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Encyclopedia > Pakistani Nationalism
Flag of Pakistan.

Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural and religious expression of patriotism by peoples of Pakistan, of pride in the history and heritage of Pakistan, and visions for its future. It also refers to the consciousness and expression of religious and ethnic influences that help mould the national consciousness. Image File history File links Gtk-dialog-info. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOV Wikipedia policy is that all articles should be written from a neutral point of view. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore The culture of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان ), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistans provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. ...


Nationalism describes the many underlying forces that moulded the Pakistan movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of Pakistan. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ... In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ...


From a political point of view and in the years leading up to the Partition of India, the particular political and ideological foundations for the actions of the Muslim League can be called a Pakistani nationalist ideology. It is a unique and singular combination of philosophical, nationalistic, cultural and religious elements. This article is under construction. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ...

Contents

National consciousness in Pakistan

See Also: History of Pakistan A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ...


The history of Pakistan and the region in which it now lies is a source of great pride to Pakistani nationalists. They take pride in its achievements and its leaders.


Islamic invasions

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Please see the discussion on the talk page.

Pakistani nationalists assert that Pakistan is the successor state of Islamic empires and kingdoms that ruled the region for almost a combined period of one millennium, the empires and kingdoms in order are Abbasid, Ghaznavid Empire, Ghorid Kingdom, Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. Pakistan's imperial past composes possibly the largest segment of Pakistani nationalism. Pakistan today celebrates numerous Muslim kings and emperors for wars of "liberation" and "emancipation" such as Muhammad bin Qasim(not a king or emperor, but the commander of the first Muslim force sent to what was then known as Sindh), Muhammad of Ghaur, Mahmud of Ghazni (who defeated the Hindu king Prithviraj Chauhan), Aurangzeb Alamgir[citation needed] and Tipu Sultan who fought the British. However, few, if any, of the Kings mentioned above belonged to the region comprising modern day Pakistan. Pakistan as a region was lorded over by either Hindu/Sikh Kingdoms or Muslim invaders from Afghanistan, Persia before the British Empire. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A millennium (pl. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Muhammad of Ghor (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also Muhammad Ghori or Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Muizz-ad-din, b. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Muhammad of Ghor (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also Muhammad Ghori or Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Muizz-ad-din, b. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Prithviraj III (1165?-1192) was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chahamana) dynasty. ... Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (November 3, 1618 - March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ...

Mahmud and Ayaz
The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. The figure to his right is Shah Abbas I who reigned about 600 years later.
Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Tehran

Pakistani nationalists hold the conservative Muslim kings such as Mahmud of Ghazni and Aurangzeb in high esteem, Aurangzeb for his unflinching use of vast military might in his goals, leaves him as one of the most admired and honored figures in Pakistani nationalism. He ruled for a period of 48 years; he also expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest zenith, leaving only the south and east of the Indian subcontinent free from Mughal rule, During his reign, many Non Muslim places of worship were defaced and destroyed, and many non-Muslims converted to Islam, the jizya was reinstated during his rule. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x740, 588 KB) Summary The Sultan (in red robe) is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz (in green robe) standing behind him. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x740, 588 KB) Summary The Sultan (in red robe) is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz (in green robe) standing behind him. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ...


Pakistani nationalists conjure a revised version of Aurangzeb and take great pride in Aurangzeb's other actions[1] including the edicts he enacted which forbade Hindus to display illuminations at Diwali festivals. Hindu religious fairs were outlawed in 1668. The following year, he prohibited construction of new Hindu temples as well as the repair of existing ones. In 1671 Aurangzeb issued an order that only Muslims could be landlords of crown lands. He ordered provincial Viceroys to dismiss all Hindu clerks. Of particular pride to Pakistani nationalists[citation needed] is the execution of Guru Teg Bahadur who was the ninth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism. The event is very significant in Sikhism. From the start of his reign up until his death, Aurangzeb engaged in almost constant warfare, which bankrupted the Mughal coffers. He built up a massive army, and began a program of military expansion at all the boundaries of his empire.[citation needed] Muhammad bin Qasim, and Mahmud of Ghazni amongst numerous other Emperors and Kings are revered by Pakistani nationalists. Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... Diwali, also called Deepavali, is a major Indian festival that is very significant in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...

The Badshahi Mosque built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan.

