FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
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Encyclopedia > Pahlavi Dynasty
History of Iran
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The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Zayandeh Rud civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a pre-historic era culture that were settled around Zayandeh Rud, in Iran. ... // The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) was an ancient civilization that existed in what is now Iran from roughly 3000 BCE to? BCE. Research into this civilization is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiyan, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ṢāṣānÄ«yān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ghurids (or Ghoris; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Iranian TājÄ«k[1][2] origin. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Khwarezmid Empire After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Khwarezmid Empire (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled in Central Asia and Iran, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and later... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1736) was founded by Afghans (Pashuns) from the Ghilzai clan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of the Persian Empire to the establishment of modern day Iran. ...

Contents

Birth of the Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi Dynasty Coat of Arms

In 1921 Reza Khan (later Reza Shah Pahlavi), an officer in Iran's only military force (Persian Cossack Brigade) used his troops to support a coup against the government of the Qajar dynasty. Within four years he had established himself as the most powerful person in the country by suppressing rebellions and establishing order. In 1925 a specially convened assembly deposed Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last ruler of the Qajar dynasty, and named Reza Khan, who earlier had adopted the surname Pahlavi, as the new shah. Image File history File links Pahlavi_coat_of_arms. ... Image File history File links Pahlavi_coat_of_arms. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... The Persian Cossack Brigade was the imperial gaurd of the royal family of Persia (Iran). ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Photographic portrait of Ahmad Shah Qajar (l) and his brother Mohammad Hassan Mirza (r) Ahmad Shah Qajar (احمد شاه قاجار in Persian) ‎(January 21, 1898 - 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia from July 16, 1909 to October 31, 1925. ...


Reza Shah had ambitious plans for modernizing Iran. These plans included developing large-scale industries, implementing major infrastructure projects, building a cross-country railroad system, establishing a national public education system, reforming the judiciary, and improving health care. He believed a strong, centralized government managed by educated personnel could carry out his plans.

The Pahlavi dynasty comemmorated on this Iranian stamp.

He sent hundreds of Iranians, including his son, to Europe for training. During 16 years from 1925 and 1941, Reza Shah's numerous development projects transformed Iran into an urbanized country. Public education progressed rapidly, and new social classes were formed. A professional middle class and an industrial working class had emerged. Image File history File links The_Pahlavis_stamp. ... Image File history File links The_Pahlavis_stamp. ...


By the mid-1930s Reza Shah's dictatorial style of rule caused dissatisfaction among some groups, particularly the clergy who were opposed to his reforms. In 1935 Reza Pahlavi issued a decree asking foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence, in accordance with the fact that "Persia" was a term used by Western peoples for the country called "Iran" in Persian. After some scholars protested, his successor, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, announced in 1959 that both Persia and Iran were acceptable and could be used interchangeably. Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā Pahlavī) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16...

Reza Shah tried to avoid involvement with Britain and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR; formed from the Russian Empire in 1917). Even though many of his development projects required foreign technical expertise, he avoided awarding contracts to British and Soviet companies. Although Britain, through its ownership of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, controlled all of Iran's oil resources, Reza Shah preferred to obtain technical assistance from Germany, France, Italy, and other European countries. This made problems for Iran after 1939, when Germany and Britain became enemies in World War II. Reza Shah proclaimed Iran as a neutral country, but Britain insisted that German engineers and technicians in Iran were spies with missions to sabotage British oil facilities in southwestern Iran. Britain demanded that Iran expel all German citizens, but Reza Shah refused, claiming this would adversely impact his development projects. Image File history File links Reza. ... Image File history File links Reza. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ...


Second World War

The Pahlavi coronation.

Following Germany's invasion of the USSR in June 1941, Britain and the Soviet Union became allies. Both turned their attention to Iran. Britain and the USSR saw the newly opened Trans-Iranian Railroad as an attractive route to transport supplies from the Persian Gulf to the Soviet region. In August 1941, because Reza Shah refused to expel the German nationals, Britain and the USSR invaded Iran, arrested him and sent him into exile, taking control of Iran's communications and coveted railroad. In 1942 the United States, an ally of Britain and the USSR during the war, sent a military force to Iran to help maintain and operate sections of the railroad. Over the next few months, the three nations took control of Iran's oil resources and secured a supply corridor for themselves. Reza Shah's regime collapsed, and the American, British and Soviet authorities limited the powers of the rump government that remained. They permitted Reza Shah's son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to acceed to the throne. The Coronation of Empress Diba Farah, the last of the Pahlavi dynasty, Iran. ... The Coronation of Empress Diba Farah, the last of the Pahlavi dynasty, Iran. ... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā Pahlavī) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16...


