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Encyclopedia > Pakistan Muslim League
Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the "Great Leader" of the Muslim League This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the "Great Leader" of the Muslim League
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.

The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. After the independence of India and Pakistan, the League continued as a minor party in India, especially in Kerala, where it is often in government within a coalition with others. In Pakistan, the League formed the country's first government, but disintegrated during the 1950s following an army coup. A party using the name Muslim League, but with no organisational connection with the original League, is currently in government in Pakistan. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of South Asia, which includes India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, usually also Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and some disputed territory currently controlled by China, and sometimes Myanmar. ... Kerala is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west and the Western Ghats on the east. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the...

Contents


Background

Muslim rule was established across northern India between the 7th and the 14th centuries. The Muslim Moghul Empire ruled most of India from Delhi from the early 16th century until its power was broken by the British in the 19th century. This left a disempowered and discontented Muslim minority, afraid of being swamped by the Hindu majority over whom they had previously ruled. Muslims were about 23% of the population of British India, and were the majority of the population in Baluchistan, Bengal, Kashmir, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab and the Sindh region of the Bombay Presidency. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Delhi (दिल्ली or Dillī in Hindi and Bengali and دیلی in Urdu) is a term that refers to either the State of Delhi or the National Capital Territory (NCT) of the Republic of India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (Meaning: Land of five Rivers) (also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Devanagari: पंजाब, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Sindh (Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ...


In the late 19th century an Indian nationalist movement developed, with the Indian National Congress being founded in 1885. Although the Congress made genuine efforts to enlist the Muslim community in its struggle for Indian independence, it was inevitably a Hindu-dominated organisation, and Muslims knew that an independent united India would inevitably be ruled by Hindus. Although some Muslims were active in the Congress, the majority of Muslim leaders did not trust the Hindu majority. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


A turning point came in 1900 when the British administration in the largest Indian state, the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh), acceded to Hindu demands and made Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, the official language, in place of Persian, which had been the court language under the Mughal Emperors. This seemed to confirm Muslim fears that Hindu majority would seek to suppress Muslim culture and religion in an independent India. A British official, Sir Percival Griffiths, wrote of "the Muslim belief that their interest must be regarded as completely separate from those of the Hindus, and that no fusion of the two communities was possible." 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش) is the fifth largest and the most populous state in India. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken in most states in northern and central India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Persian (فارسی), (local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan: Fârsi), Pârsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (Another local name in Tajikistan, Afghanistan), is a language spoken in Iran,Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain. ... The Mughal Empire (Urdu: مغل باد شاہ, Mughal Baadshah, alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by the Turco-Persian leader Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


During this period the unofficial leader of the Indian Muslim community was Sir Sayed Ahmed, head of the Aligarh movement (a cultural organisation based in the Muslim University at Aligarh), but following his death in 1898 a more militant leadership emerged, under the slogan "Islam is in danger." In October 1906 35 leading members of the Indian Muslim community gathered at Simla under the leadership of Sultan Mohammed Shah (the third Aga Khan), to present an address to the Viceroy, Lord Minto. They demanded proportionate representation of Muslims in all government jobs and the appointment of Muslim judges to the High Courts and members in Viceroy's Council. Organizations he started Mohammadan Educational Conference Institutions he started Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College, later the Aligarh Muslim University See also Aligarh Muslim University Categories: Stub | 1817 births | 1898 deaths ... Victoria gate, a part of Aligarh University campus Aligarh (Hindi: अलीगढ़) is a city in the Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Shimla Shimla (शिमला) is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and a hill station in North India. ... Aga Khan III, PC (November 2, 1877 - July 11, 1957), also known as Sultan Mahommed Shah, was the only son of Aga Khan II, and succeeded him on his death in 1885, becoming the head of the family. ... Aga Khan is the title of the spiritual leader of a sect within the Ismaili branch of Islam (Nizari Ismaili). ... A viceroy is somebody who governs a country or province as a substitute for the monarch. ... In 1885, as Middletons chief of staff Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, KG, PC, 4th Earl of Minto (June 9, 1845 – March 1, 1914), known between 1859 and 1891 as Viscount Melgund, was an English politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of India. ...