However liberal Muslim kings to an extent are also part of Pakistani pride. Akbar was a powerful Mughal emperor who admired Hinduism and tried to repudiate fundamentalism through the Din-i-Ilahi (for which he was condemned by orthodox clerics as a "heretic"), forged familial and political bonds with Hindu Rajput kings, and developed for the first time in medieval Pakistan an environment of religious freedom. Akbar undid most forms of religious discrimination, and invited the participation of wise Hindu ministers and kings, and even religious scholars in his court. In his reign, the Mughal Empire was politically powerful, prosperous and its common people secure. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second largest city in Pakistan. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Rajput is a Hindu Kshatriya caste. ...


The main Mughal contribution to South Asia was their unique architecture. Many monuments were built during the mughal era including the Taj Mahal. The were known for their replacement of Hindu architecture, including the Kashi Viswanath Temple,[2] with their unique architecture which today is a key site of tourism around the subcontinent. Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... Kashi Vishwanath temple is one of the most famous Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Shiva and is in the holy city of Varanasi, India. ...


The first Mughal emperor Babur wrote in the Bāburnāma: Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Bāburnāma (Chaghatay/Persian: ‎ ; literally: Book of Babur or Letters of Babur) are the memoirs of Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad Bābur (1483-1530), the founder of the Mughal Empire and the great-great-great-grandson of Timur. ...

Hindustan is a place of little charm. There is no beauty in its people, no graceful social intercourse, no poetic talent or understanding, no etiquette, nobility or manliness. The arts and crafts have no harmony or symmetry. There are no good horses, meat, grapes, melons or other fruit. There is no ice, cold water, good food or bread in the markets. There are no baths and no madrasas. There are no candles, torches or candlesticks".[3]

The comments made by the Emperor Babur, echo in the slightest terms the disparaging and often hateful opinion that some Pakistani nationalists have towards Hindustan and in particular to Hindus. Pakistani nationalists believe they, as Muslims, are not referred to in this quote, as most Pakistanis believe themselves to be aligned to the Mughals as opposed to the Hindu or Sikh resistance (such as that of Maratha Empire and the Sikh Confederacy). Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... The Sikh Confederacy (from 1716-1799) was a collection of small to medium sized political Sikh states, which were governed by barons, in Punjab. ...


Renaissance vision

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

See Also: Syed Ahmed Khan, Indian rebellion of 1857 Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur, GCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان بہا در; October 17, 1817 – March 27, 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian educator and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... Combatants East India Company Sepoys, some princely states, Indian civilians in some areas. ...

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817 - 1898)
Sir Muhammad Iqbal is considered a major influence on Pakistani pride for embracing Nietzsche's concept of Übermensch, which is reflected in Iqbal's descriptions of ego, self and renewal for Muslim civilization.

Syed Ahmed Khan promoted Western-style education in Muslim society, seeking to uplift Muslims in the economic and political life of British India. He founded the Aligarh Muslim University, then called the Anglo-Oriental College. Image File history File links Sir_Syed1. ... Image File history File links Sir_Syed1. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Muhammad Iqbal Categories: Pakistani public domain photographs | Images of people ... File links The following pages link to this file: Muhammad Iqbal Categories: Pakistani public domain photographs | Images of people ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur, GCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان بہا در; October 17, 1817 – March 27, 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian educator and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University was established by the Indian Muslims and the Act of Indian Parliament made it University. ...


In 1835 Lord Macaulay's minute recommending that Western rather than Oriental learning predominate in the East India Company's education policy had led to numerous changes. In place of Arabic and Persian Western languages, history and philosophy were taught at state-funded schools and universities whilst religious education was barred. English became not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835 in place of Persian, disadvantaging those who had built their careers around the latter language. Traditional Islamic studies were no longer supported by the state, and some madrasahs lost their waqf or endowment. The War of Independence 1857 is held by nationalists to have ended in disaster for the Muslims, as Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal, was deposed. Power over the Indian subcontinent was passed from the East India Company to the British Crown. The removal of the last symbol of continuity with the Mughal period spawned a negative attitude amongst some Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community. Thomas Macaulay The Right Honourable Thomas Babington (or Babbington) Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (October 25, 1800 - December 28, 1859) was a nineteenth century British poet, historian and Whig politician. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Combatants East India Company Sepoys, some princely states, Indian civilians in some areas. ... Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ...


Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress within the Muslim community of India. He was convinced that the Muslims in their attempt to regenerate themselves, had failed to realize the fact that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e., an era of science and learning. He knew that the realization of the very fact was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for regeneration of the Indian Muslims. He tried to transform the Muslim outlook from a medieval one to a modern one.


Sir Syed's first and foremost objective was to acquaint the British with the Indian mind; his next goal was to open the minds of his countrymen to European literature, science and technology.


Therefore, in order to attain these goals, Sir Syed launched the Aligarh Movement of which Aligarh was the center. He had two immediate objectives in mind: to remove the state of misunderstanding and tension between the Muslims and the new British government, and to induce them to go after the opportunities available under the new regime without deviating in any way from the fundamentals of their faith.


At the same time, Muslim nationalist leaders like Sir Muhammad Iqbal emphasized the spiritual richness of Islam and Islamic philosophy. Sir Muhammad Iqbal the conceptual founder of Pakistan, Is venerated by Pakistani and Muslim nationalists for implicitly endorsing the incompatibility of Muslims with other religious communities. Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Pakistani nationalists applaud Iqbal's vision for a Muslim state as specifically implying the denunciation of Hindus and Hinduism.[4][5] Iqbal is also strongly venerated for advocating on occasions, the division and fragmentation of India, which ultimately led to Partition of India. This article is under construction. ...


Iqbal is widely credited for his work in encouraging the political rejuvenation and empowerment of Muslims, and as a great poet not only in India and Pakistan, but also in Iran and Muslim nations in the Middle East. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

"There is only one way out. Muslims should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it, our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defence of our national existence. ... The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League. And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims."[6] The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ...

Independence of India

In the Indian rebellion of 1857, Muslim soldiers and regional kings fought the forces allied with the British Empire in different parts of British Indian Empire. The war arose from a racialist viewpoint on the part of the British who attacked the "Beastly customs of Indians" by forcing the South Asian soldiers to handle Enfield P-53 gun cartridges greased with lard taken from slaughtered pigs and tallow taken from slaughtered cows. The cartridges had to bitten open to use the gunpowder, effectively meaning that sepoys would have to bite the lard and tallow. This was a manifestation of the disregard that the British exhibited to Muslim and Hindu religious traditions, such as the rejection of Pork in Islam, the rejection of Beef in Hinduism and the mandate of vegetarianism in Hinduism. There were also some kingdoms and peoples who supported the British. This event laid the foundation not only for a nationwide expression, but also future nationalism and conflict on religious and ethnic terms. The Indian independence struggle incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Combatants East India Company Sepoys, some princely states, Indian civilians in some areas. ... Combatants East India Company Sepoys, some princely states, Indian civilians in some areas. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the fat. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal (including sea animals) with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs[1]. Some vegetarians also choose to refrain from wearing clothing that has involved the death...


The Muslim desire for complete freedom, or Azadi, was born with Kernal Sher Khan, who looked to the glories of Muslim history and heritage, and condemned the fall of Muslims from the ruling elite to subservient citizens of the British Empire. The idea of complete independence did not catch on until after World War I, when the British attempted to exert totalitarian power with the Rowlatt Acts of 1919. When the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar, Punjab (India) of hundreds of unarmed and innocent civilians by British forces took place in the same year, the Muslim public was outraged and most of the Muslim political leaders turned against the British. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ...


The Pakistan Movement

Main Articles: Pakistan Movement, Muslim League, Partition of India, Two-Nation Theory, Jinnah, Sir Muhammad Iqbal, Direct Action Day Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is under construction. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Direct Action Day, also known as the Affirmative Action Plan, the Calcutta Riots, the Great Calcutta killings, and The Week of the Long Knives [1][2], started on August 16, 1946. ...

Sir Muhammad Iqbal with Choudhary Rahmat Ali and other Muslim activists of the Pakistan Movement.

