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Encyclopedia > Pala Empire


History of South Asia and India
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Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire.
Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire.

The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bengal and Bihar regions, from the 8th to the 12th century. The name Pala (Modern Bengali পাল pal) means "protector" and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tibet. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... 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Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... 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Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... 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The founder of the empire was Gopala. He was the first independent Buddhist king of Bengal and came to power in 750 in Gaur by democratic election, which was unique at the time. He reigned from 750-770 and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. His successors Dharmapala (r. 770-810) and Devapala (r. 810-850) expanded the empire across the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent. The Pala Empire eventually disintegrated in the 12th century under the attack of the Sena dynasty. Gopala (ruled 750 – 770) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... , Gaur, or Gour, as it is spelt mostly in modern times, or Laknauti is a ruined city, in the Malda district of West Bengal, India, on the west bank of the Ganges river, 40 kilometers downstream from Rajmahal. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political process. ... Emperor Kōnin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shōtoku. ... Dharamapala (rule: 770 AD - 810 AD) was the second and very illustrious ruler of Bengal. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ...


The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. They often intermarried with the Gahadvalas of the Kannauj region. They created many temples and works of art and supported the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. Their proselytism was at the origin of the establishment of Buddhism in Tibet. Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Vajrayāna Buddhism (Also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayana, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Esoteric Buddhism, Diamond Vehicle, or 金剛乘 Jingangcheng in Chinese; however, these terms are not always regarded as equivalent: one scholar[1] speaks of the tantra divisions of some editions of the Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts) is... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The Gahadvala are a Hindu Rajput dynasty who ruled the kingdom of Kannauj from the 11th century to the early 13th century. ... Kannauj (Hindi कन्नौज), sometimes improperly spelt Kanauj, is an ancient city lying in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... Vikramshila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...

Contents

Origin of the Palas

The origin of the Palas is not clearly stated in any of the numerous Pala records. It is also very curious to note that whereas the identity of the Kamboja Pala rulers of Bengal has been referred to twice and is indisputably connected to the Kamboja ethnicity, that of the Palas has nowhere been specifically stated in any of the Pala traditions in numerous of their Grants, Charters and Inscriptions (Dr D. C. Sircar). According to Manjuśree Mūlakalpa, Gopala I was a Śudra [1] [2]. Balla-Carita says that the "The Palas were low-born Ksatriyas". Tibetan Historian Taranatha Lama, in his "History of Buddhism in India" and Ghanarama, in his “Dharma Mangala”, (both of 16th century CE), also give the same story [3] [4]. Arabic accounts tell us that Palas were not kings of noble origin[5]. According to Abu Fazal (Ain-i-Akbari), Palas were Kayasthas [6]. Khalimpur Plate of Dharmapala, son of Gopala I (the founder of the dynasty), states that Gopala was a son of a warrior (Khanditarat) Vapyata and grandson of a highly educated (Saryavidyavadat) Dayitavishnu [7]. Ramachrita of Sandhyakaranandi attests Pala king Ramapala as a Kshatriya [8] , but in another portion of the same text, Dharmapala is described as Smudrakula-dipa i.e of the ocean race [9], though, the reason why the origin of the Palas has been ascribed to the Sea remains obsecure [10]. In the Udaya-sundari-katha, a Champu-Kavya, written by Soddhala in the eleventh century, Pala king Dharmapala is said to have belonged to the family of Mandhata of the Ikshvaku line which is known to belong to solar race[11] [12].. In a commentary of Astasāhasrika-Prajňāpāramitā of Haribhadra, Pala king Dharmapala is described as Rajabhatādibamspatita, which some writers have tried to interpret as Rajvatt-Vamsa-Patit, and therefore, try to relate Dharamapala to Rajvatt, the son of Devakhadga of the Khadga dynasty of Bengal. But there is sharp difference of opinion about the real meaning of the expression [13] [14] [15] and it has not been met with approval among the scholar community. It has also been proposed that the ancestor of the Palas were born of a Ksatriya mother [16]. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak (Persian:ابو الفضل) also known as Abul-Fazl, Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbars reign. ... The Ain-e-Akbari is a detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbars empire written by Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak, it also contains details of Hindu beliefs and practices as well as a history of India. ... In Vajrayana Buddhism, a dharmapāla (Tibetan drag-gshed) is a type of wrathful deity. ... Omkareshwar , Godarpura, Mandhata or Omkarji is a centre of pilgrimage in Madhya Pradesh, India. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...

The location of Pala in South Asia.
The location of Pala in South Asia.

The Kamauli Copper Plate inscription of king Vaidyadeva of Kamarupa (Assam) [17] indisputably connects the Palas to the Kshatriyas of "Mihirasya vamsa" (Surya lineage).[18]. Image File history File links Pala. ... Image File history File links Pala. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ...


