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Encyclopedia > Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
Leadership
Chief of Army Staff
Components
Frontier Corps
Special Service Group
Installations
Rawalpindi
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
National Defence University
History and Traditions
Military history of Pakistan
UN Peacekeeping Missions
Awards, Decorations and Badges
Awards and Decorations
Nishan-e-Haider

The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:CU Marking articles for cleanup This page is undergoing a transition to an easier-to-maintain format. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army (COAS) is the highest post in the Pakistan Army. ... The Frontier Corps (FC) are a Federal paramiltary force manned mostly by people from the tribal areas and officered by officers from the Pakistan Army. ... Special Services Group Logo outside their headquarters. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Pakistan Military Academy Logo Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) is a Military Academy of the Pakistan Army. ... The Command and Staff College was established in 1974 at Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. ... National Defence University Building National Defence University (NDU) is a Pakistani military institution whose origin goes back to the year 1963, when the 1st Army War Course started at the Command and Staff College, Quetta. ... Branches of Service Pakistan Army Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy Pakistan Coast Guard Pakistan Paramilitary Forces Leadership Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff General Ehsan ul Haq Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Ahmed Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Afzal Tahir... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Awards and decorations of the Pakistan military are military decorations which recognize a service members service and personal accomplishments while a member of the Pakistan armed forces. ... Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: , translated as Order of the Lion, abbreviated as NH), is the highest military award given by Pakistan. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 7th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ...


The Pakistan Army, combined with the Navy and Air Force, makes Pakistan's armed forces the 7th largest military in the world. The Army is modelled on the United Kingdom armed forces and came into existence after the independence in 1947. It has an active force of 620,000 personnel and 600,000 men in reserve that continue to serve until the age of 45. The Pakistani Army is a volunteer force and has been involved in many conflicts with India. Combined with this rich combat experience, the Army is also actively involved in contributing to United Nations peacekeeping efforts. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani Army personnel as advisers in many African, South Asian and Arab countries. The Pakistani Army maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and the first Gulf War to help the Coalition. The Pakistani Army is led by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani the Chief of Army Staff, who replaced Pervez Musharraf, the current President of Pakistan. Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ) is the naval wing of the Pakistan military. ... Pakistan Air Force (Urdu: پاک فضائیہ, Pak Fazaya) is the Aviation branch of the Pakistan armed forces and is responsible for defending Pakistani air-space from intrusions. ... Number of active troops per country This is a list of countries sorted by the total number of active troops where the military manpower of a country is measured by the total amount of active troops within the command of that country. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (born April 1952, Jhelum) is a Pakistani general and vice chief of army staff (VCOAS). ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ...

Contents

Combat Doctrine

Pakistani Army has espoused a doctrine of limited "offensive-defense" which it has tried to refine consistently ever since 1989 when it was pushed out to the formations during "Exercise Zarb-e-Momin". The main purpose of this strategy is to launch a sizeable offensive into enemy territory rather than wait to be hit from the enemy's offensive attack. The doctrine is based on the premise that while on the offensive, the enemy can be kept off-balance while allowing Pakistani Army to be able to seize enemy territory of strategic importance which can be used as a bargaining chip on the negotiating table. In order to do this, currently Pakistani Army maintains two sizable strike Corps which will be backed up by holding Corps forming the defensive tier behind the strike corps. By pushing the offensive into the enemy territory, the Pakistani Army hopes to consolidate its gains inside the enemy's territory and will attempt to keep the war on the enemy side of the border rather than giving ground on the Pakistani side.


In the 1990s, the Army created a strong centralized corps of reserves for its formations in the critical semi-desert and desert sectors in southern Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new formations were rapidly equipped with assets needed for mechanized capability. These reserve formations are dual-capable, meaning they can be used for offensive as well as defensive (holding) purposes. This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ...


Pakistan, today has a 45 day reserve of ammunition and fuel as compared to only 13 days in 1965 and has fairly effective and efficient lines of communication and can fully mobilize its formations in less than 96 hours owing to the lack of depth in the country's North South axis. Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ...


Motto

The motto of the Pakistani Army reads: "Iman, Taqwa, Jihad fi Sabilillah". Translated into English, it means "Faith, Piety, to strive in the path of Allah". Iman (Arabic: إيمان) is an Islamic term, literally meaning to learn, to fully observe ones faith or to learn ones faith, and lexically meaning affirmation and confirmation in the heart, as can be found in a verse of the Quran: Josephs brothers said, Our father! Indeed, we... Taqwa is a concept in Islam that is interpreted by some Islamic Scholars as God consciousness. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Organization

The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), formerly called the Commander in Chief (C in C), is challenged with the responsibility of commanding the Pakistani Army. The COAS operates from army headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include a Chief of General Staff (CGS), who supervises the day to day running of the army, Director General Military Operations (DGMO), responsible for the overall operational planning; the Master General of Ordnance (MGO); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Adjutant General (AG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT&E); and the Military Secretary (MS). The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers (E-in-C)who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff.   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... For other places called Islamabad, see Islamabad (disambiguation). ... Military Engineer Services (MES),the (Civilian) Engineer Cadre is the largest construction agency in the country. ... Marconi Electronic Systems The Inscription of Mes A well known legal dispute in Ancient Egypt during the New Kingdom era. ...


List of Chiefs of Army Staff

  1. General Sir Frank Messervy (August 15, 1947 - February 10, 1948)[1]
  2. General Sir Douglas David Gracey (February 11, 1948 - January 16, 1951)[1]
  3. Field Marshal Ayub Khan (January 16, 1951 - October 26, 1958)[1]
  4. General Musa Khan (October 27, 1958 - June 17, 1966)[1]
  5. General Yahya Khan (June 18, 1966December 20, 1971)[1]
  6. General Gul Hassan (December 20, 1971 - March 3, 1972)[1]
  7. General Tikka Khan (March 3, 1972March 1, 1976)[1]
  8. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (April 1, 1976 - August 17, 1988)[1]
  9. General Mirza Aslam Beg (August 17, 1988 - August 16, 1991)[1]
  10. General Asif Nawaz (August 16, 1991 - January 8, 1993)[1]
  11. General Wahid Kakar (January 8, 1993 - December 1, 1996)[1]
  12. General Jehangir Karamat (December 1, 1996 - October 6, 1998)[1]
  13. General Pervez Musharraf (October 7, 1998 - November 28, 2007)[1]
  14. General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (November 28, 2007 - present)

General Sir Frank Messervy General Sir Frank Walter Messervy, KCSI, KBE, CB, DSO, (1893 - 1974) was a British officer in both the First and Second World Wars and was the first Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Royal Army (15 August 1947 – 10 February 1948 or Aug 1948?). He became... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Sir Douglas David Gracey General Sir Douglas David Gracey, KCB, KCIE, CBE, MC (1894-1964) was a British officer in both the First and Second World Wars and the second Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan, holding this office from 11 February 1948 to 16 January 1951. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... General Musa Khan Hazara was the Chief of Pakistans Army Staff. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant General Gul Hassan Khan was the Chief of Army Staff, Pakistan. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tikka Khan (Urdu: ٹکا خان) (b. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Urdu: ) (b. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Gen. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... General Wahid Kakar Wahid Kakar was Chief of Army Staff, Pakistan. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... General(R)Jehangir Karamat as Ambassador of Pakistan to USA General Jehangir Karamat is currently the Ambassador of Pakistan to the United States of America. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (born April 1952, Jhelum) is a Pakistani general and vice chief of army staff (VCOAS). ...

Structure of Army units

Pakistan Army aviation squadron's helicopter at the Skardu Airport.
Pakistan Army aviation squadron's helicopter at the Skardu Airport.

The Pakistani Army is divided into two main branches which are Arms and Services. Arms include infantry, artillery, armor, engineers,medical and communications and Services includes ordnance Corps, maintenance and repair Corps, electrical & mechanical engineering (EME) corps, supply & transport corps (ASC), education corps (AEC), military police corps, and the remount, veterinary, and farm corps. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1221x876, 246 KB) A Pakistan Army helicopter at the Skardu Airport in Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1221x876, 246 KB) A Pakistan Army helicopter at the Skardu Airport in Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... Skardu Airport is a small domestic airport, located at Skardu, Northern Areas, Pakistan. ...