Early years

The third Aga Khan
The third Aga Khan

When these demands were accepted, an All-India Mohammedan Educational Conference was held in Dhaka in December. Nawab Salimullah, chairman of the reception committee and convener of the political meeting proposed the creation of the All-India Muslim League (AIML). A 56-member provisional committee was chosen from among prominent Muslim leaders, including some who were members of the Congress. Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Viqar-ul-Mulk were jointly made the secretaries, but after the death of Mohsin-ul-Mulk in 1907, Viqar-ul-Mulk was in full control of the League. The name All-India Muslim League was proposed by Sir Mian Mohammad Shafi. Aga Khan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Note: You may need a Bangla Font to see all the characters on this page. ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Three thousand delegates attended the meeting of the Conference, chaired by Viqar al-Mulq. At that meeting, Nawab Salim Ullah Khan proposed that the League become a political party devoted to promoting the interests of Muslims in India. The idea of a Muslim political party was not new, but Sayed Ahmed's advice to stand aloof from separatist ideas had previously persuaded Indian Muslims to avoid political mobilisation.


Among those Muslims in the Congress who did not initially join the AIML was Muhammed Ali Jinnah, a prominent Bombay lawyer. This was because the first article of the League's platform was "To promote among the Mussalmans of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government," and Jinnah was an Indian nationalist. He did not join the League until 1913, when it changed its platform to one of Indian independence as a reaction against the British decision to create a united state of Bengal, which the League regarded as a betrayal of the Bengal Muslims. At this stage Jinnah believed in Muslim-Hindu co-operation to achieve an independent, united India, although he argued that Muslims should be guaranteed one-third of the seats in any Indian Parliament. Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


The headquarters of the new organisation was established at Lucknow, and the Aga Khan was elected as the League's first president. The principles of the League were espoused in the "Green Book," which included the organisation's constitution, written by Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar. Its goals at this stage did not include establishing an independent Muslim state, but rather concentrated on protecting Muslim liberties and rights, promoting understanding between the Muslim community and other Indians, educating the Muslim and Indian community at large on the actions of the government, and discouraging violence. Lucknow is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


The League's moderate stance toward Britain and its disdain for violence alienated some Muslim radicals, who were infuriated by what they saw as the duplicity of British rule in India. The Partition of Bengal, which had been resisted by Congress, had been supported by the Muslim League, which saw the move as allowing for separate representation of Muslims and Hindus in Bengal. In the face of Congress agitation, the British rescinded the move in 1911, which aggravated the League. 1911 is a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...


With a few years the League had become the sole representative body of Indian Muslims. Jinnah became its president in 1916, and negotiated the Lucknow Pact with Congress, in which Congress conceded the principle of separate electorates and weighted representation for the Muslim community. But Jinnah broke with Congress in 1919 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a "non-co-operation" campaign against the British, which Jinnah disapproved of. Jinnah also became convinced that Congress would renounce its support for separate electorates for Muslims, which indeed it did in 1928. Jinnah had little liking for either the Hindu asceticism of Gandhi or the secular socialism of the other Congress leader, Jawaharlal Nehru. 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Asceticism has appeared in both religious and secular settings. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू, Javāharlāl Nehrū) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ...


The search for a solution

Sir Dr. Muhammad Iqbal (Popularly known as Allama Iqbal) This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
Sir Dr. Muhammad Iqbal (Popularly known as Allama Iqbal)
This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.