Since Mihira means Sun or Sun worshipper, the expression Mihirasya implies connected with or relating to the Sun or Sun Worship (Sanskrit Mitra, Persian Mithira == > Mihira = Sun). According to Bhavishya Purana, the Mihira lineage originated from the union of Nishkubha, daughter of Rsi Rijihva and the Sun (Mihira) [19]. From this wedlock was born a sage called Zarashata, who apparently is Zoroaster of the Iranian traditions. Mihirasya Vamsa means Mihira Vamsa which is also found written as Mihirkula i.e lineage of the Sun-worshippers. The reference to Mihirasya vamsa as being the lineage of the Palas of Bengal as attested independently by the Kamauli Grant of king Vaidyadeva of Assam holds a probable clue that the Palas may have come from the Sun-Worshipping lineage i.e Iranian or Zoroastrian line of the Kambojas.[20] [21]. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... RSI may refer to: Repetitive strain injury, a disorder affecting bone and muscle from repetitive movements Rapid sequence induction, a form of anæsthesia Relative strength index, a security market indicator Radiotelevisione svizzera di lingua italiana, a Swiss radio broadcaster Research Science Institute, a summer research program held at MIT... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, ZōroastrÄ“s) or Zarathustra (Avestan: ZaraθuÅ¡tra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ... The term lineage can refer to several things. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


The fact that Gopala I, the founder of the so-called Pala dynasty has also been branded as Śudra[22], may also carry a clue to their connections to the Kamboja lineage as the Kambojas have also been branded as Vrishalas (fallen Kshatriyas or Śudras) in Hindu texts like Manu Smriti, Mahabharata, Harivamsha and numerous Puranas [23]. Also from the fact that Gopala’s grandfather was a highly learned man, and his father a warrior, and further as Gopala I is said to have been elected to the throne of Bengal, he therefore, was definitely not initially of a royal blood of Bengal. Some surmise that he may have been from a Brahmin lineage [24] but since the Palas are called Śudras as well as Ksatriyas, these references qualify them more as the Indo-Iranian Kambojas than of any other lineage. Moreover, ancient Indian traditions sufficiently attest the scholarship and learning of the Kambojas who excelled in education and produced many outstanding teachers and sages in ancient and medieval times. See: Brahmanism of the Kambojas Gopala (ruled 750 – 770) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal. ... The Manusmriti (Sanskrit मनुस्मृति), translated Laws of Manu is regarded as an important work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Harivamsa (Skt. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... The term Brahmin denotes both a member of the priestly class in the Hindu varna system, and a member of the highest caste in the caste system of Hindu society. ... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... The term lineage can refer to several things. ... The Kambojas are an ancient people of the north-western Indian subcontinent (Central Asia). ...


Ramachrita of Sandhyakaranandi also attests that Varendri or North Bengal was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas. In the Bangarh copper plate inscription of Mahipala, it has been stated that Mahipala recovered his Fatherland (Rajyam Pitram) from his enemies which apparently was North Bengal that was occupied by the Kambojas [25]. But if the Palas and Kamboja-Palas were same family, then this may have totally different interpretation and meaning [26] [27]. Example of a Chola inscription in Tamil from the 12th century C.E. Siyakas Harsola Paramara copper plate of 1005 Indian copper plate inscriptions play an extremely important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. ... Mahipala I (c. ...


One section of scholars like Dr N. G. Majumdar [28], Chandra Chakrabarty [29] etc consider that the so-called Pala Rulers of Bengal actually belonged to the Kamboja lineage. Dr N. G. Majumdar, the original editor of Irda Copper plate, had initially thought that the Pala Dynasty and the Kambboja Pala dynasty were two separate dynasties, but later on, modified his views in light of new discoveries which demonstrated that king Rajyapala-II of the so-called Pala dynasty, like king Rajyapala of the Irda Copper Plate, was found as adorned with religious epithet of Parama-saugata (devoted Buddhist) as well as imperial title of Maharajadhiraja.[30] Based on this new evidence and the earlier similarities, Dr N. G. Majumdar, had accordingly changed his views and got inclined to identify the Pala Dynasty of Bengal with the Kambojas, thereby, also dispelling the earlier views on the origin of the Pala kings of Bengal [31]. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Dr H. C. Ray however, has advised a policy of 'wait' till the discovery of more powerful evidence before we can say that the Pala dynasty belonged to Kamboja race. He oberserved: "I can only suggest that we must wait for more definite proof before we can say that the Palas were Kambojas" [32]. Dr Ramananda Chatterjee writes that "as regards the Kamboja origin of the Pala, one cannot be definite in the present state of our knowledge" [33]. Dr J. L. Kamboj cautions that if we identify Rajyapala of the Pala Dynasty with the Rajyapala of the 'Irda Copper Plate', then we will have no option other than to accept that the Pala Dynasty of Bengal had sprang from the Kamboja race [34]. Dr R. C. Majumdar advises that if we identify the Kamboja-vamsa-tilaka Rajyapala of the Irda Copper plate with the Rajyapala of the Pala dynasty, then we must also accept that after Rajyapla, the Pala empire had split up into two [35]. Dr R. C. Majumdar further advises that “although the presumption about the identity (of the Palas with the Kambojas) is certainly a reasonable one, the evidence in favor of it can not be regarded as conclusive..” [36]. Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ...


