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Encyclopedia > Pakistan
اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان
Islāmī Jumhūrīyah Pākistān
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Flag of Pakistan State Emblem of Pakistan
Flag State Emblem
Motto
اتحاد، تنظيم، يقين محکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam  (Urdu)
"Unity, Discipline and Faith"
Anthem
"Qaumi Tarana"
Capital Islamabad
33°40′N, 73°10′E
Largest city Karachi
Official languages Urdu (national), English (official)[1]
Demonym Pakistani
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Pervez Musharraf
 -  Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz
Formation
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Declared August 14, 1947 
 -  Islamic republic March 23, 1956 
Area
 -  Total 880,940 km² (36th)
340,403 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.1
Population
 -  2007 estimate 161,488,000[2][3] (6th)
 -  Density 206/km² (53rd)
534/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $465.4 billion (25th)
 -  Per capita $2,943 (128th)
Gini? (2002) 30.6 (medium) 
HDI (2006) 0.539 (medium) (134th)
Currency Rupee (Rs.) (PKR)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+6)
Internet TLD .pk
Calling code +92

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان), or Pakistan , is a country in South Asia, marking the region where South Asia converges with Central Asia and the Middle East.[4][5] It has a 1,046 kilometer (650 mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea in the south, and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast.[6] Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Pakistan. ... The national flag of Pakistan was designed by Syed Amir-ud-Din Kedwai based on the 1906 flag of the All-India Muslim League. ... The National Emblem of Pakistan was adopted in 1954 upon approval by the government. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Flag of Pakistan The Qaumi Tarana (Urdu: , QaumÄ« Tarāna National Anthem, from Persian Tarāna-e Qowm) is the national anthem of Pakistan. ... Image File history File links LocationPakistan. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... The Dominion of Pakistan was an entity that was established as a result of partition from India as a homeland for the Muslims in August 1947. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... The Pakistani rupee (PKR) is the currency of Pakistan. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Pakistan Standard Time (PST) is the time zone for Pakistan. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... There are also new . ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 92 Area codes in Pakistan are from 2 to 5 digits long; the smaller the city, the longer the prefix. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Image File history File links Pakistan_pronunciation. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and is the second most populous country with a Muslim majority. Its territory was a part of the pre-partitioned British India and has a long history of settlement and civilisation including the Indus Valley Civilisation. For most of its history the territory and people of Pakistan were part of various pan-Indian empires and thir history is best studied in the context of the overall history of India. Pakistan's current territory formed part of the empires of the Gupta Empire, the Maurya Empire and the kingom of Ashoka. In the last millenium it was conquered by various local and Central Asian dynasties. Later arrivals and conquests include those by the Arabs, Afghans, Turks, Baloch, Mongols and Sikhs. The territory was incorporated into British India in the nineteenth century. Since its independence, the country has experienced periods of significant military and economic growth and has also experienced times of significant instability. This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... This article is under construction. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...

Contents

Etymology

The name "Pakistan" (IPA: [paːkɪst̪aːn]) means "Land of the Pure" in Urdu, and Persian. It was coined in 1934 as "Pakstan" by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, who published it in the pamphlet Now or Never.[7] The name represented, according to Ali, the "thirty million Muslims of PAKSTAN, who live in the five Northern Units of (British) India—Punjab, N.W.F.P. (Afghania), Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan."[8] The nation was founded officially as the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, and was renamed the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956. The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the DevanāgarÄ« script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Choudhary Rahmat Ali (Urdu: چودھری رحمت علی) (or Rehmat Ali Khan; Urdu: رحمت علی خان) (November 16, 1897 - February 12, 1951) was an Indian Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan. ... Now or Never; Are we to live or perish forever? (published on January 28, 1933, at Cambridge) was a pamphlet by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in which he presented the idea of the creation of Muslim states in Indian subcontinent and where for the first time used the term Pakistan to...


History

Main article: History of Pakistan

Modern day Pakistan consists of four major parts called provinces Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province. It also governs part of Kashmir which is currently split between Pakistan and India. The Indus region was the site of several ancient cultures including Mehrgarh, one of the world's earliest known towns, and the Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BCE - 1500 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.[9] A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ...

Mahmud and Ayaz. The Sultan (in red), with Malik Ayaz (in green) standing behind him. On the Sultan's right is Shah Abbas I, who reigned 600 years later
Mahmud and Ayaz. The Sultan (in red), with Malik Ayaz (in green) standing behind him. On the Sultan's right is Shah Abbas I, who reigned 600 years later

Waves of conquerors and migrants including Harappan, Indo-Aryan, Persian, Grecian, Saka, Parthian, Kushan, White Hun, Afghan, Arab, Turkics, and Mughal settled in the region throughout the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them. However, while the eastern provinces of Punjab and Sind became aligned with Indo-Islamic civilization, the western areas became culturally allied with the Iranic civilization of Afghanistan and Iran. The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947. The region is a crossroads of historic trade routes, including the Silk Road. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x740, 588 KB) Summary The Sultan (in red robe) is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz (in green robe) standing behind him. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x740, 588 KB) Summary The Sultan (in red robe) is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz (in green robe) standing behind him. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. ... The Iranian peoples (See[1] for local names) are a collection of ethnic groups defined by their usage of Iranian languages and their descent from ancient Iranian peoples. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ...


The Indus Valley Civilization collapsed in the middle of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilization, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Successive empires and kingdoms ruled the region from the Achaemenid Persian empire[10] around 543 BCE, to Alexander the Great[11] in 326 BCE and the Mauryan empire. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, and reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. The city of Taxila (Takshashila) became a major centre of learning in ancient times - the remains of the city, located to the west of Islamabad, are one of the country's major archaeological sites. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... Silver tetradrachm depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (r. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ...

Muhammad Bin Qasim leading his troops in battle

In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim[12] conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab. The Pakistan government's official chronology states that "its foundation was laid" as a result of this invasion.[13] This would set the stage for several successive Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent, including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid Kingdom, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam. The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas until the British East India Company[14] gained ascendancy over South Asia. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... Muhammad of Ghor (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also Muhammad Ghori or Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Muizz-ad-din, b. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Baloch (بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...

The 1857 War of Independence
The 1857 War of Independence

The rebellion, also known as the Indian Mutiny, in 1857 was the region's last major armed struggle against the British Raj, and it laid the foundations for the generally unarmed freedom struggle led by the Congress. However, the Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. On 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal's presidential address called for an autonomous "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims, within the body politic of India."[15] Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution[16] of 1940 (popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution), which ultimately led to the formation of an independent Pakistan. The Sepoy Mutany of 1857 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Sepoy Mutany of 1857 Source: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants Indian Patriots, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Two-Nation theory is the basis of creation of todays Pakistan. ... Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... Pakistan Resolution was passed by the All India Muslim League on March 24, 1940 in Lahore. ...


Pakistan was formed on 14 August 1947 with two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of the British Indian Empire, separated from the rest of the country with a Hindu majority, and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh. The partition of the British Indian Empire resulted in communal riots[17] across India and Pakistan—millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India. Disputes arose over several princely states including Jammu and Kashmir whose ruler had acceded to India following an invasion by Pashtun warriors, leading to the First Kashmir War (1948) ending with Pakistan occupying roughly one-third of the state. From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations. The republic declared in 1956 was stalled by a coup d'etat by Ayub Khan (1958–69), who was president during a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. His successor, Yahya Khan (1969–71) had to deal with the cyclone which caused 500,000 deaths[18] in East Pakistan. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is under construction. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... Lowest pressure 966 hPa (mbar) Fatalities 300,000-500,000 (Deadliest tropical cyclone of all time) Damage $86. ...

Governor General Jinnah delivering the opening address on 11 August 1947 to the new state of Pakistan.
Governor General Jinnah delivering the opening address on 11 August 1947 to the new state of Pakistan.

Economic and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political repression and tensions escalating into civil war[19] (Bangladesh War of Independence) (see also Causes of Separation of East Pakistan) and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and ultimately the secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.[20] Estimates of the number of people killed during this episode vary greatly, from ~30,000 to over 2 million depending on the source. Image File history File links GGJinnah. ... Image File history File links GGJinnah. ... A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... http://en. ... East Pakistan (now independent Bangladesh) was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ...

The two wings of Pakistan in 1970; East Pakistan separated from the West wing in 1971 as an independent Bangladesh.

