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Encyclopedia > Palace of Soviets

The Palace of Soviets (Russian: Дворец Советов, Dvorec Sovetov) was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, Russia, near the Kremlin, on the site of the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The architectural contest for the Palace of Soviets (1931-1933) was won by Boris Iofan's neoclassical concept, subsequently revised by Iofan, Vladimir Schuko and Vladimir Gelfreikh into a supertall skyscraper. If built, it would have become the world's tallest structure. Construction started in 1937, and was terminated by the German invasion in 1941. In 1941-1942, its steel frame was disassembled for use in fortifications and bridges. Construction never resumed again. In 1958, the foundations of the Palace were converted into the largest ever open-air swimming pool. The Cathedral was rebuilt in 1995-2000. [1] A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... View of the cathedral and the Great Stone Bridge in 1905. ... Iofans Palace of Soviets design Iofans House on Embankmemt, present day Boris Mihailovic Iofan (April 28, 1891–1976) is a Russian Soviet architect, known for his Stalinist architecture buldings like 1931 House on Embankment and the 1931-1933 winning draft of the Palace of Soviets. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


A nearby subway station, built in 1935 as Palace of Soviets station, was renamed Kropotkinskaya in 1957. edit Kropotkinskaya station, 1950s. ...

Contents

History of the concept

Cathedral of Christ the Savior, postcard
Cathedral of Christ the Savior, postcard

The Soviet Union was officially formed at the first Congress of Soviets in December, 1922. Sergey Kirov, speaking at the Congress, proposed building the congress palace "on the sites of palaces once owned by bankers, landlords and czars". Very soon, Kirov said, existing halls would be too small to fit the delegates from new republics of the Union. The palace "will be just another push for the European proletariat, still dormant...to realize that we came for good and forever, that the ideas...of communism are as deeply rooted here as the wells drilled by Baku oilers". [2] Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (1905). ... Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (1905). ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1993. ... Sergey Kirov Sergey Mironovich Kirov (Russian: ) (March 27 [O.S. March 15] 1886 – December 1, 1934) had a high Bolshevik rank. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ...


In 1924, Lenin's death and the construction of the temporary Lenin's Mausoleum initiated a national campaign to build Lenin memorials across the country. Victor Balikhin, a graduate student at VKhUTEMAS, proposed to install Lenin's memorial on top of a Comintern building, on the site of Christ the Savior Cathedral. "Arc lamps will flood the villages, towns, parks and squares, calling everyone to honour Lenin even at night..." [3] Balikhin's concept, forgotten for a while, emerged later in Boris Iofan's design. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Lenins Tomb, with wall of the Kremlin and the former Soviet Parliament building behind An entrance to Lenins Mausoleum Lenins Mausoleum (Russian: ) (Transliteration: Mavzoley Lenina) also known as Lenins Tomb, situated in Red Square in Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the final resting place... VKhUTEMAS (Russian acronym for Higher State Art and Technical Workshops) was the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, and dissolved in 1930. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc or electric arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. ...


Demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

Demolition, December 5, 1931
Demolition, December 5, 1931

Six years later, in February 1931, the State declared the first contest for the Palace of Soviets, distributing preliminary proposals to 15 architectural workshops (avant-garde and traditional architects). This contest ended in May, 1931, with no winners and a single loss: the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. Image File history File links Christ_saviour_explosion. ... Image File history File links Christ_saviour_explosion. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ...


June 2, 1931, a conference of Party elders identified the site of the future Palace and condemned the Cathedral. This was formally endorsed July, 16 by the VTsIK commission. July 18 (the day when Izvestia announced the second, international, contest), state commissioners started an inventory count of Cathedral properties. A small fraction of them were removed and stored at state expense and the expense of Donskoy Monastery; the rest perished. Demolition began on August 18; December, 5, 1931 the structure was finally destroyed in two rounds of explosions[4]. Hauling out the rubble took more than a year. [5] The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Modern Izvestia logo Old Izvestia logo. ... Our Lady of the Don, by Theophanes the Greek. ...