Army Unit Number of Units
Corps 9
Infantry Divisions 19
Artillery Divisions 2
Aviation Squadrons 19
2 Special forces Brigades with 5 Battalions 1
Armored Recce Regiment 8
Independent Mechanical Infantry Brigades 7
Independent Armoured brigades 8
Artillery Brigades 4
Air Defence Command with 3 Air Defence Groups, 8 AD Brigades 8
Engineer brigades 8
Armoured divisions 2
  • Corps: A Corp in the Pakistani Army usually consists of two or more Divisions and is commanded by a Lieutenant General. Currently the Pakistani Army has 9 Corps. The tenth one is the recently raised Army Strategic Force Command (ASFC), responsible for bearing the national strategic and nuclear assets. Initially a Division, but then raised to the status of a Corps.
  • Division: Each division is commanded by a Major General, and usually holds three Brigades including infantry, artillery, engineers and communications units in addition to logistics (supply and service) support to sustain independent action. Except for the Divisions operating in the mountains, all the Divisions have at least one armoured unit, some have even more depending upon their functionality. The most major of all ground force combat formations is the infantry division. Such a division would primarily hold three infantry brigades. There are 19 Infantry divisions, 2 Armored Divisions and 1 Artillery Division in the Pakistani Army.
  • Brigade: A Brigade is under the command of a Brigadier or sometimes a Colonel and comprises three or more Battalions of different units depending on its functionality. An independent brigade would be one that primarily consists of an artillery unit, an infantry unit, an armour unit and logistics to support its actions. Such a brigade is not part of any division and is under direct command of a corps.
  • Battalion: Each battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel and has roughly 600 to 900 soldiers under his command. This number varies depending on the functionality of the battalion. A battalion comprises either three batteries (in case of artillery and air defence regiments - generally named Papa, Quebec, Romeo, and Sierra) or four companies (in case of infantry regiments - generally named Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, and Delta - and other arms excluding armored units that are organized into squadrons) each under the command of a major and comprising of individual subunits called sections (which are further divisible into platoons and squads).[2]

The Armoured Brigade (Panssariprikaati) is a Finnish Army unit. ... Artillery Brigade (Finnish Tykistöprikaati) is a Finnish Army unit situated in Niinisalo in Western Finland. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around 10,000 soldiers. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ...

Regiments

  • The President's Bodyguard
  • Armour
    • 4th Cavalry
    • 5th Horse
    • 6th Lancers
    • 7th Lancers
    • 8th Lancers
    • 9th Lancers
    • Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 11th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 12th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 13th Lancers
    • 14th Lancers
    • 15th Lancers
    • 19th Lancers
    • 20th Lancers
    • 22nd Cavalry
    • 23rd Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 24th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 25th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
    • 26th Cavalry
    • 27th Cavalry
    • 28th Cavalry
    • 29th Cavalry
    • 30th Cavalry
    • 31st Cavalry
    • 32nd Cavalry
    • 33rd Cavalry
  • 41st Horse (Frontier Force)
    • 52nd Cavalry
    • 53rd Cavalry

*The President's Bodyguard formed at independence from members of the Governor General's Bodyguard, itself successor to the Governor's Troop of Moghals raised in 1773
*5th Horse is the successor to the 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry (Wales's Horse), and the 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry, both raised in 1857
*6th Lancers is the successor to The Rohilkhand Horse raised in 1857, and the 4th Sikh Irregular Cavalry raised in 1858
*Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to the Corps of Guides raised in 1846
*11th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to 1st Regiment of Punjab Cavalry and 3rd Regiment of Punjab Cavalry, both raised in 1849
*13th Lancers is the successor to the 1st Native Troop raised in 1804, and the 2nd Native Troop raised in 1816
*19th Lancers is the successor to the 2nd Mahratta Horse (Tiwana Horse) raised in 1858, and Fane's Horse raised in 1860
*25th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the famous unit which stopped Indian armour thrust in Chawinda in 1965
*The Punjab Regiment formed in 1956 from the 1st, 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments; can be traced back to the 3rd Battalion of Coast Sepoys raised in 1759
*The Baloch Regiment formed in 1956 from the 8th Punjab Regiment, The Baluch Regiment, and The Bahawalpur Regiment; can be traced back to the 3rd Extra Madras Battalion raised in 1798
*The Frontier Force Regiment is the successor to the Frontier Brigade raised in 1846
*The Azad Kashmir Regiment was raised in 1947, became part of the army in 1971
*The Sindh Regiment was raised in 1980 from battalions of the Punjab Regiment and Baloch Regiment
*The Northern Light Infantry was formed in 1977 from various paramilitary units of scouts, became part of the army in 1999 after the Kargil War
*The Special Service Group was formed in 1959 around a cadre from the Baluch Regiment
The Governor Generals Bodyguard was a cavalry regiment of the British Indian Army. ...


Corps

There are 9 Corps located at various garrisons all over Pakistan. A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or...

Corps HQ Location Major Formations under Corps Commander
I Corps Mangla, Punjab 6th Armored Division (Kharian), 17th Infantry Division (Kharian), 37th Infantry Division (Gujranwala) Lt Gen Sajjad Akram[3]
II Corps Multan, Punjab 1st Armored Division (Multan), 14th Infantry Division (Okara) Lt Gen Sikandar Afzal[3]
IV Corps Lahore, Punjab 10th Infantry Division (Lahore), 11th Infantry Division (Lahore) Lt Gen Shafaatullah Shah[4]
V Corps Karachi, Sindh 16th Infantry Division (Pano Akil), 18th Infantry Division (Hyderabad) Lt Gen Ahsan Azhar Hayat[3]
X Corps Rawalpindi, Punjab FCNA (Gilgit), 12th Infantry Division (Murree), 19th Infantry Division (Mangla), 23rd Infantry Division (Jhelum) Lt Gen Mohsin Kamal[5]
XI Corps Peshawar, North West Frontier Province 7th Infantry Division (Peshawar), 9th Infantry Division (Kohat) Lt Gen Masood Aslam[6]
XII Corps Quetta, Balochistan 33rd Infantry Division (Quetta), 41st Infantry Division (Quetta) Lt Gen Khalid Shamim Wyne[6]
XXX Corps Gujranwala, Punjab 8th Infantry Division (Sialkot), 15th Infantry Division (Sialkot) Lt Gen Waseem Ahmed Ashraf[7]
XXXI Corps Bahawalpur, Punjab 35th Infantry Division (Bahawalpur), 40th Infantry Division (Okara) Lt Gen Raza Muhammad Khan[6]

The Manga Dam in Pakistan is the twelfth largest dam in the world. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Kharian is a city of District Gujrat in Pakistan, situated at Grand Trunk Road, 20 miles from Gujrat and 10 miles from Jhelum. ... Gujranwala (Urdu: گوجرانوالہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a city population of 1,132,509 (1998 census). ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Okara is a yellowish pulp consisting of the insoluble parts of soybeans, which remains when pureed soybeans are filtered in the production of soy milk. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Pano Akil is the taluka of Sukkur District in the Sindh province of Pakistan located approximately at a distance of 40 km in north from Sukkur. ... This article is about Hyderabad, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ... View of Mountain Valley from the Top Murree city (Urdu: مری) is a popular hill station and a summer resort, especially for the residents of Islamabad, and for the cities of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. ... The Manga Dam in Pakistan is the twelfth largest dam in the world. ... Jhelum or Jehlum may mean: Jhelum River in India and Pakistan Jhelum City in Punjab, Pakistan Jhelum District in Punjab, Pakistan This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Kohat (Urdu: کوہاٹ) is a medium sized town in central North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ... Gujranwala (Urdu: گوجرانوالہ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan with a city population of 1,132,509 (1998 census). ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: سیالکوٹ ) is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Bahawal Pur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ... Bahawal Pur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ...

Present commanders

*This list of generals and lieutenant generals is maintained according to their seniority in the army.