Civilian rule resumed from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, until he was deposed and later sentenced to death in what amounted to a judicial murder in 1979 by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the country's third military president. Pakistan's secular policies were replaced by Zia's introduction of the Islamic Shariah legal code, which increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. With the death of General Zia in a plane crash in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. Over the next decade, she alternated power with Nawaz Sharif, as the country's political and economic situation worsened. Pakistan sent 5,000 troops to the 1991 Gulf War as part of a US led coalition and specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.[21] Military tensions in the Kargil conflict[22] with India were followed by a Pakistani military coup d'état in 1999[23] in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed executive powers. In 2001, Musharraf named himself President after the forced resignation of Rafiq Tarar. After the 2002 parliamentary elections, Musharraf transferred executive powers to newly elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in the 2004 Prime-Ministerial election by Shaukat Aziz, followed by a temporary period in office by Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain. Image File history File links PAK1971. ... Image File history File links PAK1971. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu:ذوالفقار علی بھٹو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... Gen. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو, IPA: ; (Sindhi:بینظیر ڀُٽو ) (born 21 June 1953 in Karachi) is a Pakistani politician who became the first elected woman to lead a post-colonial Muslim state. ... Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 25, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is a Pakistani politician. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... In October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf, Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan army launched a coup to topple Nawaz Sharif, then Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born August 11, 1943) serves as President of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... Muhammad Rafiq Tarar (b. ... Zafarullah Khan Jamali Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Urdu: میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی) (born January 1, 1944) is a former Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ... Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain; former Prime Minister of Pakistan Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (born 1946) is a politician from Pakistan who was the Prime Minister of that country from June 30, 2004 until August 28, 2004. ...


Government and politics

Parliament house in Islamabad

The Muslim League formed Pakistan's first government under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan. The Muslim League's leadership of Pakistani politics decreased significantly with the rise of other political parties, including the Pakistan People's Party in West Pakistan, and the Awami League in East Pakistan, which would ultimately led to the creation of Bangladesh. The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973, suspended in 1977 by Zia-ul-Haq, was re-instated in 1991 and is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of government. Pakistan is a federal democratic republic with Islam as the state religion. The semi-presidential system includes a bicameral legislature consisting of a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly. The President is the Head of State and the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and is elected by an electoral college. The prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly. Each province has a similar system of government with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister. Provincial Governors are appointed by the President. Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x853, 53 KB) Summary A Night Shot of the Parliament House, Islamabad. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x853, 53 KB) Summary A Night Shot of the Parliament House, Islamabad. ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... There have been several documents known as the Constitution of Pakistan. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... Gen. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The term Democratic Republic has formed part of several states official names. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ...

Prime Minister's Secretariat in Islamabad

The Pakistani military has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's history, with military presidents ruling from 1958–71, 1977–88 and from 1999 onwards. The leftist Pakistan People's Party (PPP), led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, emerged as a major political player during the 1970s. Under the military rule of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Pakistan began a marked shift from the British-era secular politics and policies, to the adoption of Shariat and other laws based on Islam. During the 1980s, the anti-feudal, pro-Muhajir Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) was started by unorthodox and educated urban dwellers of Sindh and particularly Karachi. The 1990s were characterized by coalition politics dominated by the PPP and a rejuvenated Muslim League. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 556 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Prime Ministers Secretariat building in Islamabad, Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 556 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Prime Ministers Secretariat building in Islamabad, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... Branches of Service Pakistan Army Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy Pakistan Coast Guard Pakistan Paramilitary Forces Pakistan Strategic Nuclear Command Leadership Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff General Ehsan ul Haq Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Ahmed Chief of Naval... In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu:ذوالفقار علی بھٹو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Urdu: ) (b. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... See Muhajir page for all Muhajir groups in the world Muhajir or Mohajir (Urdu: مہاجر) is a term widely used to describe the Muslims who migrated to Pakistan after the independence of Pakistan. ... MQMs Political Flag Muttahida Qaumi Movement (Urdu: متحدہ قومی موومنٹ) generally known as MQM or simply Muttahida, is one of the largest political parties in Pakistan. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...


In the October 2002 general elections, the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q) won a plurality of National Assembly seats with the second-largest group being the Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians (PPPP), a sub-party of the PPP. Zafarullah Khan Jamali of PML-Q emerged as Prime Minister but resigned on 26 June 2004 and was replaced by PML-Q leader Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain as interim Prime Minister. On 28 August 2004 the National Assembly voted 191 to 151 to elect the Finance Minister and former Citibank Vice President Shaukat Aziz as Prime Minister. Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, a coalition of Islamic religious parties, won elections in North-West Frontier Province, and increased their representation in the National Assembly. The Pakistan Muslim League (Q), or PML-Q, is a centrist political party in Pakistan, dervied from the original Pakistan Muslim League which had laid foundation of the state of Pakistan. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی ) is a mainstream centre-left political party in Pakistan. ... Zafarullah Khan Jamali Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Urdu: میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی) (born January 1, 1944) is a former Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain; former Prime Minister of Pakistan Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (born 1946) is a politician from Pakistan who was the Prime Minister of that country from June 30, 2004 until August 28, 2004. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Finance Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Finance. ... Citibank is a major international bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ... Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA) (Urdu: متحدہ مجلس عمل ) (United Council of Action) is a coalition between religious-political parties in Pakistan. ... For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ...

US President George W. Bush and President Musharraf in late 2006.

Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the latter of which Pakistan has used as a forum for Enlightened Moderation,[24] a plan to promote a renaissance and enlightenment in the Muslim world. Pakistan is also a member of the major regional organisations of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO). In the past, Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States especially in the early 1950s when Pakistan was the United States' "most allied ally in Asia"[25] and a member of both the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO). During the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s Pakistan was a crucial US ally, but relations soured in the 1990s, when sanctions were applied by the US over suspicions of Pakistan's nuclear activities. The September 11 attacks and the subsequent War on Terrorism have seen an improvement in US–Pakistan ties, especially after Pakistan ended its support of the Taliban regime in Kabul. This was evidenced by a drastic increase in American military aid, which saw Pakistan take in $4 billion more in three years after the 9/11 attacks than in the three years before.[26] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... General Pervez Musharraf (born August 11, 1943, Delhi, India) became de facto ruler (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive power) of [[the office of President of Pakistan (becoming Head of State) on June 20, 2001. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ...  Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives  Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka Headquarters Kathmandu, Nepal Statistics Area  - Total 7th if ranked 5,130,746 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 1st if ranked 1,467,255,669 285. ... The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) involves ten Asian nations. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... External links kamouflage. ... The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war which wreaked incredible havoc and destruction on Afghanistan. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, and the United Kingdom. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...

Supreme Court of Pakistan

Pakistan has long had troubled relations with neighbouring India. The long-running dispute over Kashmir resulted in full fledged wars in 1947 and 1965. Civil war in 1971 flared into the simultaneous Bangladesh War of Independence and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Pakistan conducted nuclear weapon tests in 1998 to counterbalance India's nuclear explosion (Smiling Buddha) of 1974 and Pokhran-II of 1998 respectively.[27] and became the only Muslim nuclear weapons state. The relations with India are steadily improving following peace initiatives in 2002. Pakistan maintains close economic, military and political relationships with the People's Republic of China. Image File history File links Supreme_court_of_pakistan. ... Image File history File links Supreme_court_of_pakistan. ... With political independence on August 15, 1947, India and Pakistan initiated a bilateral relationship - diplomatic, political, economic and cultural defined by their common history of military conflicts, territorial disputes and religious conflicts between Hindus and Muslims. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... http://en. ... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... The Smiling Buddha was the first nuclear test explosion by India on May 18, 1974 at Pokhran. ... The Hydrogen Bomb detonated by India during Operation Shakti Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. ... There are currently five states considered to be nuclear weapons states, an internationally recognized status conferred by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ...


Pakistan also faces instability in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, where some tribal leaders support the Taliban. Pakistan has had to deploy the army in these regions to suppress the local unrest, in Waziristan. The Waziristan conflict ended with a recently declared peace agreement between the tribal leaders and the Pakistani government that is expected to bring back stability to the region.[28] The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). // The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, and the United Kingdom. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Combatants Pakistan USA (indirect) Waziristan tribesmen, Al-Qaeda members, Taliban Commanders Commander XI Corps Ayman al-Zawahiri (probable), Haji Omar Strength 80,000[1] 8000-20,000?[citation needed] Casualties 950[2] - 3,000[3] Pakistan Military and Paramilitary troops killed 1000[4] - 3000 killed[2] The Waziristan conflict (2004... The Waziristan Accord (or North Waziristan Accord) is an agreement between the government of Pakistan and tribals, resident in the Waziristan area to mutually cease hostilities in North Waziristan (a district in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas adjacent to Afghanistan). ...