Public contest

The second, public, international contest was declared July 18, 1931. A total of 272 concepts were collected, including 160 architectural works (136 Soviet, 24 foreign). The contest attracted international architects like Le Corbusier, Joseph Urban, Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn, and Armando Brasini, Boris Iofan's Italian teacher[6]; American entries were coordinated by Albert Kahn [7]. It was the foreigner Brasini who literally expressed the idea of "Lenin atop the skyscraper" in the most clear form.[8] Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Joseph Urban (May 26, 1872 – July 10, 1933) Born in Vienna, Austria, died in New York City, trained as an architect, known also for his theatrical design and his early illustrations of children´s books. ... Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of Bauhaus. ... Translation in progress Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 September 1953) was a German Jewish architect, known for his expressionist buildings in the 1920s, the first in their style. ... Albert Kahn designed Detroit Police Headquarters at 1300 Beaubien. ...


Enormous publicity followed the project until 1941; in 1931-32, it was broadcast internationally, with reviews and reports published all over the world. The Council of Experts was chaired (at least formally) by old Bolshevik Gleb Krzhizhanovsky; Time Magazine called it "a jury whose most noteworthy member was Dictator Stalin".[9] Old Bolshevik (Russian: ) is an unofficial designation for a member of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Gleb Maximilianovich Krzhizhanovsky (Russian: , January 24, 1872, Samara — March 31, 1959, Moscow) was a Soviet economist and a state figure. ...


Public contest entries

Instead of announcing a clear winner, in February, 1932 the Council declared three leading drafts by Boris Iofan, Ivan Zholtovsky and a 28-year-old British architect living in New Jersey, Hector Hamilton[10]. This outcome called for a third round of competition - or a state intervention. All three runners-up turned their backs on the avant-garde and leaned towards neoclassicism (or eclecticism). This "reactionary" decision caused an uproar among European avant-garde artists. Le Corbusier and Sigfried Giedion, leader of the CIAM, complained to Stalin, using communist rhetoric, that the "Decision of the council is a direct insult to the spirit of Revolution and the Five-year plan...[it is] a tragic betrayal". [11] Iofans Palace of Soviets design Iofans House on Embankmemt, present day Boris Mihailovic Iofan (April 28, 1891–1976) is a Russian Soviet architect, known for his Stalinist architecture buldings like 1931 House on Embankment and the 1931-1933 winning draft of the Palace of Soviets. ... Ivan Vladislavovich Zholtovsky (Иван Владиславович Жолтовский, 1867-1959) was a Russian-Soviet architect and educator. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles-Edouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-born architect and writer, who is famous for his contributions to what now is called Modern Architecture. ... Author of SPACE, TIME & ARCHITECTURE, 1941 ... The Congrès International dArchitecture Moderne (CIAM) (International Congress of Modern Architecture) (1928 - 1959) was the think tank of the Modern Movement (or International Style) in architecture. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also:

  • Draft by Dmitry Chechulin Overview Interior
  • Draft by Karo Alabyan, Arkady Mordvinov et al. www.wbb.ru

Kharkiv Post Office Arkady Grigoryevich Mordvinov (Russian: ), born Arkady Grigorievich Mordvishev (Мордвишев, January 27, 1896 - 1964) was a Soviet architect and construction manager, notable for stalinist architecture of Tverskaya Street, Leninsky Prospect, Hotel Ukraina skyscraper in Moscow and his administrative role in Soviet construction industry and architecture. ...

The decision

The international contest was followed by not one, but two more rounds of closed competition. The third contest (March 1932 - July 1932) round invited 15 design teams, the fourth (July 1932 - February 1933) invited only five. On May 10, 1933, Boris Iofan's draft was declared the winner. A duo of neoclassicist architects, Vladimir Schuko and Vladimir Gelfreikh, were assigned to Iofan's team, and the design became known as the Iofan-Schuko-Gelfreikh draft.