  • General Tariq Majid — Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  • General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani — Chief of Army Staff.
  • Lt Gen Safdar Hussain[4] — Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Syed Athar Ali[3] — DG Joint Staff, JS HQ.
  • Lt Gen Waseem Ahmed Ashraf[7] — Corps Commander Gujranwala.
  • Lt Gen Mohammed Sabir[4] — Military Secretary, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Imtiaz Hussain[7] — Adjutant General, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Afzal Muzaffar[8] — Quartermaster General (QMG), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Hamid Rab Nawaz[6] — IG T&E, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Salahuddin Satti[9] — Chief of General Staff (CGS), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Syed Sabahat Hussain[3] — Chairman Pakistan Ordnance Factories.
  • Lt Gen Raza Khan[6] — Corps Commander Bahawalpur.
  • Lt Gen Masood Aslam — Corps Commander Peshawar.
  • Lt Gen Shafaatullah Shah[4] — Corps Commander Lahore.
  • Lt Gen Hamid Khan[6] — President National Defence University.
  • Lt Gen Israr Ahmed Ghumman[10] — DG Heavy Industries Taxila.
  • Lt Gen Ahsan Azhar Hayat[3] — Corps Commander Karachi.
  • Lt Gen Nadeem Ahmad[3] — Deputy Chairman ERRA (Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Authority).
  • Lt Gen Sajjad Akram[3] — Corps Commander Mangla.
  • Lt Gen Muhammad Zaki[3] — DG Infantry, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Sikandar Afzal[3] — Corps Commander Multan.
  • Lt Gen Ijaz Ahmed Bakhshi[3] — DG W&E, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Mushtaq Ahmed Baig[11] — Surgeon General, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Khalid Shamim Wyne[6] — Corps Commander Quetta.
  • Lt Gen Mohammad Ashraf Saleem[7] — Commander Army Air Defence Command.
  • Lt Gen Shahid Niaz[7] — Engineer-in-Chief Pakistan Army.
  • Lt Gen Muhammad Yousaf[7] — Vice Chief of General Staff, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Syed Absar Hussain[7] — Commander, ASFC.
  • Lt Gen Javed Zia[5] — Deputy Chief of General Staff (DCGS), GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Shujaat Zamir Dar[12] — DG NAB (Punjab).
  • Lt Gen Mohsin Kamal[5] — Corps Commander Rawalpindi.
  • Lt Gen Muhammad Asghar[5] — Rector, NUST.
  • Lt Gen Jamil Haider[5] — DG C4I, GHQ.
  • Lt Gen Nadeem Taj — DG ISI.
  • Maj Gen Nasir Janjua[13] — DG MO (Military Operations).
  • Maj Gen Zahid Hussain[13] — Commandant, PMA.
  • Maj Gen Mian Nadeem Ijaz Ahmed[14] — DG MI.
  • Maj Gen Waheed Arshad — DG ISPR.

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Tariq Majid or Tariq Majeed (born August 1950) is a Pakistani general and chairman-designate Joint Chiefs of Staff who will take over once the out-going General Ehsan ul Haq retires on October 7, 2007. ... In March 1976, the Government of Pakistan adopted the recommendations of the White Paper on Higher Defence Reorganization. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani (born April 1952, Jhelum) is a Pakistani general and vice chief of army staff (VCOAS). ... The Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army (COAS) is the highest post in the Pakistan Army. ... We dont have an article called Pakistan Ordnance Factories Start this article Search for Pakistan Ordnance Factories in. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The Kargil Conflict 1999 By Shirin Mazari, www. ... National Defence University Building National Defence University (NDU) is a Pakistani military institution whose origin goes back to the year 1963, when the 1st Army War Course started at the Command and Staff College, Quetta. ... History: Heavy Industries Taxila is backbone of Pakistan army its a combination of multiple industries that has grown into a large military complex since 1980. ... The National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) is a public university located at several campuses in Pakistan. ... C4I is a military term meant to summarize factors military theorists consider when planning how headquarters can control their subordinate units. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lieutenant General Nadeem Taj is the current Director General of the Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate, Pakistans premier intelligence agency. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Pakistan Military Academy Logo Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) is a Military Academy of the Pakistan Army. ... Military Intelligence (MI) is part of the Pakistan Army and reports to Commander-in-Chief. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Major General Waheed Arshad was commissioned in Armoured Corps of Pakistan Army in 1975. ... Inter Services Public Relations is an administrative organization within the Military of Pakistan. ...

History of the Pakistani Army

See also: Military history of Pakistan

Branches of Service Pakistan Army Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy Pakistan Coast Guard Pakistan Paramilitary Forces Leadership Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff General Ehsan ul Haq Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Ahmed Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Afzal Tahir...

1947-48 Kashmir War

The 1947-48 War was an improvised war fought on an ad hoc basis. It began with some tangible operational strategy and little definite strategy on the Pakistan side and a definite operational strategy on the Indian side. At the onset Mr Jinnah the Governor General of Pakistan ordered the British Acting C in C Pakistan Army to order two brigades into Kashmir, one on the Sialkot-Jammu Axis and the other on Murree-Muzaffarabad-Srinagar-Axis. This was a tangible plan based on a precise strategy of severing Indian landward and aerial lines of communication to Kashmir. The plan was rendered null and void since the Britisher refused to obey Jinnah’s order. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


This was followed by a hastily scrambled series of actions with regular Pakistan Army officers leading irregulars, irregulars besieging Indian/Dogra garrisons and conducting mini-wars against Chamb, Naushera, Srinagar, Skardu, Leh etc. In April 1948 the regular Pakistan Army entered the scene. At this stage the Indians were in a strategically disadvantageous position. Leh being cut off, Poonch besieged, Skardu besieged, Naushera threatened etc. At this stage the Pakistani strategy was to contain Indian Army advance towards Muzaffarabad, capture Poonch and safeguard Pakistan’s soft underbelly opposite Gujrat. No one at this stage thought of a ceasefire, which would have been of great strategic advantage to Pakistan. The Indians conceived a fine plan to outflank Muzaffarabad and executed a brilliant brigade level march across against the 3,000 metres plus high Nastachun Pass, thus unexpectedly forcing their way with great ease to Tithwal. The Pakistani official history noted “Brigadier Harbux Singh, commander of the 163 Brigade waited at Tithwal for two days to let the rest of his brigade join him there . He lingered a little longer to prepare for his next move and perhaps also to coordinate his moves with that of the Indian offensive in the Jhelum Valley for a two pronged push towards Muzaffarabad. This delay changed the subsequent course of history in Kishanganga Valley, as it enabled the first two companies of 4/16 Punjab under Major Mohammad Akbar Khan to reach by a forced march in the vicinity of Tithwal and take up positions there”1. The Pakistanis saved their position by reinforcing it with a brigade.


On the operational level the Pakistanis did well by capturing Pandu a position of tactical importance in the Jhelum Valley by a brilliant infiltration plan conceived by Commander 101 Brigade Brigadier Akbar Khan DSO with the indomitable Major Ishaq MC as his Brigade Major. Akbar deputed Lt Col Harvey Kelly, commanding 4/10 Baluch to plan the attack in detail.2 Pandu, however, was an operational episode of great tactical significance but limited strategic value.


From April 1948 to December 1948 the Pakistani GHQ merely reacted tactically moving companies and battalions while the Indians moved strategically. In Phase One, they recaptured Rajauri the gateway to Poonch with a single tank squadron! In Phase Two, they achieved two strategic triumphs! They forced their way through Zojila Pass driving on to relieve Leh and capture Kargil Dras and they relieved Poonch which was a mini-Indian East Pakistan surrounded from all sides by Pakistani troops.


At this stage the Pakistani GHQ had conceived the Operation Venus. Venus was a thrust against the Indian line of communication leading to Poonch Valley with an infantry and a heavy tank brigade in Naushera-Beri Patan area. At this stage the Indians were involved in the relief of Poonch and Leh and strategically off balance. The official account of 1970, however, maintains that the aim of Venus was not to sever the Indian line of communication to Poonch but merely to force the Indians for ceasefire which they did and which came into effect on night 31 Dec 1948/01 January 1949. If ceasefire was the aim then the Pakistani strategy was barren since a ceasefire in July 1948 would have been far more strategically desirable! This was so since in April 1948 Zojila (captured by Gilgit Scouts under Lieut Shah Khan on 7th July 1948) the gateway to Srinagar as well as Ladakh in Pakistani hands, the frontline near Rajauri and Poonch surrounded by Pakistani troops/irregulars. It is not clear what the Pakistani GHQ advised the civilians at this stage but no records have been made public which prove that they gave any advice!


In the 1960s General Fazal-i- Muqeem asserted that the ceasefire of 1948 took place to the army’s horror since the army was close to a great victory. However, this point is refuted by the Pakistan Army’s Official account of 1970. Much later in 1976 General Sher Ali who was commanding a brigade of the Venus Force asserted that had the operation been launched Pakistani tanks would have been in Jammu within no time! This has to be taken with a pinch of salt once we compare it to the performance of armour in an offensive role in 1965 and 1971!