Additionally, the country has long faced instability in its largest province, Balochistan. The army was deployed to fight a serious insurgency within the province from 1973–76. Social stability resumed after Rahimuddin Khan was appointed martial law administrator beginning in 1977. After relative peace throughout the 1980s and 1990s, some influential Baloch tribal leaders restarted a separatist movement after Pervez Musharraf took over in 1999. In a recent incident Nawab Akbar Bugti, the leader of the Baloch insurgency, was killed in August 2006 by Pakistani military forces. For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ... Full General Rahimuddin Khan (Urdu: رحیم الدین خان) (born 21 July 1926) was the Governor of Balochistan, the largest province of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, for an unprecedented seven years (1978-1984), while simultaneously holding the military posts of Armoured Corps Commander as well as Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan, the latter... Martial Law Administrator is a head of the military governments normally overtaking the elected govenments with different purposes. ... now. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ...


On November 3, 2007 President Musharraf declared an emergency rule across Pakistan and purported to suspend the Constitution, imposing martial law. In Islamabad, troops apparently entered the Supreme Court and were surrounding the judges' homes and opposition leaders were put on house arrest. A new chief justice has been appointed, due to the refusal of the previous chief justice to endorse the emergency order, declaring it unconstitutional.[29] is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Pervez Musharraf has led Pakistan since 1999. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... The Supreme Court (Urdu: عدالت عظمیٰ ) is the apex court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. ...


Administrative divisions

Provinces and territories of Pakistan
Provinces and territories of Pakistan

Pakistan is a federation[30] of four provinces, a capital territory and federally administered tribal areas. Pakistan exercises de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of the Kashmir region, organised as two separate political entities (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas), which are also claimed by India. Pakistan also claims Jammu and Kashmir, which is a portion of Kashmir that is administered by India. Currently, Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, two territories, and also portions of Kashmir that are administered by the Pakistani government. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Sub_Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Sub_Pakistan. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ...


In 2001 the federal government abolished the administrative entities called "Divisions", which used to be the third tier of government. The entities called "districts" (zillas), which used to be the fourth tier, became the new third tier. The provinces and the capital territory are subdivided into a total of 107 districts which contain numerous tehsils and local governments. The tribal areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts whilst Azad Kashmir comprises seven districts and Northern Areas comprises six districts. The Divisions of Pakistan were previously the third tier of government in Pakistan until they were abolished in 2000. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... The equivalent terms tehsil, tahsil, tahasil, taluka, taluk, and taluq refer to a unit of government in some countries of the Indian subcontinent. ...

Disputed Region of Kashmir
Disputed Region of Kashmir

Provinces: The Disputed Territory : Shown in green is Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The Disputed Territory : Shown in green is Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ...

  1. Balochistan
  2. North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
  3. Punjab
  4. Sindh

Territories: Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... The Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) are administrative subdivisions in the Balochistan and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan. ...

  1. Islamabad Capital Territory
  2. Federally Administered Tribal Areas

Pakistani-administered portions of Kashmir: For the capital of Pakistan, see Islamabad. ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). // The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab...

  1. Azad Kashmir[6]
  2. Northern Areas[6]

The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ...

Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Pakistan
K2, at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft), is the second highest peak in the world.
K2, at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft), is the second highest peak in the world.

Pakistan covers 340,403 square miles (881,640 km²)[32], approximately the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom, with its eastern regions located on the Indian tectonic plate and the western and northern regions on the Iranian plateau and Eurasian landplate. Apart from the 1,046 kilometre (650 mi) Arabian Sea coastline, Pakistan's land borders total 6,774 kilometres—2,430 kilometres (1,509 mi) with Afghanistan to the northwest, 523 kilometres (325 mi) with China to the northeast, 2,912 kilometres (1,809 mi) with India to the east and 909 kilometres (565 mi) with Iran to the southwest.[33] Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian landplates. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1194x768, 477 KB) Description: K2 (Baltoro Muztagh, Central Karakoram, Pakistan) Source: photo taken by Kogo Date: July 2004 Author: Kogo Permission: Kogo put it under the GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1194x768, 477 KB) Description: K2 (Baltoro Muztagh, Central Karakoram, Pakistan) Source: photo taken by Kogo Date: July 2004 Author: Kogo Permission: Kogo put it under the GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... The Eurasian plate is shown in green on this map. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


The different types of natural features range from the sandy beaches, lagoons, and mangrove swamps of the southern coast to preserved beautiful moist temperate forests and the icy peaks of the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindu Kush mountains in the north. There are an estimated 108 peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) high that are covered in snow and glaciers. Five of the mountains in Pakistan (including Nanga Parbat) are over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft). Indian-controlled Kashmir to the Northern Areas of Pakistan and running the length of the country is the Indus River with its many tributaries. The northern parts of Pakistan attract a large number of foreign tourists. To the west of the Indus are the dry, hilly deserts of Balochistan; to the east are the rolling sand dunes of the Thar Desert. The Tharparkar desert in the southern province of Sindh, is the only fertile desert in the world. Most areas of Punjab and parts of Sindh are fertile plains where agriculture is of great importance. This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Tharparkar (Urdu: تھرپارکر) is a town located in the Tharparkar District, which is one of 22 districts located in the Sindh province in Pakistan. ...


The climate varies as much as the scenery, with cold winters and hot summers in the north and a mild climate in the south, moderated by the influence of the ocean. The central parts have extremely hot summers with temperatures rising to 45 °C (113 °F), followed by very cold winters, often falling below freezing. Officially the highest temperature recorded in Pakistan is 52.8 °C at Jacobabad. There is very little rainfall ranging from less than 250 millimetres to more than 1,250 millimetres (9.8–49.2 in), mostly brought by the unreliable south-westerly monsoon winds during the late summer. The construction of dams on the rivers and the drilling of water wells in many drier areas have eased water shortages. Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ...


Flora and fauna

The Hunza valley in northern Pakistan. — Agricultural and scenic
The Hunza valley in northern Pakistan. — Agricultural and scenic

The wide variety of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows for a wide variety of wild animals and birds. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in the northern mountains to deciduous trees such as the mulberry-type Shisham in the Sulaiman range in the south. The western hills have juniper and tamarisk as well as coarse grasses and scrub plants. Along the coast are mangrove forests which form much of the coastal wetlands. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 197 KB) Summary Overview of the Hunza valley, Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 197 KB) Summary Overview of the Hunza valley, Pakistan. ... Hunza Valley (Urdu: ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley near Gilgit in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Alpine may refer to: Alpine, a breed of goat. ... // Summary The subalpine Biome is a geographic and altitudinal region found below Tree-line and above the montane. ... Binomial name Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ... Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... sorry guys it is unavailable and happens to be deleted--212. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Species Tamarix africana Tamarix anglica Tamarix aphylla Tamarix canariensis Tamarix chinensis Tamarix dioica Tamarix gallica Tamarix hispida Tamarix indica Tamarix juniperina Tamarix parviflora Tamarix ramosissima Tamarix tetrandra The genus Tamarix, known as tamarisk or (US) saltcedar, comprises about 50-60 species of deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees growing... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...