Recently published correspondence between Stalin and Lazar Kaganovich, however, pinpoints the moment of selection as no later than August, 1932. On August 7, Stalin wrote a memo to Kaganovich, Molotov and Voroshilov, clearly naming Iofan's draft as the best, and proposing changes: Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Lazar Kaganovich Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Russian: ) (November 22, 1893–July 25, 1991) was a Soviet politician and administrator and a close associate of Joseph Stalin. ... Molotov can refer to: Vyacheslav Molotov - a Soviet politician and diplomat under Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, signed by Molotov, also known as the Nazi-Soviet Pact The Molotov Line, a line of fortifications built by the Soviet Union in World War II following the Nazi-Soviet Pact Molotov cocktail... Marshal of the Soviet Union Kliment Voroshilov Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Климе́нт Ефре́мович Вороши́лов) (January 23, 1881 - December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and...

  • Drive the main tower upward, like a column (as Iofan did in his first entry)
  • Make it as tall as the Eiffel tower or even taller
  • Crown the column with a brightly lit Hammer and Sickle
  • Place monuments to Lenin, Marx and Engels in front of the building[12]

The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... For other uses, see Hammer and sickle (disambiguation). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 – August 5, 1895) was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ...

The Iofan-Schuko-Gelfreikh design

Iofan's original draft was crowned with a relatively small statue of "The Free Proletarian". In August 1932, as is clear from Stalin's memo, this statue disappeared from his draft, and Stalin personally intervened to correct the omission. A taller tower and Lenin's statue actually appeared after the fourth contest, in response to Stalin's public speech: "The Palace of Soviets is a monument to Lenin. Don't be scared of height; go for it".[13]. In the process, the total height increased from 260 to 415 meters. The Main Hall with a capacity of 21,000 seats was 100 meters high and 160 meters in diameter (the Little Hall in the Eastern Wing was just 6,000 seats).[14]. This project was released to the public in March, 1934. The Lithuanian-American artist William Zorach "let out a cry of protest, charging that the Soviets had stolen an idea submitted by him for a Lenin memorial in Leningrad" in vain. [9] The statue structure was designed later; a 100-meter 1936 version weighed in excess of 6000 tons. In 1937, Frank Lloyd Wright, addressing the Congress of Soviet Architects, remarked "This structure - only proposed I hope - is good if we take it for a modern version of Saint George destroying the dragon". [15] William Zorach (February 28, 1887 – November 15, 1966) was a Lithuanian-American sculptor, painter and writer. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ...


Evolution of the winning entry, 1931-1934

See also:

  • High-resolution graphics of different exterior designs (1937-1940) at www.muar.ru: Elevation Plaster model Cutaway
  • Animated newsreel: New Moscow (1937) (Divx .AVI format: Video 1, Video 2, Video 3, Video 4)

// Audio-Video Interleaved, known by its acronym AVI, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows technology. ...

Construction

1940. Foundation slab and frame
1940. Foundation slab and frame

The foundation was completed in 1939. The builders drove a perimeter of 20-meter steel piles, excavated the pit, demolished and hauled out the old cathedral foundations. The new foundation was a slightly concave concrete slab with concentric vertical rings, intended to carry the main hall columns. By June, 1941, the steel frame for the lower levels was erected. Then the war interfered: the steel frame was cut in 1941 and 1942 and used for Moscow's defence fortifications and railroad bridges. The empty foundation stood unused, filled with seepage water, but well guarded, until 1958. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