Jinnah became disillusioned with politics after the failure of his attempt to for a Hindu-Muslim alliance, and he spent most of the 1920s in Britain. The leadership of the League was taken over by Sir Muhammad Iqbal, who in 1930 first put forward the demand for a separate Muslim state in India, to be known as Pakistan (the "land of the pure"). The "two-nation theory," the belief that Hindus and Muslims were two different nations who could not live in one country, gained popularity among Muslims, particularly as Hindu nationalism became more strident. The two-state solution was rejected by the Congress leaders, who favoured a united, secular democratic India. Iqbal's policy of uniting the North-West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, and Sindh into a new state of Pakistan, united the many factions of the League. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


In 1927 the British proposed a constitution for India as recommended by the Simon Commission, but they failed to reconcile all parties. The British then turned the matter over to the League and the Congress, and in 1928, an All-Parties Congress was convened in Delhi. The attempt failed, but two more conferences were held. At the Bombay conference in May, it was agreed that a small committee should work on the constitution. The respected Congress leader Motilal Nehru (father of Jawaharlal) headed the committee, which included two Muslims, Syed Ali Imam and Shoaib Quereshi. 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... In 1927 considered future Indian colonial govermanet responses to nationalist demands; served to unify nationalist politicians on bth right and left of independence movement and also to heal rift between Muslims and Hindus ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Delhi (दिल्ली or Dillī in Hindi and Bengali and دیلی in Urdu) is a term that refers to either the State of Delhi or the National Capital Territory (NCT) of the Republic of India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Motilal Nehru (May 6, 1861 - February 6, 1931) was an Indian nationalist political figure. ...


The League, however, rejected the proposal that the committee returned, called the "Nehru Report," arguing that it gave too little representation (one quarter) to Muslims - the League had demanded at least one-third representation in the legislature. Jinnah reported a "parting of the ways" after reading the report, and relations between the Congress and the League began to sour.


The election of Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government in 1929 fuelled new hopes for progress towards self-government in India. Gandhi traveled to London, claiming to represent all Indians, and criticising the League as sectarian and divisive. Round-table talks were held, but these achieved little, since Gandhi and the League were unable reach a compromise. The fall of the Labour government in 1931 ended this period of optimism. James Ramsay MacDonald (October 12, 1866 – November 9, 1937), British politician, was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


In the 1935 Government of India Act, the British for the first time proposed to hand over substantial power to elected Indian provincial legislatures, with elections to be held in 1937. Jinnah returned to India and resumed leadership of the League, which now saw the real threat of Hindu majority rule over the Muslim minority. After the elections the League took office in Bengal and Punjab, but the Congress won office in most of the other Indian states, and refused to share power with the League in states with large Muslim minorities. In 1940 the League formally adopted the creation of Pakistan as its objective. 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term Government of India Act refers to several Acts passed by the British Parliament to regulate the government of British India, in particular: Government of India Act 1833 (also known as the Charter Act 1833), which created a Governor-General of India Government of India Act 1858, under which... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Campaign for Pakistan

At a League conference in Lahore in 1940, Jinnah said: "Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature... It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes... To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state." Lahore (لاةور) is a major city in Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


At Lahore the League formally recommitted itself to creating an independent Muslim state including Sindh, Punjab, the North West Frontier Province and Bengal, that would be "wholly autonomous and sovereign." The resolution guaranteed protection for non-Muslim religions. The principles of the Lahore Resolution formed the foundation for Pakistan's first constitution. Talks between Jinnah and Gandhi in 1944 in Bombay failed to achieve agreement. These was the last attempt to reach a single-state solution. 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


In the 1940s Jinnah emerged as the recognised leader of the Indian Muslims and was popularly known as "Qaid-e-Azam" (Great leader). In the Constituent Assembly elections of 1946, the League won 425 out of 496 seats reserved for Muslims on a policy of Pakistan, and an implied threat of secession if this was not granted. Gandhi and Nehru, who with the election of a Labour government in Britain in 1945 saw independence within reach, were adamantly opposed to dividing India. They knew that the Hindu masses, who saw Mother India as a holy and indivisible entity, could never agree to such a thing. A Constituent Assembly is a body elected with the express and limited purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


By 1946 the British had neither the will, nor the financial or military power, to hold India any longer, and Jinnah knew that independence was imminent. He made it clear that he would plunge India into chaos if India was not partitioned to create a Muslim state, and the British could not resist this threat. Political deadlock ensued in the Constituent Assembly, and Britain's Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, sent a special mission to India to mediate the situation. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH (January 3, 1883 – October 8, 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...


