxembourg Palace The Jardin du Luxembourg (familiar nickname Luco) is a 224,500 m² public park and the largest in the city located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... , The church at the Invalides Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings original purpose. ... This article is about the museum. ... , The Musée dOrsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine, housed in the former railway station, the Gare dOrsay. ... Looking down the hill at Père-Lachaise. ... Image File history File links Paris-metropolitan-area-symbol. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Palais Garnier - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (556 words)
The Palais Garnier is an opera house, a grand landmark at the northern end of the Avenue de l'Opéra in the IXe arrondissement of Paris, France.
The Palais Garnier was formally inaugurated on January 15, 1875.
It is currently styled the Palais Garnier and is one of the two venues of the Opéra National de Paris, the other being the Opéra Bastille.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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