In January 1942 they signed an agreement with Iran to respect Iran's independence and to withdraw their troops within six months of the war's end. In 1943 at the Tehran Conference, the United States reaffirmed this commitment. In 1945, the USSR refused to announce a timetable to leave Iran's northwestern provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, where Soviet-supported autonomy movements had developed. At the time, the Tudeh Party (Communist Party of Iran), already an influential force with parliamentary representation, was becoming increasingly militant, especially in the North. This promted actions from the side of the government, including attempts of the Iranian armed forces to restore order in the Northern provinces. While the Tudeh headquarters in Tehran were occupied and the Isfahan branch crushed, the Soviet troops present in the Northern parts of the country prevented the Iranian forces from entering. Thus, by the late autumn of 1945, North was virtually controlled by the Tudeh and its affiliates. [1] Image:Teheran Conference, 1943. ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ...


The USSR withdrew its troops in May 1946, but tensions continued for several months. This episode was one of the precipitating events of the emerging Cold War, the postwar rivalry between the United States and its allies, and the USSR and its allies. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Iran's political system became increasingly open. Political parties were developed, and in 1944 the Majlis election was the first genuinely competitive election in more than 20 years. Foreign influence remained a very sensitive issue for all parties. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC), which was owned by the British government, continued to produce and market Iranian oil. In the beginning of 1930s some Iranians began to advocate nationalization of the country's oil fields. After 1946 this became an increasingly popular political movement. Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ...


The Cold War

Farah Diba, Iran's last Empress, as she appeared during the visit of US president Richard Nixon to Iran on May 30, 1972.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi replaced his father on the throne on September 16, 1941. He wanted to continue the reform policies of his father, but a contest for control of the government soon erupted between the shah and an older professional politician, the nationalistic Mohammad Mosaddegh. Farah Pahlavi, empress of Iran. ... Farah Pahlavi, empress of Iran. ... Farah Diba Farah Diba (born October 14, 1938 in Tehran, Iran) (also known as Farah Pahlavi) was the third wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran and the Shahbanu (Empress) of Iran. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ...


Despite his vow to act as a constitutional monarch who would defer to the power of the parliamentary government, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi increasingly involved himself in governmental affairs. He concentrated on reviving the army and ensuring that it would remain under royal control as the monarchy's main power base. In 1949 an assassination attempt on the Shah, attributed to the pro-Soviet Tudeh Party, resulted in the banning of that party and the expansion of the Shah's constitutional powers. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ...


In 1951, the Majlis named Mohammad Mossadegh as new prime minister by a vote of 79-12, who shortly after nationalized the British-owned oil industry (see Abadan Crisis). Mossadegh was opposed by the Shah who feared a resulting oil embargo imposed by the west would leave Iran in economical ruin. The Shah fled Iran but returned when the United Kingdom and United States staged a coup against Mossadegh in August 1953 (see Operation Ajax). Mossadegh was then arrested by pro-Shah army forces. 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... The Abadan Crisis occurred from 1951 to 1954, after Iran nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, and expelled Western companies from oil refineries in the city of Abadan. ... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ...

Empress Soraya on the cover of an Italian magazine.

In the context of regional turmoil and the Cold War, the Shah established himself as an indispensable ally of the West. Domestically, he advocated reform policies, culminating in the 1963 program known as the White Revolution, which included land reform, extension of voting rights to women, and the elimination of illiteracy. Major plans to build Iran's infrastructure were undertaken, a new middle class began flourishing and in less than two decades Iran became the undisputable major economical and military power of the Middle East. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (527x677, 74 KB) Summary From the cover of a 1953 issue of the Italian magazine EPOCA. Licensing This image is of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (527x677, 74 KB) Summary From the cover of a 1953 issue of the Italian magazine EPOCA. Licensing This image is of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or... The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ...


However, these measures and the increasing arbitrariness of the Shah's rule provoked religious leaders who feared losing their traditional authority, and intellectuals seeking democratic reforms. These opponents criticized the Shah for his reforms or for violation of the constitution, which placed limits on royal power and provided for a representative government.


