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Encyclopedia > Pakeha

Pakeha is a New Zealand English word for European New Zealanders, that is, New Zealanders of predominantly European descent. New Zealand English is the dialect of English spoken in New Zealand, occasionally referred to within New Zealand as Newzild. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...

Contents

The word

The word Pākehā originated in the Maori language. Its derivation remains not entirely clear, but its present usage originated after the sustained arrival of Europeans in New Zealand in the late 18th century. Most likely it derives from either of the words pākehakeha or pakepakehā, referring to imaginary, fair-skinned beings. Some have claimed that the word is a Maori transliteration of "bugger ya" or derives from Maori words for flea or for pig (and therefore expresses derogatory implications), but there is little or no etymological or linguistic support for these notions. Māori language. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Families Tungidae - Sticktight and Chigoe fleas Pulicidae - Common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae - Carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae - Marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae - Rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae - Bird and rabbit fleas Ischnopsyllidae - Bat fleas Ceratophyllidae Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae - Rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name for any of the small wingless... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The domestic pig is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ...


Pakeha sometimes appears pluralised in English as Pakehas, but in Maori, the plural is Pakeha: pronouns or definite articles indicate pluralisation. Pakeha is also appearing more frequently as the accepted plural in English.


Meaning

Common alternate designations for Pakeha in New Zealand include "New Zealand Europeans" or "European New Zealanders" and sometimes "Caucasian New Zealanders" or "white New Zealanders". The term 'white' may have somewhat vulgar connotations, and seldom occurs. Some early European settlers who lived among the Maori became known as Pakeha Māori. Caucasian is originally a geographical term, meaning relative or pertaining to the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe and West Asia. ... Whites (or White) is a broad term used to describe people of ethnic European, Middle Eastern and North African descent, especially those with fair coloured skin. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The word sometimes applies more narrowly to just New Zealanders of British or Anglo/Celtic descent. Sometimes it applies more widely to include non-Maori other than those of European descent. A trend exists to apply the term only to New Zealand-born persons of predominantly European descent, but acceptance of this notion remains still far from universal. Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ...


European New Zealanders vary in their attitude toward the word "Pakeha" as applied to themelves. Some embrace it wholeheartedly as a sign of their New Zealandness, in contrast to the Europeaness of their forebears. However, some people object to the word, claiming it to be derogatory with 'second-class' citizenship connotations. Others, who object to ethnic labelling of any kind, also rejected the "Pakeha" label, claiming that all New Zealand citizens should identify themselves only as New Zealanders, whatever their ancestry or culture.


Cultural identity

Many Pakeha do not readily identify a Pakeha culture. While Maori culture has achieved wide recognition, Pakeha culture tends to be taken for granted as the norm. Māori culture is a distinctive component of New Zealand culture. ...


Recognised aspects of Pakeha culture often receive the label of "Kiwiana". This includes icons such as the Chesdale Cheese men and the game of rugby. Pakeha and Maori culture together make up New Zealand culture. The culture of New Zealand is a fusion of Maori culture and that of the descendants of the early British colonists and later settlers, many of whom were of working class origin. ... Chesdale Cheese was a variety of cheese produced for the mass market in New Zealand back in the unsophisticated days when cheese was simply cheese. ... Rugby football, as a catch-all term, may refer to two related but separate team sports: rugby league and rugby union. ... The culture of New Zealand is a fusion of Maori culture and that of the descendants of the early British colonists and later settlers, many of whom were of working class origin. ...


Michael King, a leading writer on Pakeha identity, discussed the concept in his books Being Pakeha (1985) and Being Pakeha now (1999). Dr Michael King OBE (15 December 1945 - 30 March 2004) was a widely respected Pakeha New Zealand historian, author and biographer. ...


External links

  • Further article about the word at Maorinews.com (http://maorinews.com/writings/papers/other/pakeha.htm)
  • Otorohanga: Kiwiana Town (http://www.kiwianatown.co.nz/)
  • Sarah Henderson's Guide to Kiwiana (http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~sarah/content/kiwiana.html)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pākehā - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (523 words)
Some have claimed that the word is a Maori transliteration of "bugger ya" or derives from Maori words for flea (keha) or for pig (poaka), and therefore expresses derogatory implications, but there is little or no etymological or linguistic support for these notions.
Pakeha sometimes appears pluralised in English as Pakehas, but in Maori, the plural is Pākehā: pronouns or definite articles indicate pluralisation.
While Maori culture has achieved wide recognition, Pakeha culture tends to be taken for granted as the norm.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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