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Encyclopedia > Pahlava
Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
Obv: Bust of Gondophares and Greek legend: BACIΛEΩC CΩTHPOC VNΔOΦEPPOV "King Gondophares, the Saviour".
Rev: Winged Nike holding a diadem, with a Kharoshti legend: MAHARAJASA GUDAPHANISA TRATARASA "King Gondophares, the Saviour".

The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was established during the 1st century CE, by a Parthian leader named Gondophares, in an area covering today's Afghanistan, Pakistan and Northern India. Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthians. ... See Nike for other meanings. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthians. ...

Contents

Origins

Following the weakening of the Parthian empire after conflicts with Rome and the death of Mithridates II in 92 BCE, the Suren, a noble Parthian family of Arsacid descent, started to make inroads into eastern territories that had been occupied by the Indo-Scythians and the Yuezhi, until the demise of the last Indo-Scythian emperor Azes II around 5 CE. Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Coin of Mithridates II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC - 92 BC - 91 BC 90 BC 89... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Coin of the Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II, riding on horseback (c. ... The migrations of the Yueh-Chih. ... Silver coin of King Azes II (r. ... For other uses, see number 5. ...


The Parthians ended up controlling all of Bactria and extensive territories in Northern India, after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan Empire ruler Kujula Kadphises,in the Gandhara region. Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh)In Afghanistan. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ...


Secession from Parthia

Around 20 CE, Gondophares, one of the Parthian conquerors, declared his independence from the Parthian empire and established the Indo-Parthian kingdom in the conquered territories. For other uses, see number 20. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthians. ...


The kingdom barely lasted one century. It started to fragment under Gondophares' successor Abdagases. The northern Indian part of the kingdom was retaken by the Kushans around 75. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... For other uses, see number 75. ...


After that point the kingdom was essentially restricted to Afghanistan. The last king Pakores (100 - 135) only ruled Sakastan and Turan.-1... For other uses, see number 135. ...


The Indo-Parthians were known to the Indians as Pahlavas and are refered to in numerous Indian texts, together with the Yavanas or the Sakas. At the beginning of the 2nd century CE, the Central India Satavahana king Gautamiputra Sātakarni (r. 106 - 130 CE) would call himself "Destroyer of Sakas (Western Kshatrapas), Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians)" in his inscriptions. Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates are of... For other uses, see number 106. ... For other uses, see number 130. ... The Sakas or Saka race was a group of people who lived in present day Uzbekistan around 2000 BC. The Sakas followed other Aryans into present day Iran, and returned to their original area in Central Asia. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ...


Main Indo-Parthian rulers

  • Gondophares I (c. 20-50 CE) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/print/i_gondopharesI.jpg)
  • Abdagases I (c. 50-65) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/indoparthian/i_ipr_abdagases_o.jpg)
  • Satavastres (c. 60) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/print/i_satavastres.jpg)
  • Sarpedones (c.70) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/print/i_sarpedones.jpg)
  • Orthagnes (c. 70) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/print/i_orthagnes.jpg)
  • Ubouzanes (c. 77) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/print/i_ubouzanes.jpg)
  • Sases or Gondophares II, (c. 85) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/print/i_gondopharesI_2.jpg)
  • Abdagases II (c. 90) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/par_rel/print/i_abdagases.jpg)
  • Pakores (c. 100) Coin (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/indoparthian/i_ipr_pakores_o5.jpg)



Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthians. ... Abdagases I, nephew of Gondophares evident from his coin — a copper Tetradrachm — continued ruling up to ca. ...

MIDDLE KINGDOMS OF INDIA
Timeline: Northern empires Southern Kingdoms Foreign kingdoms

6th century BCE
5th century BCE
4th century BCE

3rd century BCE
2nd century BCE

1st century BCE
1st century CE


2nd century CE
3rd century CE
4th century CE
5th century CE
6th century CE
7th century CE
8th century CE
9th century CE
10th century CE
11th century CE Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India in the 6th century BC through the 6th century AD. Kingdoms and Empires The following account relies on the accuracy of the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) which believes that a nomadic race known as the Aryans invaded India from... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ...






Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates are of... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...



Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455 CE). ... The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh centuries. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... The Solanki were a Hindu Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...





Kalinga was an ancient kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ...


(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greek kingdom



(First islamic conquests)
Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 CE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Coin of the Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II, riding on horseback (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka ( Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ...

(Islamic invasion of India) The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and northwestern India from the mid-ninth century to the early eleventh century. ... Some Muslims believe that connection between Islam and India was established right from the very beginning, but this is untrue. ...



See also:

Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Scythians
Kushan Empire
Yuezhi
Kambojas
Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 CE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Coin of the Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II, riding on horseback (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The migrations of the Yueh-Chih. ... Kambojas are very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...


External links:

  • Coins of the Indo-Parthians (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/indoparthian/indoparthian.html)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Indo-Scythians - Indian History (308 words)
Gradually, Sakas extended their sway to the Indus valley and western India, which came to be styled Scythia by the Greek mariners and geographers.
It is not clear whether Spalarises was his dominion, as there were coins for a brief period issued with both the names engraved.
His successors Azilises and Azes-II ruled the kingdom of Azes-I, after whom the sovereignty of Indian borderland passed into the hands of Pahlava ruler Gondophares, a Parthian.
India's Parthian Colony (CAIS) (6403 words)
Abstract: This paper reveals the ancient Pallava Dynasty of Dravidia to be of the Iranic race, and as constituting a branch of the Pahlavas, Parthavas or Parthians of Persia.
Moreover, the Pahlava alphabet is the ancestor of the Sasanian Persian alphabet: "The Pahlava alphabet developed from the Aramaic alphabet and occurs in at least three local varieties: northwestern, called Pahlavik or Arsacid; southwestern, called Parsik or Sasanian, and eastern" (Enc.Brit.
In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa, the Yavanas, Pahlavas and Kāmbhōjas are said to have been originally Kṣatriya tribes who became degraded by their separation from Brāhmaṇa and their institutions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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