In the south, there are crocodiles in the murky waters at the mouth of the Indus River whilst on the banks of the river, there are boars, deer, porcupines, and small rodents. In the sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are found jackals, hyenas, wild cats, panthers, and leopards while the clear blue skies abound with hawks, falcons, and eagles. In the southwestern deserts are rare Asiatic cheetahs. In the northern mountains are a variety of endangered animals including Marco Polo sheep, Urial sheep, Markhor and Ibex goats, black and brown Himalayan bears, and the rare Snow Leopard. During August 2006, Pakistan donated an orphaned snow leopard cub called Leo to USA.[34] Another rare species is the blind Indus River Dolphin of which there are believed to be about 1,000 remaining, protected in two major sanctuaries. In recent years the number of wild animals being killed for fur and leather trading led to a new law banning the hunting of wild animals and birds and the establishment of several wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves.[35] This article is about the rodent mammal. ... Marco Polo sheep is a species of sheep that takes its name from famed explorer Marco Polo. ... Binomial name Ovis vignei Blyth, 1841 The Urial is a medium-sized wild sheep and as such is considered a member of the goat antelope subfamily. ... Binomial name Capra falconeri (Wagner, 1839) The Markhor (Capra falconeri) is a goat-antelope found in sparse woodland in the Western Himalayas. ... Species Capra ibex Capra nubiana Capra pyrenaica Capra sibirica Capra walie An ibex, also called steinbock, is a type of wild mountain goat with large recurved horns that are transversely ridged in front. ... Binomial name (G. Cuvier, 1823) Thibetanus bear range Synonyms Selenarctos thibetanus The Asiatic Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus or Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the Tibetan black bear, the Himalayan black bear, or the moon bear, is a medium sized, sharp-clawed, black-coloured bear with a distinctive white or cream... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... Binomial name Schreber, 1775 Range map Synonyms Uncia uncia The Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia[3] or Uncia uncia[1]), sometimes known as the Ounce, is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Asia. ... Binomial name Platanista gangetica Subspecies Platanista gangetica gangetica Platanista gangetica minor Ranges of the Ganges River Dolphin and of the Indus River Dolphin The Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) are two sub-species of freshwater or river dolphins found in the Indian...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Pakistan
Karachi - the financial capital and the largest city of Pakistan

Pakistan is a rapidly developing country which has faced a number of challenges on both political and economic fronts. Despite being a very poor country in 1947, Pakistan's economic growth rate was better than the global average during the subsequent four decades, but imprudent policies led to a slowdown in the late 1990s.[36] Recently, wide-ranging economic reforms have resulted in a stronger economic outlook and accelerated growth especially in the manufacturing and financial services sectors. There has been great improvement in the foreign exchange position and rapid growth in hard currency reserves in recent years. The 2005 estimate of foreign debt was close to US$40 billion. However, this has decreased in recent years with assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and significant debt-relief from the United States. Pakistan's gross domestic product, as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP), is estimated to be US$475.4 billion [37] while its per capita income (PCI) stands at $2,976.[38] Despite clear progress, reports by the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and the UN Development Program place the poverty rate in Pakistan between 23% – 28%.[39] The CIA factbook places the poverty rate at 24% in 2006,[40] and notes that levels have fallen by ten percent since 2001. Pakistan's GDP growth rates have seen a steady increase over the last 5 years. However, inflationary pressures and a low savings rate, among other economic factors, could make it difficult to sustain a high growth rate, according to some analysts.[41][42][43] The economy of Pakistan is the 2nd largest economy in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... Image File history File links Karachi_at_night. ... Image File history File links Karachi_at_night. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The foreign exchange (currency or forex or FX) market exists wherever one currency is traded for another. ... It has been suggested that Soft currency be merged into this article or section. ... IMF redirects here. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... PPP The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ... A slum in Karachi, Pakistan with an open sewer running along the lane Poverty in Pakistan, is a major economic issue. ...


The growth of non-agricultural sectors has changed the structure of the economy, and agriculture now only accounts for roughly 20% of the GDP. The service sector accounts for 53% of the country's GDP with wholesale and retail trade forming 30% of this sector. In recent times, the Karachi Stock Exchange has soared, along with most of the world's emerging markets. Large amounts of foreign investments have been made into several industries. The top industries in Pakistan are telecom, software, automotives, textiles, cement, fertilizer, steel, ship building, and more recently, aerospace. This article is about a term used in economics. ... Wholesaling consists of the sale of goods/merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... The Karachi Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Limited (colloquially known as the Karachi Stock Exchange) is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan. ... The term emerging markets is commonly used to describe business and market activity in industrializing or emerging regions of the world. ... Telecom is an abbreviation of telecommunication. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) This article is about the means of transport. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Faizabad interchange: Gateway to the capital Islamabad.
Faizabad interchange: Gateway to the capital Islamabad.

Pakistan has accomplished many engineering feats such as construction of the world's largest earth filled dam Tarbela, the world's twelfth largest dam Mangla, as well as, with collaboration with China, the world's highest international road: the Karakoram Highway. There are also half a dozen additional dams planned such as Kalabagh Dam, Diamer-Bhasha Dam, Munda, Akhori and Skardu Katzara.[44] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 492 KB) Summary Own image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 492 KB) Summary Own image. ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... Image of the Tarbela Dam from space. ... A view of the Mangla Dam The Mangla Dam (Urdu: منگلا بند) in Pakistan is the twelfth largest dam in the world[1]. It was built in 1967. ... Karakoram Highway route map The highest point on the highway: the Khunjerab Pass The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is the highest paved international road in the world. ... The Kalabagh dam is a mega water reservoir that Government of Pakistan planning to develop across the Indus River, one of the worlds largest rivers. ... Diamer-Bhasha Dam is the name of a dam that has been planned in the Northern Areas of Pakistan on the River Indus. ...


In November of 2006 China and Pakistan signed a Free Trade Agreement hoping to triple bilateral trade from $4.2 billion (USD) to $15 billion (USD) within the next five years;[45] Pakistan's annual exports in 2005 amounted to $15 billion (USD),[46] and is poised to cross $18 billion (USD) in 2006 and $20 billion (USD) in 2007.[47] Pakistan is also home to a thriving arms industry which exports $200 million (USD) annually, mostly defence equipment and arms to countries in the Middle East and South Asia, and its defence officials are hopeful that these exports will surpass $500 million (USD) a year within the next five years. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The AK-47 has been produced in greater numbers than any other assault rifle and has been used in conflicts all over the world. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


In keeping with its rapid economic development in recent years, Pakistan registered an economic growth rate of 7 percent in the financial year 2006–07, the fourth consecutive year of seven percent growth.[48][49] In its June 2006 Economic Survey global finance giant Morgan Stanley listed Pakistan on its list of major emerging markets in the world economy, placing it on a list of 25 countries displaying continued moderate to strong growth over a sustained period of time.[50] The report noted "its economy has been growing quickly in recent periods and corporate direct investors have taken notice". A similar report by State Street Corporation, states that "economic growth (in 2007) has been strong and the stock market has been helped by privatizations as well as foreign investment".[51] Concurrently, highlighting the strides made on the economic front in recent times, Moody's Investors Service in December 2006 upgraded Pakistan's credit rating from B2 to B1, noting a "positive outlook".[52] Morgan Stanley (NYSE: MS) is one of the largest and the most reputed investment banks headquartered in New York City. ... The term emerging markets is commonly used to describe business and market activity in industrializing or emerging regions of the world. ...


In late March 2007, the Asian Development Bank "Outlook 2007" report predicted that strong growth would continue in 2007 and 2008 with growth rates of 6.5 to 7 percent, with manufacturing, exports and consumer expenditure leading the way.[53] Further progress was highlighted by news that the FDI for FY 2006/7 would touch $7 billion, eclipsing the targeted $4 billion. Telecoms, real estate and energy are major industries for FDI.[54][55]


Demographics

Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan, 1973
Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan, 1973

Pakistan has an estimated population of 164,742,000 as of 2007.[56] Pakistan has the world's sixth largest population, placing it higher than Russia, and lower than Brazil. Pakistan is expected to surpass Brazil in population by the year 2020 because of the high growth rate. Population projections for Pakistan are relatively difficult because of the apparent differences in the accuracy of each census and the inconsistencies between various surveys related to the fertility rate, but it is likely that the rate of growth peaked in the 1980s and has since declined significantly.[57] The population was estimated at 162,400,000[58] on July 1, 2005, with a fertility rate of 34 per thousand, a death rate of 10 per thousand, and the rate of natural increase at 2.4%. Pakistan also has a high infant mortality rate of 70 per thousand births.[59] Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 632 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (769 × 730 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1973 version of the ethnic groups in Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 632 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (769 × 730 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1973 version of the ethnic groups in Pakistan. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The major ethnic groups are - Punjabis (44.68)% of the population, Pashtuns (15.42%), Sindhis (14.1%), Seraikis (10.53%), Muhajirs (7.57%), Balochis (3.57%) and others (4.66%). As of 2007, about 2.5 million registered Afghan refugees — approximately 81.5% being ethnic Pashtuns — remain in Pakistan as a result of the wars in Afghanistan.[60] The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Sindhi refers to an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... The Seraikis (also spelt as Saraikis) are a people in the southern areas of Pakistani Punjab. ... See Muhajir page for all Muhajir groups in the world Muhajir or Mohajir (Urdu: مہاجر) is a term widely used to describe the Muslims who migrated to Pakistan after the independence of Pakistan. ... The Baloch (بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ...