1946. Interiors with Order of Victory motif
1946. Interiors with Order of Victory motif

Meanwhile, Iofan's team, relocated to Sverdlovsk, continued perfecting the design. After the war, Iofan produced another iteration of the original concept, this time incorporating the Victory theme, literally: interior halls were decorated with Order of Victory motifs. These drafts remained unused; construction on the old site never resumed. Iofan bid for the design of the Sparrow Hills Skyscraper, but lost to Lev Rudnev. Interestingly, Rudnev and other post-war architects designed their towers as if the Palace existed, referencing all major projects to the Palace skyline. As an example, this 1947 placement map for the Moscow Skyscrapers is centered around the Palace. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 677 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 677 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Order of Victory The Order of Victory (Russian: Орден Победы) was the highest military decoration in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. ... The Order of Victory The Order of Victory (Russian: Орден Победы) was the highest military decoration in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Lev Rudnev Lev Vladimirovich Rudnev (Russian: ; 13 March 1885 [O.S. 1 March]-November 19, 1956) was a Russian architect, representant of the Stalinist architecture. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Legacy

Bolshoy Krasnokholmsky Bridge, SDS steel arches

The Palace project forced the development of new technologies, notably the DS (ДС, Дворец Советов) family of construction steel. ODS (ordinary DS) and SDS (special DS) steel were used in Moscow bridges built in the 1930s[16] and Moscow Canal structures. A nearby subway station, a 1935 award-winning design by Alexey Dushkin, was named Palace of Soviets and renamed Kropotkinskaya in 1957. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Bolshoy Krasnokholmsky Bridge, view from south-east Bolshoy Krasnokholmsky Bridge (Большой Краснохолмский мост) is a steel arch bridge that spans Moskva River in downtown Moscow, Russia, carrying Garden Ring between Taganka and Zamoskvorechye districts. ... This is a partial list of bridges of Moscow, Russia, including all existing rail, road and foot bridges over Moskva River, Moskva Canal, Vodootvodny Canal within the MKAD beltway limits and the bridges over Yauza downstream from Rostokino. ... Moscow Canal (Russian: Канал имени Москвы; former name - Moscow-Volga Canal (until 1947)) is a canal that connects the Moskva River with the main transportation artery of European Russia - the Volga. ... Alexey Nikolayevich Dushkin (24 December 1904 - 8 October 1977) was a Soviet architect, best known for his 1930s designs of Kropotkinskaya and Mayakovskaya stations of Moscow Metro. ... edit Kropotkinskaya station, 1950s. ...


As soon as the 1934 Iofan-Shuko-Gelfreikh draft was published, the Palace became a symbol in Soviet art, appearing in propaganda pictures like this by Alexander Deineka. The unbuilt Palace animation was inserted in films (including the 1944 Six o'clock after the war made when the Mosfilm studio was evacuated to Tashkent). Images of the unbuilt Palace were copied onto real buildings like the 1937 North River Terminal. Alexander Deyneka Battle of Sevastopol Alexander Alexandrovich Deyneka (Russian: Александр Александрович Дейнека; May 20, 1899, Kursk - June 12, 1969, Moscow) was a Russian painter, graphic artist and sculptor. ... Mosfilm logo was the Statue of the Worker and Kolkhoznitsa at VDNKh Mosfilm film studio (in Cyrillic, Мосфи́льм) is often described as the largest and oldest in Russia and in Europe. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... North river terminal in Moscow North river terminal or Rechnoy vokzal, known also as North port, built in 1937, is one of two passenger terminals of river transport in Moscow. ...


In 1958-1960, the Palace foundations were cleared of rubble and converted to the open-air Moskva swimming pool (see photo 1, post-1982, photo 2). The one-of-a-kind circular pool had a diameter of 129.5 meters.


In 1970s the State ran an architectural contest for the new Lenin Museum on a nearby site between the Pushkin Museum and the Kremlin. Some of the competitors, however, proposed building the Museum on the site of the Moskva pool, following the Iofan concept (see Drafts and site layout). This project never materialized. Revolution Square and Moscow City Hall in 2000. ... Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev (1847-1913) The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts (Russian: Музей изобразительных искусств им. А.С. Пушкина) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in the Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ...


The Cathedral was rebuilt in 1995-2000.