See: Pala Dynasty vs Kamboja-Pala Dynasty' in Kamboja Dynasty of Bengal Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 10th/11th century: Kamboja. ...


It is plausible that the ancestors of the Palas may have settled settled in Vanga and later moved to Varendra (North Bengal) or Varendra which became the capital of the newly born empire during the reign of Gopala. Rajshahi is in Northwestern part of Bangladesh. ...


Matsyanyaya and the ascendancy of the Palas

After Shashanka Bengal was shrouded in obscurity and was shattered by repeated invasions. Jayavardhana of the Shaila Dynasty from Central India invaded Bengal and killed the king of Pundra (730 CE). Yasovarmana (725-752) of Kanauj killed the king of Magadha and Gauda. Later Lalitaditya (724-760) of Kashmir who defeated Yasovarmana invaded Bengal. Sri Harsha of Kamarupa conquered Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Odra. The social and political structure of Bengal was devastated. According to Lama Taranath: Every single Brahman, every Kshatriya, every Elite became all powerful in their areas and surrounding regions. This condition has been described by Taranath as Matsyanyam (Eating of small fish by the big fish) or the Dark Age of Bengal. Disgusted at the situation the desperate people of Bengal made a bold move which marked a glorious period in the history of the sub-continent. They elected Gopala, a popular military leader, as their king by a Democratic Election which was probably the only democratic election in medieval India. Shashanka (Bangla: শশাঙ্ক) is often attributed with creating the first unified political entity in Bengal. ... The geography of India is extremely diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, hills and plateaus. ... Events Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons. ... Events Births Deaths Wihtred, king of Kent Categories: 725 ... Events Pope Stephen II, pope for 3 days in March. ... Kanauj, or Kannauj, is an ancient city of Uttar Pradesh state of India (1991 pop. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Lalitaditya was emperor of Kashmir during 724-760. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Gensho of Japan Emperor Shomu succeeds to the throne of Japan. ... Events Maya civilization city of Dos Pilas is abandoned. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Kamarupa [from kama desire + rupa body, form] Metaphysically, and in our esoteric philosophy it is the subjective form created through the mental and physical desires and thoughts in connection with things of matter, by all sentient beings, a form which survives the death of their bodies. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Anga was a kingdom ruled by non Vedic rulers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Odra was a country located in the northern Orissa. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... The Dark Ages (or Dark Age) is a metaphor with multiple meanings and connotations. ... Gopala was an Indian mathematician, who studied the Fibonacci numbers in 1135, more than half a century before Fibonacci popularized these numbers in Europe. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... This article is about the political process. ...


Buddhism

Ruins of Nalanda University, which reached its height under the Palas
Ruins of Nalanda University, which reached its height under the Palas

After Harsha Vardhana, Buddhism faced the possibility of extinction. Buddhists were persecuted all over India and Buddhism was gradually being absorbed by Hinduism. The Palas emerged as the champion of Buddhism, and they patronized Mahayana Buddhism. The Pala universities of Vikramashila and Nalanda became seats of learning for East Asia. The famous university of Nalanda reached its height during the Pala empire. The Palas were responsible for the spread of Mahayana Buddhism in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and the Indonesian archipelago, and the fame of Bengal spread in the Buddhist world for the cultivation of Buddhist religion, culture and other knowledge in the various centres that grew under the patronage of the Pala rulers. Buddhist scholars from the Pala empire travelled from Bengal to the Far-East and propagated Buddhism. A few outstanding ones among them are Shantarakshit, Padmanava, Dansree, Bimalamitra, Jinamitra, Muktimitra, Sugatasree, Dansheel, Sambhogabajra, Virachan, Manjughosh and many others. But the most prominent was Atish Dipankar Srigyan who reformed Buddhism in Tibet after it had been destroyed by king Langdharma. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 200 KB) Shot by self in March, 2006, Nalanda, Bihar, India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 200 KB) Shot by self in March, 2006, Nalanda, Bihar, India. ... Remains at Nalanda Nalanda is a historical place in central Bihar, India, 90 km south-east of the state capital of Patna. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Vikramshila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... AtiÅ›a Dipankar (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist teacher who reintroduced pure Buddhism into Tibet. ...