Jinnah issued a call for all Muslims to launch "Direct Action" on August 16, 1946 to "achieve Pakistan".[7]. Jinnah stated that: Image File history File links Iqbal-RahmatAli. ... Image File history File links Iqbal-RahmatAli. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Choudhary Rahmat Ali (Urdu: چودھری رحمت علی) (or Rehmat Ali Khan; Urdu: رحمت علی خان) (November 16, 1897 - February 12, 1951) was an Indian Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Why do you expect me alone to sit with folded hands? I also am going to make trouble. We shall have India divided or we shall have India destroyed[8]

Strikes and protests were planned, but violence broke out all over India, especially in Calcutta and the district of Noakhali in Bengal, and more than 7,000 people were killed in Bihar. Although viceroy Lord Wavell asserted that there was "no satisfactory evidence to that effect",[9] Muslim League politicians were alleged to be behind the violence.[10] The violence began as the Muslim League, who were controlling the state in that period, declared that they would have a public holiday and the police and military will not interfere in any events that day. The Muslim League Chief Minister told Muslim protesters that the military and police had been 'restrained'. This was interpreted by the gathering as an open invitation to commit violence on the Hindus. Subsequently, there were reports of lorries (trucks) that came thundering down Harrison Road in Calcutta, carrying Muslim men armed with brickbats and bottles as weapons and attacking Hindu shops.[11] Most victims of the resulting murders were Hindus.[11] This is the first day that Pakistanis distinguished themselves as a separate political entity than Hindus. This was followed by the Noakhali Massacre, in which Muslims decided to kill all Hindus so as to proclaim Pakistan. The death toll is estimated to be in the thousands, with 50-75 thousand Hindus ethnically cleansed from the region.[12] This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Noakhali is a district in South-eastern Bangladesh. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in north India. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ...


During the fight for an independent Pakistan, the Hindu minority were targeted by Muslims. Most of them were killed and beaten, and their properties were destroyed. Hindu women were abducted and raped. Often, members of the Muslims mob would kill Hindus and force their widows to marry them at gunpoint.[13].Many Hindu temples were looted and destroyed. Hindus were forced to throw deities into the Ganges river and Muslim mobs forced them to consume beef, which is disallowed in Hinduism[11] This was an elemental force in allowing Pakistani independence, with Hindus fearing complete eradication if they were not to give an independent Pakistan. This is also one of the first direct actions by people who could call themselves Pakistani nationalists. In fact, these nationalists shouted slogans like ‘League Zindabad’ (long live the Muslim league), ‘Pakistan Zindabad’ (long live Pakistan), ‘Larke Lenge Pakistan’ (we will create Pakistan by fighting), ‘Marke Lenge Pakistan’ (we will create Pakistan by killing)[14] Another evidence of a separate Pakistan could be noted here when Gandhi asked for non-violence. Hindus, did not fight back, while Muslims chose to ignore Gandhi's wishes as he was no longer their leader.[15][16] Jinnah's calls of Direct Action resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of Hindus, with conversions of many more thousand. It was a major victory for Pakistani nationalists, who were well on their way to achieving their goal of an independent Pakistan. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


After a conference in December 1946 in London, the League entered the interim government, but Jinnah refrained from accepting office for himself. This was credited as a major victory for Jinnah, as the League entered government having rejected both plans, and was allowed to appoint an equal number of ministers despite being the minority party. The coalition was unable to work, resulting in a rising feeling within the Congress that partition was the only way of avoiding political chaos and possible civil war. The Congress agreed to the partition of Punjab and Bengal along religious lines in late 1946. The new viceroy Lord Mountbatten and Indian civil servant V. P. Menon proposed a plan that would create a Muslim dominion in West Punjab, East Bengal, Baluchistan and Sindh. After heated and emotional debate, the Congress approved the plan, National leaders like Liaquat Ali Khan, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Choudhary Rahmat Ali, and the Aga Khan, brought together generations of Muslims across regions and demographics, while forcing non-Muslim Punjabis and Sindhis out of the region, and provided a strong leadership base giving the country political direction. Pakistan became a purely Muslim nation created by Pakistani nationalists, any Hindus or Sikhs were killed if they decided not to leave Pakistan. This resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Sikhs and the formation of a pure Muslim state. The goal of Pakistan had been achieved and the Hindu community in the region, which made up one quarter of the population before partition, had been separated from the community of distinctly Pakistani nationalists. Pakistani nationalists could celebrate Yom-e-Istiglal, the creation of their state. The name Pakistan also provides pride of nationalists, while it was based on the names of regions, the word Pak in Persian denotes pure, thus Pakistan was called the Land of the Pure. Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Vapal Pangunni Menon was an Indian civil servant who played a vital role in the Partition of India and the integration of independent India, during the period 1945-1950. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Abdur Rab Nishtar Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 - 14th February 1958) Muslim League stalwart and Pakstan movement activist Sardar Nishtar was born in Peshawar, NWFP. He completed his early education mission school and later Sanatan Dharram High School in Peshawar. ... Choudhary Rahmat Ali (Urdu: چودھری رحمت علی) (or Rehmat Ali Khan; Urdu: رحمت علی خان) (November 16, 1897 - February 12, 1951) was an Indian Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan. ... This article is about the hereditary title. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Pakistans independence day (also known as Yom-e-Istiqlal (Urdu: یوم استقلال) or Yaum-e-Azadi) is observed on 14 August, the day on which Pakistan became independent from British rule within then what was known as the British Raj in 1947. ...