The Kashmir War ended with the Indians as masters of Poonch Valley, Srinagar Valley and Leh Valley but with a communication to all three valleys running precariously close to the Pakistani border! Thus strategically the Indian position despite all their strategic triumphs was not secure since their line of communications offered multiple objectives to any single Pakistani thrust. One tank brigade with a twenty mile thrust could threaten the existence of a whole Indian army corps. The Indians took no care to remedy this state of affairs despite many war games held in their Kashmir Corps to show that the Pakistanis could threaten the Indian line of communication in Poonch Valley.3


1965 War

The 1965 War was a comical affair! Civilians at the foreign ministry assessed that the Indians could be knocked out at the strategic level while soldiers at the highest military level and political level, the president being a soldier were not interested in any military adventure. The civilian hawks led by Bhutto, however, were in league with a group of generals and brigadiers within the army and finally succeeded in persuading the president Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


(famous for tactical timidity in Burma) into embarking on a military adventure. Musa the army chief had little strategic insight and was against any military adventure in which he may be forced to exercise his qualities of leadership! Musa had rudimentary understanding of strategy and tank warfare since he was a political choice appointed more because he was seen as politically no threat rather than for any military strategic or operational talent!


The Pakistani offensive plan i.e. a thrust against Indian line of communication at Akhnur in case of a limited war in Kashmir or/and against Indian line of communication between Indian Corps holding Ravi-Sutlej Corridor at Jandiala Guru on Amritsar-Jullundhur road in case of an all out war was brilliant in conception. This was so because if successful any of the two plans would have forced the Indians to sue for peace at best and to surrender at worst. No less an authority than the Indian Western Command C in C Harbaksh Singh thus confessed


“A Blitzkrieg deep into our territory towards the Grand Trunk Road or the Beas Bridge would have found us in the helpless position of a commander paralysed into inaction for want of readily available reserves while the enemy was inexorably pushing deep into our vitals. It is a nightmarish feeling even when considered in retrospect at this stage”.


To the Pakistan Army’s misfortune a plan which was brilliant at the strategic and operational level failed simply because those who were leading the military machine at the highest level lacked the strategic insight as well as resolution! The first opportunity was thus missed in Chamb-Jaurian Sector, when even a foreigner i.e. Chinese Foreign Minister visiting Pakistani thought that Akhnur5 was the key!


The second and most serious operational failure occurred in Khem Karan.This had more to do with poor execution at the divisional and brigade level and poor initial higher organization and composition of troops at the divisional level. The first being an operational failure and the second being an organizational failure at the higher command level.


At the operational and tactical level three events stand out in the war i.e. the Grand Slam Operation in Chamb-Jaurian, blunting of Indian offensive at Chawinda at Gadgor on 8th September when one lone tank regiment gave a severe mauling to two tank regiments out of a total available Indian force of an armoured division, and a brigade level counter attack in Lahore Sector.


Grand Slam failed because of change of command! Not because Akhtar Malik was better than Yahya but because one man either Akhtar or Yahya should have conducted the whole operation! The Indians admitted that their position was saved because of the pause of 48 hours, which occurred at Tawi after the Pakistani Chief Musa ordered change of horses in the mid stream!


Now the battle of Gadgor. Technically Gadgor was 24 Infantry Brigade Group versus 1st Indian Armoured Division. In reality the contest was 25 Cavalry versus Poona and Hodsons Horse since 24 Brigade Commander told Colonel Nisar to “do something”6 the vaguest order of 1965 War! Nisar had no idea of what was in front but by a miraculous coup d oeil deployed his tank regiment 25 Cavalry in a manner which would produce an instant nervous breakdown in an instructor who taught tank tactics at the armour school! 25 Cavalry was deployed by Nisar like a thin line of steel! Like a thin net to catch a whale! The manoeuvre if it can be called one succeeded because the Indian brigade commander was paralysed by the fog of war! Thus Commander Indian 1st Armoured Brigade saw a finger as a mountain! He saw a threat to his flanks which in reality was a half squadron of Indian 62 Cavalry which had lost its way and fired at Indian Artillery opposite Rangre! What Nisar deployed after the “Do Something” order was seen by the Indian brigade commander as a tank brigade! Thus he lost the will to use two uncommitted tank regiments to outflank the Pakistani position! Gadgor was a psychological defeat inflicted on K.K Singh by Nisar with Nisar not knowing what was in front of him and K.K Singh over estimating three times what was really in front of him. Thus in cognitive terms, at Gadgor was a tank regiment commander who did not know what was in front of him against a tank brigade commander who was overawed by what he assessed was in front of him and was reduced into a state of total inertia and indecision. The important factor in this decisive battle was the fact that tangibly K.K Singh had the third tank regiment as well as three uncommitted squadrons within his two committed tank regiments with which he could have easily outflanked Nisar and got to his rear! Nisar had tangibly no reserves with which he could have countered K.K’s outflanking manoeuvre.


The counter attack of Brigadier Qayyum Sher in Lahore Sector was a successful divisional battle ordered by Major General Sarfaraz MC and executed by Brigadier Qayyum Sher most resolutely! It produced a crisis on the Indian side and threw the Indians off balance! Both retired in the same rank sometimes after the war!


1971 War

The 1971 War was a strange war! The Indians won great glory but failed to strategically solve their military problems! They overran East Pakistan creating a new state of Bangladesh but merely reduced Pakistan’s defence problems and increased their own problems by creating a new state which became more hostile to India and is far more difficult to militarily to deal with than the old East Pakistan! Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


By November, war seemed inevitable; a massive buildup of Indian forces on the border with East Pakistan had begun. The Indian military waited for winter, when the drier ground would make for easier operations and Himalayan passes would be closed by snow, preventing any Chinese intervention. On 23 November, Yahya Khan declared a state of emergency in all of Pakistan and told his people to prepare for war.


On the evening of Sunday, 3 December, the Pakistani air force launched sorties on eight airfields in north-western India. This attack was inspired by the Arab-Israeli Six Day War and the success of the Israeli preemptive strike. At, 5:30 PM that day, General Yahya Khan ordered the Pakistan Air Force to bomb Indian Forward Airbases. Pakistan started flying sorties towards India within fifteen minutes of the order. Pakistan launched attacks against eight Indian airfields on the Western front including Agra which was 300 miles from the border. These attacks could only achieve partial success. Unlike the Israeli attack on Arab airbases in 1967 which involved a large number of Israeli planes, Pakistan flew no more than 50 planes to India. Indian runways were non-functional for several hours after the attack. But these attacks gave India a good reason to launch an attack against Pakistan. India started flying sorties to Pakistan by midnight. On the Eastern front, the Indian Army joined forces with the Mukti Bahini to form the Mitro Bahini ("Allied Forces"); the next day the Indian forces responded with a massive coordinated air, sea, and land assault on the West Pakistani Army in East Pakistan.


Yahya Khan counter-attacked India in the West in an attempt to capture territory which might have been used to bargain for territory they expected to lose in the east. The land battle in the West was crucial for any hope of preserving a united Pakistan. The Indian Army quickly responded to the Pakistan Army's movements in the west and made some initial gains, including capturing around 5,500 sq miles of Pakistan territory (land gained by India in Pakistani Kashmir and the Pakistani Punjab sector were later ceded in the Shimla Agreement of 1972, as a gesture of goodwill).



At sea, the Indian Navy proved its superiority by the success of Operation Trident, the name given to the attack on Karachi's port. It also resulted in the destruction of 2 Pakistani destroyers and a minesweeper, and was followed by the similar Operation Python. The waters in the east were also secured by the Indian Navy. The Indian Air Force conducted 4,000 sorties in the west while its counterpart, the PAF put up little retaliation, partly because of the paucity of non-Bengali technical personnel. This lack of retaliation has also been attributed to the deliberate decision of the PAF High Command to cut its losses as it had already incurred huge losses in the conflict.[1] In the east, the small air contingent of Pakistan Air Force No. 14 Sqn was destroyed resulting in Indian air superiority in the east. The entire campaign was a true blitzkrieg, exploiting weakness in the enemy's positions and bypassing opposition, resulting in a swift victory.[3] Faced with insurmountable losses, the Pakistani military capitulated in just under a fortnight. On December 16, the Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered. The next day India announced a unilateral ceasefire, to which Pakistan agreed.