Main Pala rulers

  • Gopala (750-770)
  • Dharmapala (770-810)
  • Devapala (810-850)
  • Shurapala/Mahendrapala (850 - 854)
  • Vigrahapala (854 - 855)
  • Narayanapala (855 - 908)
  • Rajyapala (908 - 940)
  • Gopala II (940-960)
  • Vigrahapala II (960 - 988)
  • Mahipala (988 - 1038)
  • Nayapala (1038 - 1055)
  • Vigrahapala III (1055 - 1070)
  • Mahipala II (1070 - 1075)
  • Shurapala II (1075 - 1077)
  • Ramapala (1077 - 1130)
  • Kumarapala (1130 - 1140)
  • Gopala III (1140 - 1144)
  • Madanapala (1144 - 1162)
  • Govindapala (1162 - 1174)
Pala Empire under Dharmapala
Pala Empire at its height under Devapala

Gopala (ruled 750 – 770) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal. ... Dharamapala (rule: 770 AD - 810 AD) was the second and very illustrious ruler of Bengal. ... Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. ... Mahipala I (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Pala_Empire_(Dharmapala). ... Image File history File links Pala_Empire_(Dharmapala). ...

Peace and Expansion

Gopala ended the period of anarchy by installing peace and prosperity in the country. Pala kings devoted themselves in public welfare and social reform. The Palas adopted the policy of religious toleration and co-existence of the Buddhists and the Hindus. Pala kings won the heart of the people by welfare activities like digging tanks establishing towns and took place in many folklores in the rural areas of Bengal. The Mahipala Geet (Songs of Mahipala) is still popular in the rural areas. Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Mahipala I (c. ...


Palas adopted aggressive policy and began a period of expansion. At its height Dharmapala's empire stretched from Bengal as far as Afghanistan. Devapala extended the boundaries of the empire further to Assam, Kamboja and the Southern tip of Deccan-the feat only achieved by Asoka. The successors of Devapala had to contend with the Gurjara-Pratihara and the Rashtrakutas for the supremacy of northern India. After Narayanpala the Pala empire declined but was revived by vigorous rules of Mahipala and Ramapala. For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... The Pratiharas (Hindi परतिहार pratihāra, also known as Parihars) ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... Mahipala I (c. ...


Pala administration

Pala rule was Monarchial.King or Monarch was the centre of all power. Pala kings would adopt titles like Parameshwar, paramvattaraka, Maharajadhiraja. Pala kings appointed Prime Ministers. The Line of Garga served as the Prime Ministers of the Palas for 10 years. Garga | Darvapani | Someshwar | Kedarmisra| Vatt Guravmisra Pala Empire was divided into separate Vuktis (Provinces), Vuktis into Vishaya(Divisions) and then Mandala (Districts)Pala. Smaller units were Khandala, Bhaga, Avritti, Chaturaka, and Pattaka. Administration covered widespread area from the grass root level to the imperial court. The Pala copperplates mention following administrative posts:Raja, Rajanyaka, Rajanaka, Ranaka, Samanta and Mahasamanta (Vassal kings), Mahasandhi-vigrahika (Foreign minister), Duta(Head ambassador), Rajasthaniya (Deputy), Aggaraksa (Chief guard), Sasthadhikrta (Tax collector), Chauroddharanika (Police tax), Shaulkaka (Trade tax), Dashaparadhika (Collector of penalties), and Tarika (Toll collector for river crossings),Mahaksapatalika (Accountant) Jyesthakayastha (Dealing documents), the Ksetrapa (Head of land use division) and Pramatr (Head of land measurements), the Mahadandanayaka or Dharmadhikara (Chief justice), the Mahapratihara, Dandika, Dandapashika, and Dandashakti (Police forces), Khola (Secret service), Agricultural posts like Gavadhakshya (Head of dairy farms), Chhagadhyakshya (Head of goat farms), Meshadyakshya (Head of sheep farms), Mahishadyakshya (Head of Buffalo farms) and many other like Vogpati, Vishayapati, Shashtadhikruta, Dauhshashadhanika, Nakadhyakshya(Aviation ministry?) etc.