Ethnic Nationalism in Pakistan

Pakistan's Balochi populations are strongly nationalistic and have their own ethnic identity as do most of Pakistan's major ethnic groups. Some groups within them wish to secede from the country and form their own separate states and have been aided and assisted by foreign governments. Nawab Akbar Bugti of Balochistan had expressed the need for Balochistan to separate and formed the separatist Balochistan Liberation Army to that effect, alleging that the Pakistani governments had been biased in favor of the Punjabi and Sindhi ethnic groups. He was killed in military action by Pakistan's forces in 2006, but many Balochi continue to support him. The majority of Baloch, however are content within Pakistan but yearn for greater autonomy and more provincial development and a greater share of national funds to bring the province at par with the rest of the country. Many Baloch irredentist movements have been inspired and supported by the Baloch from Iran and Afghanistan (countries where Baloch are trying to achieve independence). now. ... The Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) is a organization dedicated to fighting for the independence of Balochistan. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Pushtun people of the North Western Frontier province also have a unique ethnic identity. The former Taliban regime in nearby Afghanistan enjoys significant support here, both in recent times and during the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan, the support reflecting in their aid to the Mujahideen. Pashtuns are disproportionately represented in all sphere's of Pakistan be it the beauracracy, business, police force, civil service and the all powerful Pakistan Army. Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are an extremist fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States and the Northern Alliance. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: , ; Turkish: , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ...


However, despite nationalistic feelings many ethnic groups have often felt alienated by what they see as "Punjabization of Pakistan", due to the domination of the Punjabi groups due to their overal larger population.[1] This extreme version of Pakistani nationalism is often attributed to the tensions among the different ethic and linguistic groups despite an Islamic majority. The secession of East Pakistan is largely blamed on such a "Punjabization" but many also claim the imposition of "Urdu" (language of the migrant community which held much clout in the country up to the mid 70's) was the key catalyst in encouraging Bengal seperatism. Many in Bengal felt betrayed by such a "muslim nationalism" and Urdu imposition which soon proved futile, [2] paving the way for Bengali nationalism. East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


Many indigenous Pakistani's also reject the imposition and state support towards the language of Urdu seeing it as a foreign language imported along with the migrant community (Mohajir) that arrived from India and quickly came to dominate the government and policy making. They cite the exclusiveness during the early years of Pakistan that the Urdu speakers (refugees) practiced in favouring fellow co-linguists over native Pakistani's. Many blame this policy for failing to bring cohesion and interprovincial harmony within the country. Others point to the fact that the policy of the newly arrived refugees is what catalyzed and marginalized the inhabitants of East Pakistan to secede from the federation. Critics point to the fact that no where in the world has the language of a refugee population been established as a national language over that of the indigenous population. Urdu continues to be Pakistan's national language but has undergone considerable changes over the years acquiring a particularly 'Pakistani flavour' with the incorporation of more and more grammar and prose from Pakistan's many indigenous languages (eg. Pashto, Panjabi, Sindhi, Balochi etc.) Muhajir is an Arabic word, widely used in the Muslim world that refers to someone who has emigrated from one place to another. ...