When these talks broke down, Attlee sent Earl Mountbatten, India's last Viceroy, to negotiate the partition of India and immediate British withdrawal. Mountbatten told Gandhi and Nehru that if they did not accept partition there would be civil war, and they were reluctantly compelled to agree. Civil war did in fact break out in Punjab and other areas of mixed population. Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ...


The Muslim League survived as a minor party in India after partition, but later splintered into several groups, the most important of which is the Indian Union Muslim League.


The League in Pakistan

Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan

In Pakistan, Jinnah became Governor-General, and another League leader, Liaquat Ali Khan became Prime Minister. But Jinnah died in September 1948 and Liaquat was assassinated in October 1951. Robbed of its two senior leaders, the League began to disintegrate. By 1953 dissensions within the League had led to the formation of several different political parties. Liaquat was succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin, a Bengali, but he was forced from office in April 1953 by Punjabi politicians who found a Bengali premier unacceptable. Pakistan was racked by riots and famine, and at the first national elections in May 1955 (held by a system of indirect voting) the League was heavily defeated. Liaquat Ali Khan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 - October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Khwaja Nazimuddin Khawaja Nazimuddin (July 19, 1894 - 1964) was the second Governor-General of Pakistan, and then the second Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In October 1958 the Army seized power and the martial law regime of Muhammad Ayub Khan banned all political parties. This was the end of the old Muslim League. The name still held great prestige, however, and Ayub Khan later formed a new party, the Convention Muslim League. The opposition faction became known as the Council Muslim League. This latter group joined a united front with other political parties in 1967 in opposition to the regime. But when the military regime of Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan fell in December 1971, and Pakistan's first genuine free elections were held, both factions of the League were wiped out, in West Pakistan by the Pakistan People's Party of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and in East Pakistan by the National Awami League of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Ayub Khan Ayub Khan (May 14, 1907 - April 19, 1974) during the mid-1960s, was a Field Marshal and the political leader of Pakistan. ... 1967 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 _ August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969_71, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician, active in the early years of the Pakistani Government. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 1920 - August 15, 1975), born in Gopalganj, Bangladesh, was a Bengali nationalist leader in East Pakistan and first Prime Minister and President of independent Bangladesh. ...


After the death of Pakistan's next dictator, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, in 1988, a new Muslim League was formed under the leadership of Nawaz Sharif, but it had no connection with the original Muslim League. Sharif was Prime Minister from 1990 to 1993 and again from 1997 to 1999, when he was ousted in Pakistan's third military coup. At the stage-managed elections held by the military regime of Pervez Musharraf in October, five different parties using the name Muslim League contested seats. The largest of these, the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam), won 69 seats out of 272, and the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), loyal to Nawaz Sharif, won 19 seats. |} General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (August 12, 1924–August 17, 1988) ruled Pakistan from 1977 to 1988. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nawaz Sharif (born December 25, 1949) was twice elected as Prime Minister of Pakistan, serving two non-consecutive terms. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto Head of Government (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive powers) of Pakistan on October 12, 1999 following a bloodless coup détat. ...


Current factions

The Pakistan Muslim League (N) is a political party in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Muslim League (Q), or PML-Q, is a political party in Pakistan. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto Head of Government (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive powers) of Pakistan on October 12, 1999 following a bloodless coup détat. ...

Muslim League in post-Partition India

see Indian Union Muslim League IUML banner Indian Union Muslim League is a political party in India. ...


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