Pala Literature

The proto-Bangla language was born during the reign of the Palas. The Buddhist texts of the Charyapada were the earliest form of Bangla language. This Proto-Bangla language was used as the official language in Tibet, Myanmar, Java and Sumatra. Books on every aspect of knowledge were compiled during the Pala Rule. On philosophy: Agaman Shastra by Gaudapada, Nyay Kundali by Sridhar Vatt, Karmanushthan Paddhati by Vatt Vabadeva; On Medicine: Chikitsa Sangraha, Ayurvedidwipika, Vanumati, Shabdachandrika, Dravya Gunasangraha by Chakrapani Dutt; Shabda-Pradip, Vrikkhayurveda, Lohpaddhati by Sureshwar; Chikitsa Sarsangraha by Vangasen; Sushrata by Gadadha Vaidya; Daybhaga, Byabohar-Matrika, Kalvivek by Jimutvahan etc. Atisha compiled more than 200 books. The great epic Ramacharitam written by Sandhyakar Nandi the court poet of Madanpala was another masterpiece of the Pala literature. The Pala copperplate inscriptions were of excellent literary value. This distinctive inscriptions were called Gaudya Style. Charyapada is the oldest known Bengali written form. ... Atiśa Dipamkara Shrijnana (Bangla: অতীশ দীপঙ্কর শ্রীজ্ঞান) (982 - 1054 CE) was a Buddhist teacher who reintroduced Buddhism into Tibet after King Langdharma had nearly destroyed it. ...


Pala art and architecture

Paharpur Vihara the greatest Buddhist Vihara in the sub-continent built by Dharmapala; UNESCO made it World Heritage Site in 1985

The most brilliant side of the Pala Empire was the excellence of its art and sculptures. Palas created a distinctive form of Buddhist art known as the "Pala School of Sculptural Art." The gigantic structures of Vikramshila Vihar, Odantpuri Vihar, and Jagaddal Vihar were masterpieces of the Palas. These mammoth structures were mistaken by the forces of Bakhtiar Khilji as fortified castles and were demolished. The Somapura Mahaviharaa, a creation of Dharmapala, at Paharpur, Bangladesh, is the largest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian subcontinent, and has been described as a "pleasure to the eyes of the world." UNESCO made it World Heritage Site in 1985. Sompur Bihara, also built by Dharmapala, is a monastery with 21 acre (85,000 m²) complex has 177 cells, numerous stupas, temples and a number of other ancillary buildings. In 1985, the UN included the Sompur Bihara site in the world Cultural Heritage list. The Pala architectural style was followed throughout south-eastern Asia and China, Japan, and Tibet. Bengal rightfully earned the name "Mistress of the East". Dr.Stella Kramrisch says: "The art of Bihar and Bengal exercised a lasting influence on that of Nepal, Burma,Ceylon and Java. Dhiman and Vittpala were two celebrated Pala sculptors. About Sompura Mahavihara, Mr.J.C. French says with grief: "For the research of the Pyramids of Egypt we spend millions of dollars every year. But had we spent only one percent of that money for the excavation of Sompura Mahavihara, who knows what extraordinary discoveries could have been made."---"The Art of the Pala Empire or Bengal," p.4. Image File history File links Paharpur_Vihara. ... Image File history File links Paharpur_Vihara. ... Paharpur is a ruined city in Bangladesh which was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. ... Vihara (विहार) is Sanskrit or Pali for (Buddhist) monastery. ... Vihara (विहार) is Sanskrit or Pali for (Buddhist) monastery. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article is about the year. ... Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji (Persian اختيار الدين محمد بن بختيار الخلجي), also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyaru l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji, was a Khilji, a Muslim Turk, who was head of the armies that conquered much of northeastern India. ... Paharpur is a ruined city in Bangladesh which was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article is about the year. ... Sompur Bihara is one of the most important archeological structures in Bangladesh. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the Java island. ... This is about the polyhedron. ...


Pala foreign relations

Palas came in contact with distant lands through their conquests and trades.The Sailendra Empire of Java, Sumatra and Malaya was a colony of the Palas. Devapala granted five villages at the request of the Sailendra king Balputradeva of Java for the upkeepment of the matha established at Nalanda for the scholars of that country. The Prime minister of the Balputradeva was from Gauda. Dharmapala who extended his empire to the boundary of the Abbasid Empire had diplomatic relations with the caliph Harun Al-Rashid. Coins of Harun-al-Rashid have been found in Mahasthangarh. Palas maintained diplomatic and religious relation with Tibet. During the military expeditions of the Pala kings the Pala generals would establish kingdoms of their own in Punjab and Afghanistan. "When the writer (Mr.French) was in the Punjab hill states recently he came across a curious and unexpected echo of the Pal Dynasty. There is a strong and continuous tradition that the ruling families in certain states are descended from the "Rajas of Gaur in Bengal". These states are Suket, Keonthal, Kashtwar and Mandi. In the ancient Rajput states tradition has immense force and accuracy. Of Kashtwar it is related that Kahan pal — the founder of the state — with a small band of followers arrived in the hills in order to conquer a kingdom for himself. He is said to have come from Gaur, the ancient capital of Bengal and to have been a cadet of the ruling family of the place."---"The Art of Pal Empire". p.19. The demise of the Turkshahi rule in Gandhar and the rise of the Hindushahi dynasty in that region might have connection to the invasion of the Palas in that region. Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... This article is about the Java island. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. ... A maÅ£ha (also written math, matha or mutt) is a term for monastic and similar religious establishments of the Hindu and Jain traditions. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Ramparts of Mahasthangarh citadel Mahasthangarh (Bangla: মহাস্থানগড়) is the earliest urban archaeological site so far discovered in Bangladesh. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Suket is a census town in Kota district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Keonthal, covering an area of 482 sq km, was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. ... Mandi is the central district of Himachal Pradesh. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... , Gaur, or Gour, as it is spelt mostly in modern times, or Laknauti is a ruined city, in the Malda district of West Bengal, India, on the west bank of the Ganges river, 40 kilometers downstream from Rajmahal. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... Gandhar is a gotra or clan of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh in India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Pala armed forces