1984 Crisis

The 1984 Crisis was a calculated Indian response against alleged Pakistani involvement in the Sikh Insurgency in Punjab. Tangibly the Indian position was far superior to Pakistan since Pakistan Army was still equipped with the old T-59s. The situation was saved by two Individuals who polished off the Indian ‘Durga Devi’ thus leading to a swift de-escalation of the crisis.


Siachen Crisis

1987 Crisis

The 1987 Crisis was a case of over enthusiasm at the military level with little outward enthusiasm at the highest political level. The Indian Chief Sundarji was living in visions of Glory and visualized that a military manoeuvre would escalate into a war which would lead to a successful Indian military thrust severing the Pakistani line of communication in Rahimyar Khan Sector thus leading to the emergence of a new state in Pakistani Sindh and the creation of a second Indian Field Marshal after Manekshaw i.e Sundarji!


Comically Sundarji’s visions of glory were not matched by strategic insight! Thus he was overawed into inaction and inertia like K.K Singh at Gadgor, once the Pakistani High Command relocated the Pakistani reserves northwards in a purely defensive move!


1987 was a watershed and marked the Indian Army at its lowest position in the eyes of the highest Indian political leadership


vis-a-vis the high position of 1971. Sundarji destroyed all that the Indian Army had gained in 25 years with one night of irresolution and inertia!


1999 Crisis

The 1999 Crisis in Kargil were the result of an audacious Pakistani plan to inflict a sharp but highly subtle psychological defeat on the Indians by threatening the Indian line of communication to Leh and Siachen by placing a small Pakistani force on the heights overlooking the Dras-Kargil-Leh Road. The execution at tactical level was brilliant albeit marked by poor logistic arrangements at divisional level! The Pakistani political leadership lost the resolution to press home the move to its final conclusion. Full facts are not available about what the Pakistan Army’s highest leadership wanted at this point in time.


The Indians paid a heavy price in terms of casualties for an intelligence failure. What Pakistan gained or lost is not clear although a debate continues about who was Kargils winner. Kargil stands out as merely one stage in a long series of actions in Pakistani military history. If Kargil was a political failure then logically the army should have packed off the political leadership in June 1999! Yet it chose to blame Nawaz only later on like it blamed Liaquat for calling off Operation Venus in 1948!


Conclusion

Indo-Pak Military history is a continuous story of strategic failures and a mix of operational successes and failures. At the tactical level both the armies fought well. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

 Both states are successor states of the British Colonial Indian Empire. Indians were not groomed or trained for making strategic decisions. Strategic insight is the result of a process spread over many generations. The German General Staff was not created by a sudden flight. Even the British Empire was not created by the strategic genius of one man! Militarily the failure of both armies at the higher level is more easy to understand. Both were the continuation of a colonial army designed for internal security and brigade level actions. The Indian Army in WW Two either fought as part of a larger British Army or in circumstances of immense material superiority with massive US military aid as in Burma! The political failure in Pakistan is equally simple to explain since in words of Mr Jinnah most of the Muslim politicians would not do anything without consulting the DC (Deputy Commissioner)! That may be a reason why Nawaz Sharif went to DC! 

1999 - Present

In October 1999 the Pakistan Army for the fourth time overthrew a democratically elected government which resulted in additional sanctions being placed against Pakistan, resulting in the current President, General Pervez Musharraf, coming to power in a bloodless coup Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government against the volonté générale formed by the majority of the citizen, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ...


In October 2007, General Musharraf ran for president in a controversial election, in uniform. A case was brought before the Supreme Court of Pakistan questioning the ability of the serving Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army taking part in politics and being able to run for president. While the case was still pending with the Supreme Court, General Musharraf fearing a decision against him, suspended the constitution and proclaimed a Martial Law under the guise of emergency. This was followed by widespread arrests of lawyers, political workers, teachers and members of civil society in general.


Since the 9/11 incident, Pakistan unrecognized Taliban and has become a key ally of USA in the fight against terrorism. As part of United States war on terrorism, the army has moved over 80,000 troops to the Pakistan-Afghan border to patrol against extreme elements cross border infiltration. The Army has started new operations in Waziristan and Swat in late 2007, which have resulted in over 600 militants killed. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


The Pakistan Army commenced counter insurgency operations in Baluchistan from 2004. With some of the heaviest fighting taking place in 2006 resulting in the killing of the leader of the Nawab Akbar Bugti and the suppression of the Baluchistan Liberation Army and Pakistan won the war. now. ... Main article: History of Balochistan The Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) is an organisation dedicated to fighting for the independence of Balochistan. ...


Pakistan Army Role in Peacekeeping

UN peacekeepers (from Pakistan) to the DRC in 2005

In the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterized by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations peace keeping forces for conflict resolution. Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The United Nations has been undertaking peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment of peace keeping forces has increased manifold since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the figure rose to 52000. Presently it exceeds a staggering figure of 80,000 troops.


Pakistan, which firmly believes in the purposes and the principles of the United Nations Charter has, since 1960, been actively participating in the United Nations multi-national efforts to maintain peace and order around the globe. Its contribution to United Nations peace-keeping has been as wide ranging a the varied cultural, geographic, political and security conditions in which it had to operate.


Pakistan’s participation in peace-keeping activities of the United Nations reflects its belief in the brotherhood of mankind and its commitment to peace across the globe. The humble contribution it has made in this regard bespeaks its desire to see the principles of human dignity, freedom and self-determination applied to all the peoples struggling to secure their inalienable basic rights.


Pakistan's participation in peacekeeping activities of the United Nations reflects its belief in the brotherhood of mankind and its commitment to peace across the globe. Ever since its participation in first UN Peace Keeping Mission in Congo in 1960. Pakistan has remain committed to this cause.


Pakistan Contribution in UN Peace Keeping Missions

  • UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 1960-1964
  • UN Security Force in New Guinea, West Irian (UNSF) 1962-1963
  • UN Yemen Observer Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963-1964
  • UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG) 1989-1990
  • UN Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991-2003
  • UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) 1993-1996
  • UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992-1993
  • UN Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992-1995
  • UN Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR) 1992-1995
  • UN Observer Mission for Rawanda (UNAMIR) 1993-1996
  • UN Verification Mission in Angola (UNAVEM III) 1995-1997
  • UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia (UNTAES) 1996-1997
  • UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996-2002
  • UN Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001-2005
  • UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date
  • UN Mission in Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) 2003-to-date
  • UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) 2003-to-date
  • UN Mission in Ivory Coast (ONUCI) 2004-to-date
  • UN Mission in Burundi (ONUB) 2004-to-date
  • UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) 2005-to-date
  • UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) 1999-to-date

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Map showing Papua province in Indonesia Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Rwanda is a country in central Africa. ... Coat of arms Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. ... MONUC is a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations unies en République démocratique du Congo, in English: Mission of the United Nations (UN) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...

Political Power of the Army

The Pakistani army has always played an integral part of the Pakistan government and politics since its inception. It has virtually remained as the 3rd party that has seized power every now and then in the name of stabilizing Pakistan. The first of them was General Ayub Khan who came to power through a coup in 1958. Later, General Yahya Khan would assume power in 1969. After the 71 war the democratic setup was restored only to be cut short in 1977 after a coup which saw the end of another democratically elected Government and the Hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani Premier. General Zia ul-Haq ruled as a dictator virtually unopposed until his death in 1988. Despite the exit of the army from mainstream politics, the political muscle of the military was everpresent. The current President, General Pervez Musharraf, came to power in a bloodless coup in October 1999 overthrowing the last democratically elected government led by Nawaz Sharif. This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: , IPA: ; Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... Gen. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government against the volonté générale formed by the majority of the citizen, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan)[1] is a Pakistani politician belonging to a well established Kashmiri business family. ...


Fauji Foundation

Fauji Foundation (established in 1954) is a charitable trust, operating on a completely self sustaining basis, channeling approximately 80% of the profits from commercial ventures into social protection programmes that serve a beneficiary population representing approximately 7% of the country’s population. [15]


Spending more than Rs. 21 billion since inception on welfare, the Foundation provides services in the areas of healthcare, education, educational stipends, technical and vocational training.