The Shah saw himself as heir to the kings of ancient Iran, and in 1971 he held a celebration of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. In 1976 he replaced the lunar Islamic calendar (year 1355) with a solar "Imperial" calendar (year 2595), which began with the foundation of the Persian Empire more than 25 centuries earlier. These actions were viewed as un-Islamic and resulted in more religious opposition by the clergy. Symbol of 2,500 Year Celebration, Cyrus Cylinder in Center The 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12-16, 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Collapse of the dynasty

Main article: Iranian Revolution

The Shah's government suppressed its opponents with the help of Iran's security and intelligence organization, SAVAK. Such opponents included members of the Communist Tudeh party, who tried to assassinate the Shah and his son on multiple occasions. 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


By the mid-1970s, relying on increased oil revenues, the Shah began a series of even more ambitious and bolder plans for the progress of his country and the march toward the "Great Civilization". But his socioeconomic advances increasingly irritated the clergy. Islamic leaders, particularly the exiled cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, were able to focus this discontent with an ideology tied to Islamic principles that called for the overthrow of the Shah and the return to Islamic traditions, called the Islamic revolution. The Shah's government collapsed following widespread uprisings in 1978 and 1979. The Islamic Republic of Iran changed SAVAK to SAVAMA. It was run after the revolution, according to U.S. sources and Iranian exile sources in the US and in Paris by Gen. Hossein Fardoust, who was deputy chief of SAVAK under the former Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and a friend from boyhood of the deposed monarch. The Shah fled the country, seeking medical treatment to Egypt, Panama and finally resettled with his family in Egypt as a guest of Anwar Sadat. Upon his death his son Crown Prince Reza Pahlavi succeeded him as Head of the Pahlavi Dynasty. Today the Pahlavi family lives in Maryland with their three daughters. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Mosavi Kooni ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« (May 17, 1900[1] – June 3, 1989) was a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ...


Use of titles

  • Shah: Regnal name, followed by Shahanshah of Iran, with style His Imperial Majesty
  • Shabanou: Shahbanou or Empress, followed by first name, followed by "of Iran", with style Her Imperial Majesty
  • Eldest son: Crown Prince of Iran, with style His Imperial Highness
  • Younger sons: Prince (Shahpur, or King's Son), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style His Imperial Highness.
  • Daughters: Princess (Shahdokht, or King's Daughter), followed by first name and surname (Pahlavi), and style Her Imperial Highness.
  • Children of the monarch's daughter/s use another version of Prince (Vala Gohar) or Princess (Vala Gohari), which indicate descent in the second generation through the female line, and use the styles His Highness or Her Highness. This is then followed by first name and father's surname, whether he was royal or a commoner. However, the children by the last Shah's sister Fatemeh, who married an American businessman as her first husband, are surnamed Pahlavi Hillyer and do not use any titles.

See also

Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی, born October 31, 1960) is the former Crown Prince of Iran, the eldest son of late Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his Empress Consort, Farah Diba. ... Abdolhossein Teymourtash. ... Ey Iran (Persian: ای ایران) (O! Iran) is a famous and most popular Persian anthem in Iran. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II. Map of Iran & Borders with former Soviet Republics of Armenia, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan // Background Note: The... Image:Teheran Conference, 1943. ... The Trans-Iranian Railway was a major railway building project started in the 1930s and finished in 1939, under the direction of the Persian monarch, Reza Shah, to construct a basic network of railways joining the capital Tehran to the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... Official portrat of Col. ... 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... This article details Iran-France relations from its inception in the 17th century until modern times. ...

References and notes

</references>


External links

  • The Pahlavi Dynasty
  • What Really Happed to the Shah of Iran, Payvand News, March 10, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pahlavi Dynasty Biography | ema_04_package.xml (1487 words)
The reign of the Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979) was a crucial and transitional period in Iranian history that began with Reza Shah Pahlavi (1878–1944) and ended with his son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (1919–1980).
Many of the sweeping changes introduced by the Pahlavis were unacceptable to the population, particularly to the religious community, and after the fall of the dynasty a conservative backlash erased most of the Pahlavi achievements.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, known as "the Shah," was forced to permit the foreign troops to use Iranian territory as needed during World War II while the Shah worked to gain support from his people, including the disaffected clerics who had disliked his father's secular policies.
Pahlavi Dynasty (3307 words)
After centuries of misrule by its former rulers and the ravages of the war waged by foreign belligerents on its soil from 1914 to 1919, Iran in 1921 was prostrate, ruined, and on the verge of disintegration.
In 1925 the Majles deposed the absentee monarch, and a constituent assembly elected Reza Khan as shah, vesting sovereignty in the new Pahlavi dynasty.
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (1919-80) was born in Tehran on October 26, 1919, the eldest son of Reza Shah.
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