Pala empire in comparison with other contemporary empires.
Pala empire in comparison with other contemporary empires.

Palas had fourfold army consisting of: Infantry, Cavalry, Elephants and Chariots. In the copperplates of Vatsaraja Dharmapala had been mentioned as the owner of unlimited number of Horses, Elephants and Chariots. It is amazing that when the use of chariots had been backdated in India and other parts of the world the kings of Bengal still depended on four-horsed heavy chariots. Being a riverine land and swarthy climate Bengal was not good enough for breeding quality war-horses. So the Palas had to depend upon their vassal kins for war horses. Pala copperplate inscriptions reveal that mercenary forces were recruited from the Kamboja, Khasa, Huna, Malwa, Laat(Gujarat), Karnata. The Kamboja cavalry was the cream of the Pala army who later would become as powerful as the Janissary army of the Ottoman Empire. The Kamboja forces maintained smaller confederates (Sanghas) among themselves and were staunch follower of their commander. Palas had the army divided into following posts: Senapati or Mahasenapati (General) controlling foot soldiers, cavalry, soldiers riding elephants and camels, and the navy, and the various army posts like Kottapala (Fort guards) and Prantapala (Border guards). Palas had a huge army and the legend of "Nava Lakkha Shainya" (Nine lac soldiers) were popular during the reigns of dharmapala and Devapala. According to Hudud al-Alam a Persian text written in 982-983 Dharmapala possessed an army of 300,000 soldiers. According to Sulaiman the Arab traveller Devapala set out for his every military expedition with an army of 50,000 elephants and his army had 10,000-15,000 slaves for the maintenance and caretaking of his armies. Image File history File links Indian_Kanauj_triangle_map. ... Image File history File links Indian_Kanauj_triangle_map. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... For the torpedo-shaped underwater vehicle ridden by two frogmen, sometimes referred to as a chariot, see Human torpedo. ... Vatsaraja (775-805) was an Indian king belonging to the dynasty of the Pratiharas. ... Dharamapala (rule: 770 AD - 810 AD) was the second and very illustrious ruler of Bengal. ... War horses are horses specially trained for use in battle or individual combat (see also: Jousting). ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... The Khasas are an ancient people, believed to be a section of the Iranians who originally belonged to Central Asia from where they had penetrated, in remote antiquity, the Himalayas from Central Asia through Kashgar and Kashmir and dominated the whole hilly region. ... Huna is a Hawaiian word first used by Max Freedom Long in 1936 to describe what he called “the secret science behind the miracles” that ancient Hawaiian kahuna (experts) performed. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... The profession of breeding, domesticating, training and utilizing the horses in warfare had originated in the vast Steppes of Central Asia. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Hudud ul-alam min al-mashriq ila al-maghrib (حدود العالم من المشرق الی المغرب) meaning The Limits of The World from The East to The West is a Persian tenth century geography book written by an unknown author. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


Legacy

Palas legacy gets remembered not much in Bengal but elsewhere. Tibet's modern culture and religion is heavily influenced by Palas. Palas are credited with spreading Buddhism to Tibet and around the world through missionaries. Atisa, a Palan, is a celebrated figure in the Tibetan Buddhism in tradition and in establishment. Atisa also invented bodhichitta or known as "mind training" that is practiced around the world today. Another important Palan figure in Tibetan Buddhism is Tilopa who founded the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism and developed the Mahamudra method, a set of spiritual practices that greatly accelerated the process of attaining bodhi (enlightenment). Palas literature is widely studied by Buddhist around the world. Pala architectural style was copied throughout south-eastern Asia and China, Japan, and Tibet. Nalanda Universities and Vikramshila Universities are two of the biggest and greatest Buddhist universities ever recorded in history. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Atisha was a Buddhist teacher who brought Mind Training teaching from Sumatra to India and then transmitted it to Tibet, founding one of the major strands of Tibetan Buddhism. ... In Buddhist thought, bodhicitta (Ch. ... Tilopa (Tibetan; Sankrit: Talika, 988 - 1069) was an Indian tantric practitioner, regarded as the human founder of the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Mahāmudrā (Sanskrit: great seal or great symbol), (Tibetan: Chagchen, Wylie: phyag chen, contraction of Chagya Chenpo, Wylie: phyag rgya chen po), is a Buddhist method of direct introduction to the nature and essence of Mind (or Buddha-nature) and the practice of stabilizing the accompanying transcendental realization. ... Bodhi (बोधि) is the Pāli and Sanskrit word for the awakened or knowing consciousness of a fully liberated yogi, generally translated into English as enlightenment. It is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root budh (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand), corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (P... This article is about the ancient town and university. ... Vikramshila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University. ...