Nationalist mausoleums, shrines and symbols

Mausoleum of M.A Jinnah is frequently visited by Pakistani nationalists, It is a national symbol of Pakistan.
The Mausoleum of Iqbal, next to Badshahi Masjid, Lahore, Pakistan

Pakistan has many shrines, sights, sounds and symbols that have significance to Pakistani nationalists. These include the Shrines of Political leaders of pre-independence and post-independence Pakistan, Shrines of Religious leaders and Saints, The Shrines of Imperial leaders of various Islamic Empires and Dynasties, as well as national symbols and sounds of Pakistan. Some of these shrines, sights and symbols have become a places of Pilgrimage for Pakistani ultra-nationalism and militarism, as well as for obviously religious purposes. Mausoleum of M.A Jinnah is frequently visited by Pakistani nationalists, It is a national symbol of Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Mazare_Quaid. ... Image File history File links Mazare_Quaid. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1712, 368 KB)Image Info: Description: Allama Iqbals tomb I, user Pale blue dot, real name, Ali Imran, am the creator of this image, and am licensing this image under GFDL & cc-by-sa-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1712, 368 KB)Image Info: Description: Allama Iqbals tomb I, user Pale blue dot, real name, Ali Imran, am the creator of this image, and am licensing this image under GFDL & cc-by-sa-2. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Masjid (بادشاەى مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second largest city in Pakistan. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ...


Nationalism and politics

See Also: Politics of Pakistan In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ...

Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah the key architect of the Pakistan movement, that led Pakistan to Independence in 1947 and accepted the accession of Junagadh - a Hindu-majority state with a Muslim ruler located in some 400 kilometres (250 mi) southeast of Pakistan - a controversial blend of nationalism and hard politics.

The political identity of the Military of Pakistan, Pakistan's largest institution and one which controlled the government for over half the history of modern day Pakistan (see History of Pakistan for events in the region that is now Pakistan before the Pakistani nation-state emerged) and still does, is reliant on the connection to Pakistan's Imperial past. The Pakistan Muslim League's fortunes up till the 1970s were single-handedly propelled by its legacy as the flagship of Pakistan's Independence Movement, and the core platform of the party today evokes that past strongly, considering itself to be the guardian of Pakistan's freedom, democracy and unity as well as religion. Muslims have remained loyal voters of the Pakistan Muslim League, seen as defender of Religious rights. Smaller parties have arisen, such as Pakistan Peoples Party, a party based on Liberal conservatism have also arisen. In contrast, the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal employs a more aggressively theocratic nationalistic expression. The MMA seeks to defend the culture and heritage of Pakistan and the majority of its people, the Muslim population. It ties theocratic nationalism with the aggressive defence of Pakistan's borders and interests against archrival India, with the defence of the majority's right to be a majority. The party's fortunes arose primarily in the 1990s, with the frustration of the people with over 40 years of military domination as well as PPP corruption, sycophant leaders and lack of direction. Image File history File links Jinnah1. ... Image File history File links Jinnah1. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Junagadh is a city, in Junagadh District, in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... Branches of Service Pakistan Army Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy Pakistan Coast Guard Pakistan Paramilitary Forces Pakistan Strategic Nuclear Command Leadership Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff General Ehsan ul Haq Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Ahmed Chief of Naval... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی ) is a mainstream centre-left political party in Pakistan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی ) is a mainstream centre-left political party in Pakistan. ...


Ethnic nationalist parties include the Awami National Party, which is closely identified with the creation of a Pashtun-majority state in North-West Frontier Province and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas includes many Pashtun leaders in its organization. However, the Awami National Party, At the last legislative elections, 20 October 2002, won a meagre 1.0% of the popular vote and no seats in the lower house of Parliament. In Balochistan, the Balochistan National Party uses the legacy of the independent Balochistan to stir up support, However at the last legislative elections, 20 October 2002, the party won only 0.2% of the popular vote and 1 out of 272 elected members. The Awami National Party (ANP, Awami meaning People)) is a nationalist political party (leftist) in Pakistan. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). // The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab... The Awami National Party (ANP, Awami meaning People)) is a nationalist political party (leftist) in Pakistan. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... The Balochistan National Party is a regional political party in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Almost every Pakistani state has a regional party devoted solely to the culture of the native people. Unlike the Awami National party and the Balochistan national party, these mostly cannot be called nationalist, as they use regionalism as a strategy to garner votes, building on the frustration of common people with official status and the centralization of government institutions in Pakistan. However, the recent elections as well as history have shown that such ethnic nationalist parties barely ever win more than 1% of the popular vote, the overwhelming majority of votes go to large and established political parties that pursue a national agenda as opposed to regionalism.