  • Over 2.1 million patients treated per year through the FF Healthcare System
  • Approximately 38,000 students enrolled in the FF Education System
  • Approximately 70,000 educational stipends dispersed each year
  • Over 6,000 individuals trained annually through the Vocational & Technical Training Centres

Considered the most sustainable social protection mechanism in the country, Fauji Foundation provides welfare services to approximately 10 million individuals on a completely sustainable basis. Running autonomously for over 50 years, the foundation has been providing healthcare, education, vocational and technical training to over 7% of the country’s population through 294 welfare projects. [16]


Personnel Training

Enlisted ranks

Most enlisted personnel used to come from rural families, and many have only rudimentary literacy skills, but with the increase in the litracy level the requirements have been raised to Matriculate level (10th Grade). Recruits are processed gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, taught the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of elementary education before their military training actually starts. Urdu ( , , trans. ...


In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usually serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance.


Officer Ranks

Pakistan Army officer conducting helicopter assault exercise with US Army at Fort Benning
Pakistan Army officer conducting helicopter assault exercise with US Army at Fort Benning

About 320 men enter the army bi-annually through the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul in Abbottabad in the North West Frontier Province; a small number--especially physicians and technical specialists--are directly recruited, and these persons are part of the heart of the officer corps. The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have completed twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,870 × 1,935 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,870 × 1,935 pixels, file size: 2. ... Fort Benning is a United States Army base, located southwest of Columbus in Muscogee and Chattahoochee counties in Georgia and Russell County, Alabama It is part of the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... Pakistan Military Academy Logo Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) is a Military Academy of the Pakistan Army. ... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ...


The army has twelve other training establishments, including schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intelligence, or mountain warfare. A National University of Science and Technology (NUST) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, and electrical engineering. At the apex of the army training system is the Command and Staff College at Quetta, one of the few institutions inherited from the colonial period. The college offers a ten-month course in tactics, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division level. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended the school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics. The Command and Staff College was established in 1974 at Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ...


The senior training institution for all service branches is the National Defence University. Originally established in 1971 at Rawalpindi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the school house was relocated to Islamabad in 1995. It also offers courses that allow civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program begun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detailed to academic training, achieving master's degrees and even doctorates at universities in Pakistan and abroad. National Defence University Logo National Defence University (NDU) is a Pakistani military institution whose origin goes back to the year 1963, when the 1st Army War Course started at the Command and Staff College, Quetta. ...   (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ...


Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and especially to the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armored and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, but numbers varied along with vicissitudes in the United States-Pakistan military relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all foreign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan again has begun sending officers to US Army schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ...


Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank.


Relief Operations and Economic Development

Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from an American Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter October 19, 2005
Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from an American Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter October 19, 2005

In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastating earthquake, army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1848x1224, 639 KB)BALAKOT, Pakistan -- Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter here Oct. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1848x1224, 639 KB)BALAKOT, Pakistan -- Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter here Oct. ... The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is a versatile, twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. ... The Kashmir earthquake (also known as the South Asian earthquake or the Great Pakistan earthquake) of 2005, was a major earthquake, of which the epicentre was the Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ...


The army also engaged in extensive economic activities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army's own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the local civilian economy. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass castings and sold them to civilian consumers.


Several army organizations performed functions that were important to the civilian sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucking food and other goods across the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to China; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications networks in remote parts of Pakistan.


Women and Minorities in the Army

Female cadets of Pakistan Military Academy stand guard at Quaid-e-Azam’s mausoleum.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Women

Women have served in the Pakistani Army since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizable number of Women serving in the army. Most women are recruited in the regular Army to perform medical and educational work. There is also a Women's Guard section of Pakistan's National Guard where women are trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan began to recruit women for combat positions and the Elite Anti-Terrorist Force recently graduated women candidates to be Sky Marshals for Pakistan based airlines.[17] In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul became the first women guards of honour.[18] Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have women Major Generals in the Army.[19]


Minorities

Pakistan Army's Sikh and female cadet stand guard


Recruitment is nationwide and the army attempts to maintain an ethnic balance but most enlisted recruits, as in British times, come from a few districts in northern Punjab Province and the adjacent Azad Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province. Pakistan's Officer Corps are also mostly from Punjab and the North West Frontier Province and of middle-class, rural backgrounds. This has caused some resentment to the other ethnic groups in Pakistan especially when the Army conducts operation in those areas where Punjabis are not a majority. The army has been criticized by the locals for lacking ethnic sensitivity. Efforts have been undertaken to recruit more ethnic groups such as Sindhis, and Balochis into the Pakistani Army. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (557 × 622 pixels, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (557 × 622 pixels, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... This article details only the area administered by Pakistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ...



Minorities in Pakistan are allowed to sit in all examinations, including the one conducted by Inter Services Selection Board however the proportion of religious minorities in the Pakistan army is still considerably very less. The first Sikh officer was recently inducted into the army and is expected to set the tone for future recruitment for minorities.[20] The Pakistan army also recruited a Hindu for the first time in its 60-year-old history. [21] The army sees itself as a national institution and thus many non-Muslim officers (including Qadiyanis) have achieved high ranks within the army[22]. Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


Rank Structure and Uniform Insignia

Pakistani Officer Ranks
Rank Field Marshal (5-Star) General (4-Star) Lieutenant General (3-Star) Major General (2-Star) Brigadier (1-Star) Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant 2nd Lieutenant
NATO equivalent OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF-1
Uniform insignia
Pakistani Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) and Enlisted Ranks
Rank Subedar Major (JCO) Subedar (JCO) Naib Subedar (JCO) Battalion Havildar Major Battalion Quartermaster Havildar Company Havildar Major Company Quatermaster Havildar Havildar Naik Lance Naik Jawan
NATO equivalent None None None OR-9 OR-8 OR-8 OR-7 OR-5/6 OR-4 OR-3 OR-1/2
Uniform insignia No Insignia

Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Subedar-Major is the senior rank of Junior Commissioned Officer in the Indian and Pakistani Armies, and formerly Viceroys Commissioned Officer in the British Indian Army. ... Subedar is a mid-level rank in the Indian Army. ... Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) is a term describing a group of military ranks found in the Indian Army and Pakistan Army. ... Havildar was the equivalent rank to Sergeant in the British Indian Army, next above Naik, and is still used in the modern Indian Army and Pakistan Army. ... Havildar was the equivalent rank to Sergeant in the British Indian Army, next above Naik, and is still used in the modern Indian Army and Pakistan Armys. ... Naik (or Nayak) (Nk) was the equivalent rank to Corporal in the British Indian Army, ranking between Lance Naik and Havildar. ... Lance Naik (L/Nk) was the equivalent rank to Lance Corporal in the British Indian Army, ranking below Naik. ... The word jawan is used to refer to soldiers in several South Asian countries. ... Image File history File links Subedar. ...

Nishan-e-Haider

The Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: نشان حیدر) (Sign of the Lion), is the highest military award given by Pakistan. Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: , translated as Order of the Lion, abbreviated as NH), is the highest military award given by Pakistan. ...


Recipients Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients and Ghazi meaning victor for living recipients.

  1. Captain Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed (1910–July 27, 1948)
  2. Major Tufail Muhammad Shaheed (1914–August 7, 1958)
  3. Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (1928–September 10, 1965)
  4. Major Muhammad Akram Shaheed (1938–1971)
  5. Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Shaheed(Air Force) (1951–August 20, 1971)
  6. Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed (1943–December 6, 1971)
  7. Jawan Sowar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed (1949–December 10, 1971)
  8. Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz Shaheed (1944–December 17, 1971)
  9. Captain Karnal Sher Khan Shaheed (1970–July 5, 1999)
  10. Lalak Jan Shaheed (1967–July 7, 1999)

Born in Lyalipur (Faisalabad) in 1910 in a family from Sanghori, District Rawalpindi, Captain Sarwar was commissioned to the Punjab Regiment in 1944. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tufail Mohammad (Urdu: طفيل محمد ) was born in 1914 at Hoshiarpur, Punjab. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Major Raja Aziz Bhatti (Urdu: عزیز بهٹی) was born in Hong Kong in 1928. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammad Akram (Urdu: محمد اکرم ) was born: 1938 in Dingha Village, District of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. ... Rashid Minhas Rashid Minhas or Rashid Minhas Shaheed (Urdu: راشد منہاس) (February 17, 1951–August 20, 1971) was a Pilot Officer in the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Major Shabbir Sharif was a Pakistani Army Major who died in the 1971 India-Pakistan war, and was awarded Pakistans highest military award, Nishan-e-Haider. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Jawan Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed was born in Dhok Pir Bakhsh (now Dhok Muhammad Hussain Janjua) in Gujar Khan on June 18, 1949. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... 1. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Karnal Sher Khan (1970–1999) (Urdu: کرنال شیر خان) was a Pakistani Army officer. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Lalak Jan (1967 – 7 July 1999, Urdu: لالک جان) was born in Yasin, Ghizer District, in the Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Special Forces

The Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the British Special Air Service and the United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets). Official numbers are put between 2,500 to 3,000; however the actual strength is classified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions). Military manpower Military age 16 years of age Availability 39,028,014 (2005) Males ages 16-49 Reaching military age males: 1,969,055 (2005) Active troops 620,000 (Ranked 9th) Military expenditures Dollar figure $3. ...