Primary mother tongue language usage largely corresponds to ethnic groups. Despite being a native language of a relatively small minority, Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan, while English is the official language, used in the Constitution and widely used by corporate businesses, the educated urban elite, and most universities. Punjabi is spoken by over 60 million people, but has no official recognition in the country.[61] Urdu ( , , trans. ... Most of the languages of Pakistan are part of the family of Indo-European languages and span the Indo-Iranian range of that family with the Indo-Aryan languages predominant in the east and the Iranian languages the most significant in the west as well as Dardic languages in the... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... “Punjabi” redirects here. ...


The demographics of religion in Pakistan were significantly influenced in 1947 by the movement of Muslims to Pakistan, and Hindus and Sikhs to India. Census data[62] indicates that 96% of the population are Muslims, (nearly 77% are Sunni Muslims and 20% are Shi'a Muslims according to CIA estimates[3]). Minority religions include Hinduism (1.85%), Christianity (1.6%), as well as much smaller numbers of Sikhs, Parsis, Ahmadis, Buddhists,Jews, and Animists (mainly the Kalasha of Chitral). Pakistan is the second most populous Muslim-majority country[63] and also has one of the largest Shi'a populations of any country. Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... WORLD SHIA POPULATION Includes all sects - Jafari, Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaidi, Alevis, Alawite, Bohri, Imami, Bektashi etc. ... Shia Islam or Shi`ism (from the Arabic word شيعة, short for the historic phrase shi`at `Ali شيعة علي, meaning the followers of Ali) is the second-largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... After the Partition of India, Hinduism became one of the smallest religions in the newly created state of Pakistan, but has nonetheless played a major role in its culture and politics as well as the history of its regions. ... The adherents of Christianity are the largest religious minority community in Pakistan. ... Sikhism is a very small minority religion in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan but has many cultural, historical and political ties to the country, and to the historical region of Punjab. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ... This article is about the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article is in need of attention. ... The Kalasha of Chitral or simply Kalasha, are an ethnic group that lives in the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... WORLD SHIA POPULATION Includes all sects - Jafari, Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaidi, Alevis, Alawite, Bohri, Imami, Bektashi etc. ...


Society and culture

Main article: Culture of Pakistan
Shah Faisal Masjid in Islamabad. Islam has had an extensive impact on the culture of Pakistan.

Pakistan has a rich and unique culture that has preserved established traditions throughout history. Many cultural practices, foods, monuments, and shrines were inherited from the rule of Muslim Mughal and Afghan emperors. The national dress of shalwar qamiz is originally of Central Asian origin derived from Turko-Iranian nomadic invaders and is today worn in all parts of Pakistan. Women wear brightly coloured shalwar qamiz, while men often wear solid-coloured ones. In cities western dress is also popular among the youth and the business sector. The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore The society of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistans provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Faisal_masjid_isla_galleryfull. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Faisal_masjid_isla_galleryfull. ... Faisal Mosque, Islamabad King Faisal Mosque (Shah Faisal Masjid مسجد فیصل شاه in Urdu) is a large mosque located in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Salwar kameez, from Max Tilkes Oriental Costume, 1922 Salwar kameez (also spelled shalwar kameez and shalwar qamiz) is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in South Asia. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Turko-Iranian can refer to: The Turkic speaking minorities of Iran, can also be called as Iranian Turks, e. ...


The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronisation of Qawwali and western music by the world renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. In addition Pakistan is home to many famous folk singers such as the late Alam Lohar, who is also well known in Indian Punjab. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Pashto and Persian music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghan musicians and a distribution centre for Afghan music abroad. The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ... This article is about the poetic form. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad Alam Lohar (Urdu: محمد عالم لوہار ) is a prominent Punjabi folk music singer of Pakistan. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ...


Until the 1990s, the state-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation were the dominant media outlets, but there are now numerous private television channels. Various American, European, and Asian television channels and movies are available to the majority of the Pakistani population via private Television Networks, cable, and satellite television. There are also small indigenous movie industries based in Lahore and Peshawar (often referred to as Lollywood). Although Bollywood movies are banned from being displayed in public cinemas since 1965,[64] Indian film stars are still generally popular in Pakistan due to the fact that Pakistanis are easily able to buy Bollywood movies from local shops for private home viewing. The Pakistan Television Corporation (abbreviated as PTV) (Urdu: پاکستان ٹیلیوژن کارپوریشن) is the state-run television service in Pakistan, and has been on the air since 1964. ... Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) is the state-run radio service of Pakistan. ... Pakistan has many radio and TV channels. ... Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (and often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio waves transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ...


Pakistani society is largely multilingual and predominantly Muslim, with high regard for traditional family values, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system due to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system. Recent decades have seen the emergence of a middle class in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, and Peshawar that wish to move in a more liberal direction,[65] as opposed to the northwestern regions bordering Afghanistan that remain highly conservative and dominated by centuries-old regional tribal customs. Increasing globalization has increased the influence of "Western culture" with Pakistan ranking 46th on the Kearney/FP Globalization Index.[66] There are an approximated four million Pakistanis living abroad,[67] with close to a half-million expatriates living in the United States[68] and around a million living in Saudi Arabia.[69] As well as nearly one million people of Pakistani descent in the United Kingdom, there are burgeoning cultural connections.[70] The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... Complex Family is a generic term for any family structure involving more than two adults. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Rawalpindi (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Hyderabad   or Haidarābād (Urdu/Sindhi: حيدر آباد) is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan (formerly known as Neroon Kot نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh and known as the city of perfumes, it is now a regional headquarter of the district of Hyderabad. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside any of the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). Neighbouring regions are: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, North-West Frontier to the north, Punjab to the... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Pakistan
The Lahore Fort, was rebuilt by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1566.

Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan, based on its diverse cultures, peoples and landscapes. The variety of attractions range from the ruins of ancient civilizations such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in field and winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7,000 metres (22,970 ft), which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially K2.[71] The people of northern areas depend on tourism also. From April to September tourist of domestic and international type visited these areas which became the earn of living for local people. The northern parts of Pakistan have many old fortresses, towers and other architecture as well as the Hunza and Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the small pre-Islamic Animist Kalasha community who claim descent from the army of Alexander the Great. In the Punjab is the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital with many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. To promote Pakistan's unique and various cultural heritage, the prime minister launched "Visit Pakistan 2007".[72] Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan, based on its diverse cultures, peoples and landscapes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 145 KB) Summary Picture by Kaiser Tufail, 25 Sep 2006 airknight_kt@yahoo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 145 KB) Summary Picture by Kaiser Tufail, 25 Sep 2006 airknight_kt@yahoo. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... Highest peaks of Pakistan as seen from space Highest Karakoram peaks as seen from International Space Station Pakistan is home to more than sixty peaks above 7,000m (22,960 feet). ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... Hunza Valley (Urdu: ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley near Gilgit in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article is about the town of Chitral. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The word Kalasha may refer to: A people of northern Pakistan, the Kalasha of Chitral their language, Kalasha-mun A people of Nuristan in Afghanistan, the Kalasha of Nuristan their language, Kalasha-ala See also Kalash Category: ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Combatants Macedonian Empire Greek allies Persian allies Indian allies Paurava Commanders Alexander the Great, Craterus King Porus Strength 34,000 infantry,[2][3][4] 7,000 cavalry[5][6] 50,000 infantry,[7] 5,000 cavalry,[7] 200 war elephants,[8][9] 1,000 chariots[10] Casualties 4,000 infantry... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Masjid (بادشاەى مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... The Shalimar Gardens, sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Jahangirs mausoleum in Shahdara, Lahore Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ...


Holidays

Main article: Holidays in Pakistan
Mughal-era Hazuri Bagh in Lahore, an example of Mughal era Islamic architecture.
Mughal-era Hazuri Bagh in Lahore, an example of Mughal era Islamic architecture.