Preceded by
Gupta dynasty
Bengal dynasty Succeeded by
Sena dynasty
Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms

 6th century BCE
 5th century BCE
 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
 2nd century BCE

 1st century BCE
 1st century CE


 2nd century
 3rd century
 4th century
 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...







The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks


(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...

References

  • Mahajan, V.D. (1960, Reprint 2007), Ancient India, S. Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6.

References

  1. ^ The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir ..., 1939, p 37, Jhunu Bagchi - History.
  2. ^ See also: Indian Antiquary, Vol IV, 1875, pp 365-66; Corpus of Bengal Inscriptions, Mukerjee and Maity, p 11; Caste and Chronology of the Pala kings of Bengal, J. C. Ghosh, The Indian Historical Quarterly, IX, 1983, pp 487-90; The Caste of the Palas, The Indian Culture, Vol IV, 1939, pp 113-14, B Chatterji; Social Change in Modern India, 1995, p 9, M N Srinivas; Modern India: An Interpretive Antholog, 1971, p 115, Thomas R. Metcalf - History.
  3. ^ Indian Culture, 1934, p 113, Indian Research Institute - India; Paradise of Gods, 1966, p 174, Qamarud Din Ahmed - West Pakistan (Pakistan).
  4. ^ "The Palas were at first known as Sudras. With the rise of their power they began to claim a Ksatria lineage"(Indian Culture, 1934, p 113, Indian Research Institute - India.
  5. ^ Akhbar, p 13, Sauveget; Studies in The Geography of the Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 145, Dr D. C. Sircar.
  6. ^ Ibid, Jhunnu Bagchi.
  7. ^ Epigraphia Indica, Vol IV, p 243ff; Gaudalekhamala, p 9, A. K. Maitreya.
  8. ^ Ramachrita I.17.
  9. ^ Ibid, Jhunnu Bagchi.
  10. ^ Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs, 1934, p 307, Dr Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India).
  11. ^ A Socio-political and Economic Study, Northern India, 1990, p 63.
  12. ^ Prabha Chandra Sen has tried to reconcile the two theories of the "Solar origin" and "Samudrakula (Ocean) origin" by saying that Samudra was son of the illustrious Pauranic king Sagara of Kosala (A Socio-political and Economic Study, Northern India, 1990, p 63, Jai Narayan Asopa). But son of Sagara was Asamanja and not Samudra (See: Geneology of Ikshvaku in Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, 1922, p 147, Dr P. E. Pargiter). Moreover, why did the Pala lineage not start from king Sagara, father of Samudra, who was very illustrious in the line of the Ikshvakus, rather than the little known Samudra? Obviously, the hypothesis is unconvincing and has no value at all.
  13. ^ See: The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir ..., 1993, p 37, Jhunu Bagchi
  14. ^ The Early History of Bengal: From the Earliest Times to the Muslim Conquest, 1993, p 33, Pramode Lal Paul - Bengal (India).
  15. ^ A Socio-political and Economic Study, Northern India , 1990, p 62, Jai Narayan Asopa - India; Cf: Indian Culture, 1934, p 797, Indian Research Institute - India.
  16. ^ Indian Culture, 1934, p 113, Indian Research Institute.
  17. ^ See: Gaudalekhamala, pp 127-146, A. K. Maitreya.
  18. ^ See some refs: Epigraphia Indica, XXIV, p 43, Dr N. G. Majumdar; The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir ..., 1003, p 37, Jhunu Bagchi - History; The Dacca University Studies, 1935, p 131, University of Dacca; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 316, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Late Classical India, 1988, p 25, Mainak Kumar Bose - India; History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, p 427, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar - Bengal (India).
  19. ^ Dr D. R. Bhandarkar, Dr Buddha Parkash.
  20. ^ Bryant cites Hesychius (6th century CE): "MiqraV o hlioV para PersaiV" ("Mithras, the sun of Persia") and "MiqrhV o protoV en PersaiV QeoV" ("Mithres, the first god in Persia."). Hesychius thus confirms not only the solar nature but also the /Persian/ origin of Mithra, still known in his day.
  21. ^ The priests of Mithra, and of Iranian Sun and Fire worship in general, were the Magi or Magas. The Magas entered India on a number of occasions over a period of centuries, prior to and during the common era. At this point, Indian Sun worship became increasingly formalized, with elaborate rituals, temples and images sprouting up and from the 6th century CE onward, royal names began to have "Mihira" (Mithra) in them after a millennium of integration (or reintegration) into Indian culture.
  22. ^ Op cit., p 37, Jhunu Bagchi; Indian Antiquary, Vol IV, 1875, pp 365-66; Corpus of Bengal Inscriptions, Mukerjee and Maity, p 11; Caste and Chronology of the Pala kings of Bengal, J. C. Ghosh, The IHQ, IX, 1983, pp 487-90; The Caste of the Palas, The Indian Culture, Vol IV, 1939, pp 113-14, B Chatterji; Social Change in Modern India, 1995, p 9, M N Srinivas; Modern India: An Interpretive Antholog, 1971, p 115, Thomas R. Metcalf - History.
  23. ^ Manusmriti X.43-44; Mahabharata 13.33.20-21, Harivamsa 14.1-19 etc etc.
  24. ^ Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1990, p 265, André Wink; History of Medieval India, 1940, p 20, fn, Ishwari Prasad - India.
  25. ^ This is usual interpretation.
  26. ^ According to second interpretation, the Palas have also been conjectured to be from the Kamboja lineage and the Rajyapala II of the so-called Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Kamboja-vamsa-tilaka Rajayapla of the Irda Copper Plate may have been one and the same historical per4sonage as Dr N. G. Majumdar, Dr Chandra Chakraberty and some other scholars have surmised. This assumption may lead to different interpretation of the Dinajpore Inscription and hence to a new Pala and Kamboja identity.
  27. ^ See: The Early History of Bengal: From the Earliest Times to the Muslim Conquest, 1939, p 82, Pramode Lal Paul - Bengal (India).
  28. ^ See: The Modern Review, 1937, pp 323-24, N. G. Majumdar; See also: Quotation by Dr H. C. Ray, Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, December 1939, p 110, fn 11; Also quoted by Dr J. L. Kamboja in his Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 323; Quoted in: 'The Modern Review, 1907, p 440, by Ramananda Chatterjee - India; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 508-09.
  29. ^ See: The Racial History of India, 1944, p 834, Chandra Chakraberty - Ethnology.
  30. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 316-17; Dr J. L. Kamboj; See also Quotation of Dr H. C. Ray, Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, December 1939, p 110, fn 11, quoted by Dr J. L. Kamboja in his Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 323.
  31. ^ Quoted in: 'The Modern Review, 1907, p 440, by Ramananda Chatterjee - India.
  32. ^ See: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 511; Indian Historical Quarterly, XV-4, December 1939, p 110, fn 11, Dr H. C. Ray
  33. ^ The Modern Review, 1907, p 324, Ramananda Chatterjee - India.
  34. ^ Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 356, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavarti Sastri - Kamboja (Pakistan); See also: The Modern Review, 1907, p 324, Dr Ramananda Chatterjee.
  35. ^ The History of Bengal, Vol I, p 127 Dr R. C. Majumdar
  36. ^ History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, p 172, Dr R. C. Majumdar - Bengal (India); cf: Dacca University Studies, Vol I, No 2, p 131; ff.