Weapons and Equipment

Small Arms

Al-Khalid battle tank
Al-Zarrar
Al-Zarrar
Mohafiz armored vehicle.
Pakistan Army Mi-17s
Pakistan Army Mi-17s
Bell 412s
Bell 412s
Pakistan Army Baktar Shikan Anti-Tank vehicle
  • Heckler & Koch MP5 9 mm carbines and the Carbine 1A 9 mm sub-machine guns*
  • Machine Gun MG3*
  • SMG PK, Type 1 & 2*
  • Assault Rifle G3, Types A3 & P4*
  • Anti Aircraft Machine Gun 12.7 mm, Type 54*
  • Steyr SSG-4 and SSG-P2 (sniper rifles) *
  • M82 Barrett rifle (US - Semi-Auto Rifle - .50 BMG)
  • AK-47 (currently being phased out) *
  • Type 81 Assault Rifle
  • M4 Carbine (in service with SF)
  • AK-103 Assault Rifle
  • Steyr AUG

*All Pakistani small arms are indigenously produced Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1365 pixels, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Summary Al Zarar MBT during the IDEAS 2006 Defence Exhibition held in Karachi, Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1365 pixels, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Summary Al Zarar MBT during the IDEAS 2006 Defence Exhibition held in Karachi, Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 437 pixel Image in higher resolution (1800 × 984 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pakistan Army, Mi-17s I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 437 pixel Image in higher resolution (1800 × 984 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pakistan Army, Mi-17s I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Mil Mi-17 (Also known as the Mi-8MT, NATO reporting name Hip-H) was a Soviet cargo helicopter. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1750x1002, 192 KB) A group of Norwegian Bell 412SP military helicopters flying to the port of Orkanger to insert a team of U.S. Marines from 1st Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1750x1002, 192 KB) A group of Norwegian Bell 412SP military helicopters flying to the port of Orkanger to insert a team of U.S. Marines from 1st Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The MP5 is a 9 mm submachine gun of German design, developed in the 1960s by a group of engineers from the West German arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH (HK). ... The MG3 is an air-cooled, belt-fed general purpose machine gun manufactured by the German firm Rheinmetall. ... The MP5 is a submachine gun, developed by German weapons designer Heckler und Koch (HK) in the 1960s. ... The G3 is a 7. ... For the assault rifle, see Valmet M82. ... Type 81 may refer to: Type 81 Surface-to-Air Missile Chinese Type 81 Assault Rifle Tribal class frigate, designated as Type 81 Category: ... M4A1 redirects here. ... AK-103 The AK-103 is a modern Russian built version of the famous AK-47 assault rifle, chambered for the 7. ... The AUG is an Austrian 5. ...

Pakistan Army Inventory
Vehicle/System/Aircraft Firm Number in Service Status
T-80UD Main Battle Tank 520 In service.
Al Khalid Main Battle Tank 1600 In Service; Currently under production
Type 85IIAP Main Battle Tank 900 In Service. Being phased out
Al-Zarar Tank Main Battle Tank 720 Currently under production
Type 79IIAP (Chinese T-81 Upgrade) 450 Being phased out by Al Khalid
T-75 & 76 Light Tank 400 Being phased out
Type 75 2200 Being phased out by Al Zarrar & Al Khalid II
M48 Patton 240 Being phased out by Al Khalid
Al-Khalid II Main Battle Tank ??? Under production.
Hamza Infantry fighting Vehicle ??? Being procured
Al-Fahd Infantry fighting vehicle 140 In Service
Talha Armoured Personnel Carrier 400+ Final number to be around 2,000
Saad Armoured Personnel Carrier ??? Currently in production
M113 Armoured Personnel Carrier 1500+ In Service
BTR-70 Armoured Personnel Carrier 169 In Service
Mohafiz Light Armoured Personnel Carrier ??? In Service & Additional APCs being procured
Scorpion Light jeep 260 In Service
Al Qaswa Logistical Vehicle ?? Being procured
M109A5 155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer ??? 115 Ordered along with 150 A5 upgrade kits
M109A2 155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 150 In Service
M110A2 203 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 40 In Service
M-7 105 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 50 In Service
T-56 85 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service
M-56 105 mm Towed Artillery 80 In Service
M-101 105 mm Towed Artillery 300 In Service
T-60 122 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service
T-54 122 mm Towed Artillery 400 In Service
T-59I 130 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service
M-59 155 mm Towed Artillery 30 In Service
M-114 155 mm Towed Artillery 60 In Service
M-198 155 mm Towed Artillery 120 In Service
M-115 203 mm Towed Artillery 40 In Service
Panter T-155 mm Towed Artillery 12 Ordered from Turkey
AH-1F/S Cobra Attack Helicopter 70+ In Service
Bell 412 Huey Transport Helicopter 25 In Service
Bell 206 Jet Ranger Transport Helicopter 5 In Service
UH-1 Huey Transport Helicopter 10 In Service
Puma Transport Helicopter 25 In Service
Mil Mi-17 Transport Helicopter 46 Additional helicopters planned
Bell 407 Light Transport Helicopter ?? 40 On Order
Eurocopter AS-550 Light Transport Helicopter ?? Replacing Alouette III & Lama
Aerospatiale Alouette III Light Transport Helicopter ?? Being phased out
Lama Light Transport Helicopter ?? Being phased out

The T-80 is a Soviet/Russian/Ukrainian main battle tank. ... MBT 2000, or Al-Khalid, is the Main Battle Tank of the Pakistan Army. ... Also known as the Type 88C, the Type 96 is the final development variant of Chinas second generation main battle tank (MBT), with certain performance approaching the standard of the third generation MBTs. ... Al-Zarar MBT The Al-Zarar tank series was designed to improve and rebuild the Pakistan armys Type 59 main battle tank by modernizing its armaments, fire control and ballistic protection. ... ... The M48 Patton was one of the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s to the 1990s. ... Al Fahd armoured vehicle has been developed by the Abdallah Al Faris Company for Heavy Industries, which is based in Saudi Arabia at Dammam. ... APC-Talha has been designed and manufactured by Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) using Ukrainian engines. ... The M113 is an armored personnel carrier family of vehicles in use with the US military and many other nations. ... BTR-70 The BTR-70 is an eight-wheeled armored personnel carrier originally developed during the late 1970s and fielded by the Warsaw Pact and allies beginning in the early 1980s. ... Mohafiz, security Vehicle designed and manufactured at Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) Mohafiz is security Vehicle designed and manufactured at Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) has been based on the chassis of commercial vehicle. ... AL Qaswa is an APC which has been designed and manufactured by Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT). ...

Mortars

  • (Type) 81 mm
  • AM-ffff Series 120 mm
  • Type 63-1

Anti-tank Guided Weapons

  • TOW ATGM
  • TOW II (recently procured)
  • Bakter-Shikan ATGM

A TOW missile being fired from a Jeep. ... A TOW missile being fired from a Jeep. ... Bakter Shikan is a Anti-tank guided missile system, it is completely manufactured in Pakistan by Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL). ...

Army Air Defence

A SA-7 missile and launcher.
A SA-7 missile and launcher.
  • AA guns ZU-23/33 30, 36, 37 mm
  • RBS-23 BAMSE
  • RBS-70
  • SA-7 Grail
  • FIM-92 Stinger

Image File history File links A U.S. military photo taken from http://www. ... Image File history File links A U.S. military photo taken from http://www. ... A winter firing of the RBS 70 during an exercise in Boden, Sweden in March 2001. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. ... The FIM-92 Stinger is a man portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the US armed services, with whom it entered service in 1981. ... The FIM-43 Redeye was a man-portable surface-to-air missile system. ... Anza are a series of Pakistani IR-guided shoulder-fired surface to air missiles. ...