There are many festivals celebrated annually in Pakistan which may or may not observe as holidays e.g. Pakistan Day (23 March), Independence Day (14 August), Defence of Pakistan Day (6 September), Pakistan Air Force Day (7 September), the anniversaries of the birth (25 December)(holiday) and death (11 September) of Quaid-e-Azam, (Allama Iqbal (9 November) and the birth (30 July) and death (8 July) of Madar-e-Millat. Labour Day (also known as May Day) is also observed in Pakistan on May 1 (holiday). Holidays in Pakistan: Category: ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21... Categories: Stub | Gardens ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fatima Jinnah (Urdu: فاطمہ جناح) (July 30, 1893 — July 8, 1967) was the sister of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan and an active political figure in movement for independence from the British Raj. ... Labour Day Parade in Toronto in the early 1900s A Labour Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Several important festivals are celebrated by Pakistani Muslims during the year, dependent on the Islamic calendar. Ramadan, the ninth month of the calendar, is characterised by daytime fasting for 29 or 30 days and is followed by the festival of Eid ul-Fitr. In a second festival, Eid ul-Adha, an animal is sacrificed in remembrance of the actions of Prophet Abraham (Arabic: Ibrahim) and the meat is shared with friends, family, and the less fortunate. Both Eid festivals are public holidays, serving as opportunities for people to visit family and friends, and for children to receive new clothes, presents, and sweets. Muslims celebrate Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi, the birthday of the prophet Muhammad, in the third month of the calendar (Rabi' al-Awwal. Muslims mark the Day of Ashurah on the 9th and 10th days of the first month (Muharram to commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn bin Ali, (the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad). The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr), often abbreviated as simply Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ... “Abram” redirects here. ... Mawlid, Mawlid an-Nabi or Milad al-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam; also known as the seal of the prophets. Sunni Muslims celebrate this day on the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal in the Islamic calendar; whereas Shia Muslims... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Rabi al-awwal ( ربيع الأول ) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article refers to the Islamic remembrance. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Imaginary portrait of Husayn ibn Ali, by contemporary Iranian artist. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Christians in Pakistan also celebrate their own festivals and holidays. Sikhs come from across the world to visit several holy sites in Punjab, including the shrine of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, at Hassan Abdal in the Attock District, and his birthplace, at Nankana Sahib. There are also several regional and local festivals, such as the Punjabi festival of Basant, which marks the start of spring and is celebrated by kite flying. A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nankana Sahib, also known as Raipur and Rai-Bhoi-di-Talwandi is a city in the state of Punjab in present-day Pakistan. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore Basant, sometimes called Basant panchami in Hindi , is thought to be a festival celebrating the arrival of Spring, although some trace its background as a Hindu celebration. ...


Sports

Main article: Sports in Pakistan
Gaddafi Stadium, one of the largest cricket stadiums in the world

The official and national sport of Pakistan is field hockey, although cricket is more popular. The national cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (in 1992), were runners-up once (in 1999), and co-hosted the games twice (in 1987 and 1996). The team came second in the international 20/twenty world cup held in South Africa. Pakistan is also set to co-host the 2011 Cricket World Cup, with Sri Lanka, India, and Bangladesh. Other popular sports in Pakistan include football, and squash. Squash is another sport that Pakistan excels in, with successful world-class squash players such as Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan winning the World Open during their tenture. Sports in Pakistan are played with great passion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gaddafi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gaddafi. ... Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore, Pakistan. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men and women in many countries around the world. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... The Pakistani cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... The Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of mens One-Day International (ODI) cricket. ... The Cricket World Cup in 1992 (aka Benson & Hedges World Cup) was the fifth edition of the tournament and was won by Pakistan. ... The 1999 Cricket World Cup was hosted primarily by England, but Ireland, Scotland and the Netherlands also hosted some games. ... The Cricket World Cup in 1987 (aka Reliance Cup) was the fourth edition of the tournament. ... The 1996 Cricket World Cup was won by Sri Lanka who beat Australia by 7 wickets at the final in Lahore. ... The 2011 Cricket World Cup will be the tenth time this tournament has been held, and will be held in the four Asian Test cricket playing countries Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... Jahangir Khan Jahangir Khan (born December 10, 1963, sometimes spelled Jehangir Khan) is a former World No. ... Jansher Khan (born 15 June 1969, in Peshawar, Pakistan) is a former World No. ... The World Open is a squash event which serves as the individual world championship for squash players. ...


At an international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting. Pakistan's medal tally remains at 10 medals (3 gold, 3 silver and 4 bronze) while at the Commonwealth games and Asian Games it stands at 61 medals and 182 medals respectively. Hockey is the sport in which Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympics, with three gold medals in (1960, 1968, and 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994).[73] Pakistan has also hosted several international competitions, including the SAF Games in 1989 and 2004. Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men and women in many countries around the world. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Asian Games Logo The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. ... Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1960 Summer Olympics: Only mens competitions occurred during this year. ... Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1968 Summer Olympics: Only a mens competition occurred that year. ... Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1984 Summer Olympics: Mens Tournament Womens Tournament Categories: Field hockey | 1984 Summer Olympics ... The Semi-Final of World Cup 2006 between Germany and Spain The Hockey World Cup, sometimes called the Hockey World Championships, is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH). ... The South Asian Games (previously known as the South Asian Federation Games) is a multi-sport event for countries in South Asia. ...