See also

This article is about the ancient town and university. ... Gopala (ruled 750 – 770) was the founder of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal. ... Atisha was a Buddhist teacher who brought Mind Training teaching from Sumatra to India and then transmitted it to Tibet, founding one of the major strands of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Dharamapala (rule: 770 AD - 810 AD) was the second and very illustrious ruler of Bengal. ... Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. ... Mahipala I (c. ... Sompur Bihara is one of the most important archeological structures in Bangladesh. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 10th/11th century: Kamboja. ...

External links

  • Pala Empire from Banglapedia
  • Pala Sculpture from Banglapedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pala Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (692 words)
The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the Bihar and Bengal regions of South Asia from the 8th to the 12th century.
The Palas intermarried with Gahadvalas of the Kannauj region.
It is plausible that the ancestors of the Palas originated from Vanga and later settled in Varendra(North Bengal) or Varendra became the capital of the newly born empire during the reign of Gopala.
Maurya Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5842 words)
The Mauryan Empire was perhaps the greatest empire to rule the Indian subcontinent until the arrival of the British.
The assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for Buddhists, and a resurgence of Hinduism.
Whereas both empires recognized the ruler and his ministers as the basis of social order, the first great emperor of India recognized that he had a dharma (duty) to protect his people; his reign was not supported by brute force alone.
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