Missiles

List of Pakistani Strategic Missiles:

Designation Other Name Range Payload Status Inventory
Hatf-I/IA 80/100 km 500 kg Deployed 100+
Abdali Hatf-II 180 km 500 kg Deployed, Under production Unknown
Ghaznavi Hatf-III 1290 km 500 kg Deployed, Under production 100+
Shaheen-I Hatf-IV 2750 km 750 kg Deployed, Under production 75-150
Ghauri-I Hatf-V 1500 km 700-1000 kg Deployed, Under production 100+
Ghauri-II Hatf-VA 2,000km, More range with lighter payload. 1200 kg Operational, Under production 100+
Shaheen-II Hatf-VI 2,500km, More range with lighter payload. 1000+ kg Deployed, Under production 200+
Babur Hatf-VII 500 km 500 kg Deployed, Cruise Missile 400-1000
Ghauri-III Hatf-VIII 4,000 km 1000+ kg unknown
M-11 300 km 500 kg In service Unknown
Shaheen-III 3,600+ km 1000+ kg unknown
Tipu Sultan 5,000+ km 1500 kg under development

Note: every missile has nuclear payload. The Hatf-I is a short-range, road mobile, solid propellant ballistic missile. ... Abdali-I is a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) , created in Pakistan and currently in service of Pakistans Army. ... Ghaznavi is the name given to a North Korean missile acquired by Pakistan. ... The Shaheen missile series (named after a white eagle that lives in the mountains) is a variant of the Hatf missile that was developed by National Defence Complex (NDC), a subsidiary of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) which was formed in 1993, under the guidance of Dr. Samar Mubarakmand. ... Ghauri is an IRBM acquired by Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) of Pakistan in response to the missile program developed by India. ... The Ghauri-II is a medium-range ballistic missile MRBM. It is a longer ranged variant of the Ghauri-I missile. ... The Shaheen missile series (named after a white eagle that lives in the mountains of Pakistan) was developed by National Defence Complex (NDC), a subsidiary of the NESCOM which was formed in 1993, under the guidance of Dr. Samar Mubarakmand. ... The Babur missile (named after the Mughal Emperor Babur) is the first cruise missile fielded by Pakistan. ... The Ghauri-III is an intermediate-range ballistic missile under development by Pakistan. ... The Dongfeng missile (東風飛彈 for East Wind) is a series of intermediate and intercontinental ballistic missiles operated by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Shaheen missile series (named after a white eagle that lives in the mountains of Pakistan). ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ...


The M-11 Chinese missile is in service too, which is a Short-Range Ballistic Missile with a max range of 300km it uses solid fuel and can carry a payload of around 500 kg. The Dongfeng missile (東風飛彈 for East Wind) is a series of intermediate and intercontinental ballistic missiles operated by the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In addition, there exists the Shaheen-III which is under research and development and will be solid fueled like the others in the Shaheen series. It will have a range of 3600+ km and a payload of 1000+ kg. This weapon is an Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile. The Shaheen missile series (named after a white eagle that lives in the mountains of Pakistan). ...


It has been recently reported by the Pakistani Press (Daily Jang) that Pakistan has the ability to MIRV its missiles. This has been seen as possibly the greatest achievement to date. It has also been reported that Pakistan would likely MIRV its Shaheen II missile. The Daily Jang () is the largest Urdu language newspaper. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Future Plans

Throughout the International Defence Exhibition & Seminar (IDEAS) at Karachi in November 2006, Pakistani firms have signed joint development, production and marketing agreements with defence firms from South Korea, France and Ukraine. These agreements include new reactive armour bricks, 155 mm artillery shells, and other developments in armour and land weaponry. These agreements all relate to the Pakistan Army's AFFDP-2019 modernization program of its armour, artillery and infantry.


A few months prior to IDEAS 2006, the Pakistan Army and Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) announced the development of the Al Khalid II Main Battle Tank (MBT). The Al Khalid II is poised to become the Pakistan Army's backbone main battle tank from 2012; thus replacing 1200 obsolete Chinese T-59 and 300 T-85IIAP. Not much is known about this tank, but it is reported that the Al Khalid II is a very extensive upgrade of the current Al Khalid. Other reports suggest that it will be an entirely new tank that is based off Western designs. Turkish press reported that a Pakistani armour firm will participate in the Turkey's new generation tank project. Turkey and Pakistan have signed many memorandums of understanding in various defence-related fields. Given that many Pakistani firms have signed joint agreements with Western firms, it is possible that a considerable part of the Al Khalid II's design will be influenced from the Turkish tank design. Nonetheless, the new generation tank is expected to form the backbone of the Pakistan Army's tank force; in the long-term.


The Pakistan Army will standardize its artillery capability to 155 mm by 2019. This can be seen by the acquisition of 115 M109A5 self-propelled howitzers from the United States, and joint production deals of 155 mm shells with French and South Korean firms. It is expected that the army will procure a range of light, medium and heavy towed and self-propelled howitzer artillery from China, Europe and the United States. These will replace all non-155 mm and older systems. The Army reportedly ordered and procured an undisclosed number of WS-1B Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (MLRS). As part of the artillery modernization program, the Army will likely procure a fair number of new MLRS systems of various ranges and shell sizes.


Modernization of the Army Aviation is underway with the procurement of new transport and attack helicopters from the United States, Russia and Europe. Finalized acquisitions include 26 Bell 412EP and at least a dozen Mi-17 medium-lift transport helicopters from the U.S and Russia, respectively. Forty Bell 407 and an unknown number of Fennec light helicopters from the U.S. and Eurocopter have also been ordered, respectively. Plans are underway to begin replacing the IAR 330 Puma, older Mil Mi-8/17, Bell Jet Rangers and older Huey helicopters; options include the Eurocopter NH-90 Tactical Transport Helicopter and UH-60M Blackhawk. The Pakistan Army has procured dozens of excess AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters since 2002; at least 20 have been brought into service to supplement the serving 18. The army reportedly has upgraded its entire fleet with AH-1Z King Cobra avionics and new weapon systems such as the TOW-2 and Hellfire missiles. Up to 30 new-generation attack helicopters will be procured to further enhance the Army's attack aviation arm; options include the Eurocopter Tiger, South African AH-2 Rooivalk and Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow. The IAR 330 is the Romanian built version of Aerospatiale SA 330 Puma. ...


See also

The Frontier Force Regiment is a unit of the Pakistan Army formed in 1956 from the amalgamation of three regiments: the Corps of Guides, the Frontier Force Regiment, and the Pathan Regiment, with its regimental center at Abbottabad. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pakistan started focusing on nuclear development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ... Military of Pakistan (Urdu: پاک عسکریہ) is the principal defence organization of Pakistan. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m " List of Chief of army staff". Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  2. ^ " Subdivisions of the army". Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Three Corps Commander Replaced. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  4. ^ a b c d Five Army officials promoted. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  5. ^ a b c d e 6 New Lt Gens. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g New Postings and Promotions. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Khan, Iftikhar. Strategic forces command gets new head. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  8. ^ Sheikh, Shakil. New QMG. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  9. ^ New 10 Corps commander. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  10. ^ Pakistan achieves excellence in defence production. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  11. ^ New Surgeon General. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  12. ^ NAB Punjab DG Transferred. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  13. ^ a b Major Army Reshuffle. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  14. ^ CJ case caused huge damage: Ramday. Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  15. ^ http://www.fauji.org.pk/
  16. ^ http://www.fauji.org.pk/Webforms/FFWelfare.aspx?Id=81
  17. ^ " Pakistan Female Sky Marshalls". Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  18. ^ " Pakistan Female honour guards". Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  19. ^ " Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have women Major Generals ". Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  20. ^ "Sikh cadet in Pakistan army". Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  21. ^ "Pakistan army recruits Hindu cadet". Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  22. ^ "Ahmadis in Pakistan army". Retrieved on 2007-01-21.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0195473346.

Further reading

  • Ayub, Muhammad. An Army, Its Role and Rule: A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil, 1947–1999. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Rosedog Books. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3.

External links


Marketplace is a radio program that focuses on business, the economy, and events that influence them. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Military of Pakistan
Pakistan Army | Pakistan Navy | Pakistan Air Force

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