See also

The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East. ... Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ... The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore The society of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistans provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Pakistani television stations. ... The national flag of Pakistan was designed by Syed Amir-ud-Din Kedwai based on the 1906 flag of the All-India Muslim League. ... Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (behind Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Holidays in Pakistan: Category: ... The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ... // Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan with its population being the second largest in the world after Mumbai. ... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Akbars Fort at Attock Attock (Urdu: اٹک) is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and also a border district on the river Indus. ... Bahawal Pur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ... This article is about the town of Chitral. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... An afternoon scene in Gilgit Gilgit (Urdu: گلگت) is the capital city of Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about Hyderabad, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Khanewal (Urdu: خانیوال) is a district in the province of Punjab Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Structure dubbed the great bath in the excavated Mohenjo-daro ruins. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nawabshah Mudjamrao Road Nawabshah (Urdu: نوابشاہ) city (established in 1912) is located in the centre of Sindh,Along With Left Bank Of River Indus Near Sakrand Tehsel, Pakistan, and is therefore often known as the Heart of Sindh. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ... Rawalpindi (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: سیالکوٹ ) is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Sukkur (Urdu: سکھر, Sindhi:سکر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... Thatta or Thatto (Urdu: ٹھٹہ, Sindhi:ٺٽو) is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan, near Lake Keenjhar, the largest freshwater lake in the country. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A series of three wars between Britain and the Afghans in the 19th century and early 20th century was formerly called the Afghan Wars but is now referred to as the Anglo-Afghan wars perhaps to distinguish them from the civil strife in the 1980s. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ashoka redirects here. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States Commanders • Col. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). ... Pakistani Baluchistan was conquered by the British Empire on October 1, 1887. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan and India. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Muhammad of Ghor (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also Muhammad Ghori or Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Muizz-ad-din, b. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... This article is under construction. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Pakistan Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, al-Qaeda, Taliban, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Commanders Commander XI Corps Haji Omar, Abu Faraj al-Libbi(captured), Tohir Yo‘ldosh Strength 80,000[2] 40,000[3] Casualties 700[4] - 3,000[5] Pakistan military and paramilitary killed 1,000[6] - 3,000... In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ... The Chief Justice of Pakistan heads the Supreme Court of Pakistan. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Government of Sindh is based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... The national flag of Pakistan was designed by Syed Amir-ud-Din Kedwai based on the 1906 flag of the All-India Muslim League. ... Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (behind Indonesia), and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. ... A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ... Pakistan had a parliamentary system of government that has been modified several times since its inception. ... Political parties in Pakistan lists political parties in Pakistan. ... List of Mayors (Nazims) during 20th Century Karachi City Municipal Act was promulgated in 1933. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Parliament of Pakistan is known as the Majlis-e-Shoora (Council of Advisors). ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... The Supreme Court (Urdu: عدالت عظمیٰ ) is the apex court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. ... Terrorism in Pakistan has been prevalent since the 1980s following the breakup of the nation into modern Pakistan and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... The Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) is the national governing body for field hockey in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Cricket Board is responsible for all first class and Test cricket played in and by the Pakistan cricket team Pakistan was admitted to the International Cricket Council in July 1953 after having been a part of India prior to partition in 1947. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... This is a list of those people who have umpired at least one Test match in Pakistan between Pakistan and other Test cricket nations. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... The Pakistan Premier League (PPL) is the first division of Pakistani football. ... The Pakistan National Football Challenge Cup is the national knockout cup competition in Pakistani football, run by Pakistan Football Federation. ... Gilli िगल्ली -danda डन्डा is a game popular across the length and breadth of India and Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Pakistan Open golf tournament was first played in 1967. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... K2 from Concordia The Baltoro Glacier, at over 70 kilometers long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the polar regions. ... Broghol, also spelled Boroghil and several other ways, is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... Broghol is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... The Clifton beach seafront, Karachi Clifton Beach, on the Arabian Sea, is a beach in Clifton, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, one of the neighborhoods of Saddar Town, Karachi. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Dorah Pass, also spelled and pronounced Durah Pass, connects Badakshan in Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... The Durand Line is the term for the poorly marked 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Guddu Barrage is a barrage across river Indus, near Sukkur in Pakistan. ... Gumal Pass is a pass on the border of Afganistan and the southeastern portion of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Hawkes Bay or Hawkesbay is a popular beach and a neighborhood located in Kiamari Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... The Indus Waters Treaty Historical context The partition of the Indian subcontinent created a conflict over the waters of the Indus basin. ... For other uses, see K2 (disambiguation). ... The Kalabagh dam is a mega water reservoir that Government of Pakistan planning to develop across the Indus River, one of the worlds largest rivers. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m , 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Lowarai Pass is located between the Panjkora and Chitral valleys in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Lowari Top is a pass that connects Chitral with Dir in Pakistan. ... // Karachi is the largest city in Pakistan with its population being the second largest in the world after Mumbai. ... K2, the 2nd highest of the world Broad Peak, the 12th highest of the world Pakistan contains five of the highest fourteen independent peaks in the world (the eight-thousanders) and many other high peaks, in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Hindu Raj ranges. ... Mazar-e-Quaid - the icon of Karachi Mazar-e-Quaid is referred to mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. ... National Parks of Pakistan There are 14 National Parks in Pakistan. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... The Salt Range is a hill system in the Punjab region of India, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock-salt. ... Sandspit Beach is situated north west of Karachi. ... The Sarpo Laggo Glacier (Sarpo Laggo: young husband) is a glacier in Pakistan, in the Karakoram mountain range of the Himalayas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shandur Top is a high mountain pass that connects Chitral to Gilgit. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains along the disputed India-Pakistan border at approximately . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Airblue is a private airline based in Karachi, Pakistan. ... The Pakistan aviation industry was started up when Orient Airways merged with Pakistan International Airlines Corporation (PIAC) to become the national flag carrier of Pakistan called Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Islamabad Stock Exchange is the three largest stock exchange of Pakistan located in the capital, Islamabad. ... The Karachi Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Limited (colloquially known as the Karachi Stock Exchange) is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan. ... This organization, company, or building article needs to be wikified. ... This is a list of companies from Pakistan. ... History (First Project, Al Azam Square, Site Office, Karachi-1966). ... Pakistan International Airlines Corporation, more commonly known as Pakistan International Airlines or PIA (Urdu: Ù¾ÛŒ آئی اے يا پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایرلاینز), is the national flag carrier airline of Pakistan, based in Karachi. ... The Pakistani rupee (PKR) is the currency of Pakistan. ... The logo of the Karachi Port Trust. ... Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a port in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan located at , (24. ... A slum in Karachi, Pakistan with an open sewer running along the lane Poverty in Pakistan, is a major economic issue. ... // Saudi-Pak Tower, Islamabad GIK Institute Clock Tower, Topi With many towers currently under construction, there are many towers still awaiting to be approved by the city government. ... The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore The society of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistans provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. ... A1GP (formerly A1 Grand Prix) is an open-wheel auto racing series. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... Kites on display before Basant festival in Lahore Basant, sometimes called Basant panchami in Hindi , is thought to be a festival celebrating the arrival of Spring, although some trace its background as a Hindu celebration. ... In Islamic Pakistani culture Chand Raat or night of the moon as it translates marks the end of Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان ) and the start of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر). Since the Islamic Calendar is lunar the advent of... Pakistani cuisine is a distinct blend of foods similar to those found in the cuisine of India and those found in Afghanistan and Iran, with strong culinary influences from the Middle East. ... After the Partition of India, Hinduism became one of the smallest religions in the newly created state of Pakistan, but has nonetheless played a major role in its culture and politics as well as the history of its regions. ... Holidays in Pakistan: Category: ... Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... The Kara Film Festival is the only internationally recognized film festival of Pakistan, to represent Lollywood annually held in Karachi. ... This is a list of musicians from Pakistan listed in alphabetical order. ... Pakistan has many radio and TV channels. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... This is a list of mosques in Pakistan. ... Murree Beer is Pakistans leading beer brand made by Murree Brewery. ... The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... Flag of Pakistan. ... Pakistan Idol is an upcoming reality television show on GEO television, based on the popular British show Pop Idol and its American counterpart American Idol. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ... An old-fashioned Hyderabadi gentleman wearing a formal Sherwani and Fez hat, that is designed by a designer in Lahore, Pakistan Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی ) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. ... Sikhism is a very small minority religion in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan but has many cultural, historical and political ties to the country, and to the historical region of Punjab. ... The term Sufi rock describes the sound of famous Pakistani rock band Junoon. ... Lahore Museum, established in 1894, when Lahore (currently a part of Pakistan) was a part of Undivided India, is a major museum of the Indian subcontinent. ... The following is a list of major universities in Pakistan, organized by subnational entities. ... The National library was established after almost 46 years of independence. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... Pakistani poetry as a tradition partakes of Urdu poetry, which see. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Pakistan is the sixth most populous nation in the world. ... The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (Urdu: پاک فضائیہ, Pak Fazaya) is the Aviation branch of the Pakistan armed forces and is responsible for defending Pakistani air-space from intrusions. ... The Pakistan Boy Scouts Association (PBSA) (Urdu:پاکستان بوائے اسکا وٹ ایسوسی ایشن) is the national Scouting organization of Pakistan and has 516,891 members (as of 2002). ... This page lists articles on Wikipedia that are related to Pakistan. ... Language(s) UrduLanguages of PakistanArabicEnglish Religion(s) IslamChristianityZoroastrianism An overseas Pakistani is a Pakistani citizen who has migrated to another country or a person of Pakistani origin who is born outside Pakistan. ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Government of Pakistan. Information of Pakistan: Basic Facts. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  2. ^ a b Excludes Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and the Northern Areas.
  3. ^ a b Estimate of Pakistan Economic Survey of 2006–2007, prepared by the Ministry of Finance
  4. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia - Pakistan
  5. ^ Middle East Institute: Pakistan
  6. ^ a b c The Kashmir region is claimed by India and Pakistan. Both countries and China separately administer parts of the region with the Indian and Pakistani-held areas defined by the Line of Control. The Pakistani-Chinese border is not recognized by India. India refers to Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK)
  7. ^ Text of the Now or Never pamphlet, issued on January 28, 1933
  8. ^ Wolpert, Stanley. 1984. Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 421 pages. ISBN 0195678591.
  9. ^ Minnesota State University page on Mohenjo-Daro
  10. ^ Livius.org on the extent of the Achaemenid Empire
  11. ^ Plutarch's Life of Alexander
  12. ^ Infinity Foundation's translation of the Chach-Nama
  13. ^ History in Chronological Order. Government of Pakistan.
  14. ^ Library of Congress study of Pakistan
  15. ^ Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address (HTML). Speeches, Writings, and Statements of Iqbal. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  16. ^ Jang.com page on the Lahore Resolution
  17. ^ Estimates for the 1947 death toll
  18. ^ "Community participation in disaster management can reduce the losses"
  19. ^ 1971 war summary by BBC website
  20. ^ US Country Studies article on the Bangladesh War
  21. ^ The 1991 Gulf war
  22. ^ Kargil conflict timeline on the BBC website
  23. ^ Daily Telegraph (UK) article on the 1999 coup
  24. ^ President Musharraf on Enlightened Moderation
  25. ^ Pakistan: The Most Allied Ally in Asia
  26. ^ "Pakistan's $4.2 Billion 'Blank Check' for U.S. Military Aid, After 9/11, funding to country soars with little oversight", Center for Public Integrity, March 27, 2007. (English) 
  27. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia Historica, India's Nuclear Test Maclean's Magazine, William Lowther, Nomi Morris, and Sankarshan Thakur, 25 May 1998
  28. ^ 'Taliban' gain sway in tribal region. Daily Times. 31 December 2005.
  29. ^ Musharraf imposes emergency rule. BBC News (November 3, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  30. ^ The Constitutional basis of the Federation of Pakistan
  31. ^ Constitutional article 246(b) on the Provincially Administered Tribal Areas
  32. ^ The area of Pakistan proper excludes the regions administered in Kashmir URL accessed on November 03, 2006
  33. ^ CIA World Factbook URL accessed on March 20, 2006
  34. ^ Leo the snow leopard is US-bound
  35. ^ Wildlife Sanctuaries of Pakistan
  36. ^ Pakistan Studies; Economy (HTML). American Institute of Pakistan Studies. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  37. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (PPP) (HTML). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  38. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. IMF.
  39. ^ http://southasia.oneworld.net/article/view/135153/1/1893
  40. ^ The World Factbook. CIA.
  41. ^ Concluding Remarks at the Pakistan Development Forum 2006 by John Wall, World Bank Country Director for Pakistan (html). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  42. ^ Country-by-Country Growth and Forecasts (HTML). Asian Development Bank. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  43. ^ VIEW: Is GDP growth sustainable? — Akmal Hussain (HTML). Daily Times Newspaper. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  44. ^ Water Strategy - 2020 URL Accessed 20 November 2006
  45. ^ Experts: Enhance economic links
  46. ^ CIA Factbook
  47. ^ Pakistan hopes to achieve $18 bln exports this year
  48. ^ 7% growth achieved in FY 05–06
  49. ^ Pakistan Economy Registers 7% Growth Rate for 4th Consecutive Year
  50. ^ MSCI Index descriptions
  51. ^ Brad Aham, State Street Corporation. Emerging Markets. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  52. ^ Macro-economic fundamentals improving, says Ashfaque
  53. ^ ADB sees Pakistan’s growth rate at 6.5%-7% in 2007 and 2008
  54. ^ FDI to touch $7 billion by year-end: SBP governor
  55. ^ Foreign investment to reach $ 7billion during current fiscal: Governor SBP
  56. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Pakistan IDB Country Summary. International Data Base. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  57. ^ Feeney and Alam, 2003
  58. ^ Population Reference Bureau's 2005 World Data Sheet
  59. ^ International Data Base U.S. Census Bureau. URL accessed on 17 October 2006.
  60. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News, Trilateral agreement on refugee repatriation extended
  61. ^ Ethnologue Western Punjabi
  62. ^ Census results for religions of Pakistan
  63. ^ Robert Ayres, Turning Point: The End of the Growth Paradigm, James & James/Earthscan, 1998, pp. 63. ISBN 1853834394
  64. ^ Pakistan to show Bollywood film Pakistan banned Indian movies following the 1965 war
  65. ^ Beinart, Peter. "Understate". The New Republic Online. July 01, 2002.
  66. ^ Kearney Foreign Policy Globalization Index
  67. ^ Aslam, S.M., Expatriates to Build Better Pakistan, Pakistan & Gulf Economist, 11–17 December 2000, URL accessed March 17, 2006
  68. ^ Ahmed, Faish. "U.S. Rules Give Pakistan a Windfall". Wall Street Journal. New York, New York. October 22, 2003. Page A18.
  69. ^ Hussain, Shaiq. Musharraf to focus on Palestine in Saudia visit from today. The Nation. June 25, 2005. URL accessed March 17, 2006
  70. ^ Howells, Kim. Kim Howells arrives in Pakistan. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (National). September 6, 2006. URL accessed October 22, 2006
  71. ^ PTDC page on mountaineering
  72. ^ Events taking place during 2007, Press released by Tourism of Pakistan
  73. ^ Bharatiya Hockey