The Palace of Soviets in literature and culture

Ryszard Kapuscinski describes the demolition of the cathedral and the project of building the Palace of Soviets in a chapter of his book Imperium. The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Imperium, published in 1993, is Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuścińskis book about his travels to Soviet Union. ...


See also

Stalinist Architecture Projects:

Design by Ivan Leonidov. ... Exhibition grounds feature numerous fountains. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Modern biuldings at the John Paul IIAvenue in Warsaw Europes tallest skyscraper is the 264m Triumph-Palace appartment building in Moscow, built in 2003. ... Latvian Academy of Sciences The Academy of Sciences is the official science academy of Latvia and is an association of the countrys foremost scientists. ... Palace of Culture and Science A statue holding a book of Marx, Engels, and Lenin, with the name Stalin plastered over The Palace of Culture and Science (Polish: Pałac Kultury i Nauki, also abbreviated PKiN) in Warsaw is the tallest building in Poland and the worlds 164th tallest...

Bibliography

Books in English:

  • Pioneers of Soviet Architecture: The Search for New Solutions in the 1920s and 1930s, by Selim Khan-Magomedov, Thames and Hudson Ltd, ISBN 978-0500341025 (Complete Russian edition: Russian: С.О.Хан-Магометов. «Архитектура Советского авангарда», Москва, Стройиздат, 1996, 2001)
  • Architecture of The Stalin Era, by Alexei Tarkhanov (Collaborator), Sergei Kavtaradze (Collaborator), Mikhail Anikst (Designer), 1992, ISBN 978-08-4781-473-2
  • Architecture in the Age of Stalin: Culture Two, by Vladimir Paperny (Author), John Hill (Translator), Roann Barris (Translator), 2002, ISBN 978-05-2145-119-2
  • The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World, by Deyan Sudjic, 2004, ISBN 978-15-9420-068-7

References

  1. ^ Russian: Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, official site History page
  2. ^ Russian: Kirov's speech transcript, December 30, 1922 Moscow Museum of Architecture, www.muar.ru quoting 1957 official edition
  3. ^ Russian: Extract from Balikhin's article, www.artchronica.ru, May 2002
  4. ^ Time Magazine, December 14, 1931, mentioned demolition by liquid air cartridges; this is not corroborated by current Russian sources www.time.com
  5. ^ Russian: Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, official site Destruction page
  6. ^ English: Brasini Exhibition brief, www.muar.ru
  7. ^ Russian: М. Маркуша , Д. Хмельницкий, "Конец утопии – конкурс на Дворец Советов в Москве", www.archi.ru, July 2005
  8. ^ Brasini Exhibits: Palace of Soviets www.muar.ru
  9. ^ a b "Soviet Palace", Time, March 19, 1934 www.time.com
  10. ^ Hamilton's Palace, Time, March 14, 1932www.time.com
  11. ^ Russian: Дмитрий Хмельницкий, "Сталин и архитектура", гл.2, www.archi.ru (Khmelnitzky, chapter 2)
  12. ^ Khmelnitsky, ch.2, quoting Russian edition of "Сталин и Каганович: Переписка, 1931-1936 гг.", M, 2001, p.259, ISBN 5-8243-0241-3
  13. ^ Khmelnitsky, ch.2, quotes a 1940 edition of "Palace of Soviets" by N.Atarov
  14. ^ Russian: Глазычев, В.М., "Россия в петле модернизации", гл.10, 1989 www.glazychev.ru
  15. ^ Frank Lloyd Wright, "Address at First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects", 21 June 1937, archive publication by Vladimir Paperny
  16. ^ Russian: Носарев В.А., Скрябина, Т.А., "Мосты Москвы", М, "Вече", 2004, стр. 77-79 (Bridges of Moscow, 2004, p.77-79) ISBN 5-9533-0183-9

Coordinates: 55°44′41″N, 37°36′21″E. Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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