Nuclear power

Main Article: Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction Pakistan started focusing on nuclear development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ...

Television screenshot of the first known nuclear test conducted by Pakistan, 28 May 1998.

On May 28, in 1998, Pakistan tested its first nuclear weapon in Chagai, Balochistan, and thus became the 7th nation in the world to possess an arsenal of nuclear weapons. It is postulated that Pakistan's nuclear program arose in the 1970s as a response to the Indian acquisition of the nuclear weapon. It also resulted in Pakistan pursuing similar ambitions, resulting in the May, 1998 testings of five nuclear devices by both countries, opening a new era in their rivalry. Pakistan is not a signatory to the NPT and CTBT, which it considers an encroachment on its right to defend itself. Image File history File links Pakistan_Nuclear_Test. ... Image File history File links Pakistan_Nuclear_Test. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... See also: Book_of_Haggai Haggai (חַגַּי, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Ḥaggay) was one of the twelve so-called minor prophets and the author of the Book of Haggai. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes and was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996, when it was signed by 71 States, including the five nuclear weapon states at the time (which did not...


References

  1. ^ Conjuring Pakistan: History as Official Imagining, Ayesha Jalal International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Feb., 1995), pp. 73-89
  2. ^ History! Kashi Vishwanath temple.
  3. ^ The Baburnama Ed. & Trans. Wheeler M. Thackston (New York) 2002 p352
  4. ^ Naipaul, V. S.. Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions Among the Converted Peoples, 250-52. 
  5. ^ Iqbal's political views (PHP) (2006-05-26). Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  6. ^ Iqbal and Pakistan Movement
  7. ^ Rajmohan Gandhi, Patel: A Life", pp. 372-73
  8. ^ Prelude to Partition by P.N. Benjamin Deccan Herald
  9. ^ Mansergh, "Transfer of Power Papers Volume IX", pp 879
  10. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, pp. 376-78
  11. ^ a b c Bourke-White, Margaret (1949). Halfway to Freedom: A Report on the New India. Simon and Schuster, New York. 
  12. ^ S.L Ghosh, Ananda Bazar Patrika 1946
  13. ^ Wolpert, Stanley (2001). The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi, Chpt 1 (online version). Oxford University Press. 
  14. ^ Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947, S. Gurbachan Singh Talib,VOI
  15. ^
  16. ^ mkgandhi.org martyrdom

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971) USPS stamp depicting LIFE magazine cover bearing Fort Peck Dam photograph Margaret Bourke-White (June 14, 1904 – August 27, 1971) was an American photographer and photojournalist. ... Prof. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

See also

  • Pakistani propaganda

Pakistan Studies (Urdu: مطالعہ پاکستان / Mutaala - e - Pakistan) is an interdisciplinary course encompassing various aspects of Pakistan’s history and culture, that is a part of the curriculum in Pakistan at various levels. ...

Further reading

  • Sanjay Chaturvedi (May 2002). "Process of Othering in the case of India and Pakistan". Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 93 (2): 149. DOI:10.1111/1467-9663.00191. 
  • Selig S. Harrison (December 1997). The United States and South Asia: Trapped by the Past?. Current History. Current History, Inc..
  • Iftikhar H. Malik (July 1996). "The State and Civil Society in Pakistan: From Crisis to Crisis". Asian Survey 36 (7): 673–690. 
  • Moonis Ahmar (October 1996). "Ethnicity and State Power in Pakistan: The Karachi Crisis". Asian Survey 36 (10): 1031–1048. 
  • Malik, Hafeez (1961). "The Growth of Pakistani Nationalism, 800 AD – 1947 AD". Syracuse University.
  • MH Khatana. "Foundations of Pakistani Nationalism: The Life and Times of Allama Iqbal".
  • Feroz Ahmed (December 1971). "Why Pakistan's Unity Was Jeopardized?". Pakistan Forum 2 (3): 4–6. DOI:10.2307/2569081. 
  • Anwar H. Syed (Summer 1980). "The Idea of a Pakistani Nationhood" 12 (4): 575–597. DOI:10.2307/3234301. 
  • Saadia Toor (September 2005). "A national culture for Pakistan: the political economy of a debate". Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 6 (3): 318–340. DOI:10.1080/14649370500169946. 

 
 

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