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... This article details only the area administered by Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: ), usually shortened to Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir), is part of the Pakistani-administered section of the Kashmir region, along with the Northern Areas; its official name is Azad Jammu and Kashmir. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Center for Public Integrity is a nonprofit news organization dedicated to producing investigative reporting on public officials, government policy and its effects[1]. // Located in Washington, DC, USA, the Center for Public Integrity produces reports aimed to provide transparent and insightful reporting. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1965 war between India and Pakistan, also known as the Second Kashmir War, was the culmination of a series of skirmishes that occurred between April 1965 and September 1965. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 22, 2003 India: India launches a peace initiative to normalise relations with Pakistan. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Cohen, Stephen P. The Idea of Pakistan. The Brookings Institution. November 2004. ISBN 0-8157-1502-1.
  • Banuazizi, Ali and Weiner, Myron. The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Syracuse University Press. August 1988. ISBN 0-8156-2448-4.
  • Halliday, Fred. State and Ideology in the Middle East and Pakistan. Monthly Review Pr. February 1998. ISBN 0-85345-734-4.
  • Hammond Incorporated. Hammond Greater Middle East Region: Including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya, and Turkey. American Map Corporation. August 2002. ISBN 0-8437-1827-7.
  • Hilton, Isabel. "Letter from Pakistan: The Pashtun Code". The New Yorker. December 03, 2001. [1]
  • Insight Guides, Halliday, Tony and Ikram, Tahir. Insight Guide Pakistan. Apa Productions. January 1998. ISBN 0-88729-736-6.
  • Malik, Hafeez. Pakistan: Founders' Aspirations and Today's Realities. Oxford University Press, USA. May 2001. ISBN 0-19-579333-1.
  • Malik, Iftikhar H. "Religious Minorities in Pakistan". Minority Rights Group International. September 2002. ISBN 1-897693-69-9. [2]
  • Najim, Adil. "Pakistan and Democracy". The News International Pakistan. May 06, 2004. [3]
  • Rooney, John. Shadows in the dark: A history of Christianity in Pakistan up to the 10th century. Christian Study Centre. January 1984. OCLC 12177250.
  • Rahman, Tariq.1996. Language and Politics in Pakistan Karachi: Oxford University Press. Reprinted several times, latest repr. 2006.
  • Rahman, Tariq .2002. Language, Ideology and Power: Language-learning Among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India Karachi: OUP.
  • Rahman, Tariq .2004. Denizens of Alien Worlds: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan Karachi: OUP, 2006 repr.
  • Sharif, Shuja. "Musharraf's Administration And Pakistan's Economy". Contemporary Review. March 31, 2005. 129–134.
  • Wolpert, Stanley. Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, USA. May 1984. ISBN 0-19-503412-0.
  • Zakaria, Rafiq. The Man Who Divided India: An Insight into Jinnah's Leadership and its Aftermath
  • Statehood in South Asia
  • Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 10 (October 2004)

December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Pakistan Portal
Find more information on Pakistan by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Official sites
General information
  • CIA world factbook on Pakistan
  • Pakistan Military
  • Pakistani Aviation
  • History of Pakistan and present
  • Pakistani Politics
  • Pakistan's Passion of Cricket at the home of its Cricket Fan's
  • World Bank data on Pakistan
  • Common Language Project Country Fact Sheet - Pakistan
  • Wikia has a wiki about this topic: Pakistan
Informative Sites
  • Ibitians.com
  • BeautifulPakistan.com
  • Pakistani.pk
  • Story of Pakistan
  • A geographical history of Pakistan (Urdu)
Travel
Geographic locale
International Membership

Dark blue: the Indian subcontinent, Light Blue: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia and Malaysia, Purple: Regions not included in Indosphere, but with significant current or historical Indian cultural influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, and Yunnan province of China. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... Yunan redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pakistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5154 words)
Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, is home to the second most populous city in the world, and is the third most populous Muslim country.
Pakistan was formed on 14 August 1947 with two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of South Asia, separated by Hindu-majority India, and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh.
To the west of the Indus are the dry, hilly deserts of Balochistan; to the east are the rolling sand dunes of the Thar Desert.
Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1478 words)
Pakistan's nuclear program was launched in earnest shortly after the loss of East Pakistan in the 1971 war with India, when Bhutto initiated a program to develop nuclear weapons with a meeting of physicists and engineers at Multan in January 1972.
Pakistan acceded to the Geneva Protocol on April 15, 1960, the Biological Weapons Convention in 1974 and the Chemical Weapons Convention on October 28, 1997.In 1999 Pakistan signed the Lahore Accords, with India, agreeing a bilateral moratorium on nuclear testing.
Pakistan's nuclear warheads are based on an implosion design that uses a solid core of highly enriched uranium and requires an estimated 15-20 kg of material per warhead.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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