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Encyclopedia > Pagliacci
Operas by Ruggero Leoncavallo

Pagliacci (1892)
I Medici (1893)
La bohème (1897)
Zazà (1900)
Are You There? (1913)
Ruggiero Leoncavallo (April 23, 1857- August 9, 1919) was an Italian opera composer. ... Description: Ruggiero Leoncavallo Size: 240 &times 307 pixels Source: What We Hear in Music, Anne S. Faulkner, Victor Talking Machine Co. ... A lyric opera in four acts was written by Ruggiero Leoncavallo. ... Zazà is an opera by Ruggero Leoncavallo, with the libretto by the composer. ...

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Pagliacci (Players, or Clowns) is an opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. It recounts the tragedy of a jealous husband in a commedia dell'arte troupe. (Its name is sometimes incorrectly rendered as I Pagliacci with a definite article.) For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Ruggiero Leoncavallo (April 23, 1857- August 9, 1919) was an Italian opera composer. ... Commedia redirects here. ...


Pagliacci premiered at the Teatro Dal Verme in Milan on May 21, 1892, conducted by Arturo Toscanini with Adelina Stehle as Nedda, Fiorello Giraud as Canio, Victor Maurel as Tonio, and Mario Ancona as Silvio. The interior of the Teatro Dal Verme circa 1875 The Teatro Dal Verme is a theatre in Milan, Italy located on the Via San Giovanni sul Muro, on the site of the former private theatre the Politeama Ciniselli. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... Victor Maurel (June 17, 1848 in Marseilles-October 22, 1923 in New York City ) was a French baritone. ... Mario Ancona (1860-1931) was a Italian baritone, born in Livorno, Italy, and died in Florence. ...


Since 1893, it has usually been performed in a double bill with Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria Rusticana. It is the only one of Leoncavallo's operas that is still widely staged. Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... Cavalleria rusticana (Rustic Chivalry) is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to a libretto by Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, adapted from a short story by Giovanni Verga. ...

Contents

History

Cover of the first edition of Pagliacci published by E. Sonzogno, Milan, 1892
Cover of the first edition of Pagliacci published by E. Sonzogno, Milan, 1892
The French baritone, Victor Maurel, who created the role of Tonio.
The French baritone, Victor Maurel, who created the role of Tonio.

Around 1890, when Cavalleria Rusticana premiered, Leoncavallo was a little-known composer. After seeing Cav's success, he decided to write a similar opera. It was to be in one act and composed in the verismo style. A lawsuit was brought against him for plagiarism of the libretto. Leoncavallo's defense was that the plot of the opera was based on a true story he had witnessed as a child. He claimed that a servant had taken him to a commedia performance in which the events of the opera had actually occurred. He also claimed that his father, who was a judge, had led the criminal investigation, and that he had documents supporting these claims. None of this evidence has ever appeared. Today most critics agree that the libretto was inspired by an 1887 play of Catulle Mendès entitled La Femme de Tabarin. Leoncavallo was living in Paris at the time of the premiere, and it is likely that he saw the play.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Victor Maurel (June 17, 1848 in Marseilles-October 22, 1923 in New York City ) was a French baritone. ... Verismo was an Italian literary movement born approximately between 1875 and 1895. ... For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Catulle Mendès Catulle Mendès (22 May 1841 - 8 February 1909) was a French poet and man of letters. ...


Pagliacci was an instant success and it remains popular today. It contains one of opera's most famous and popular arias, Recitar! ... Vesti la giubba (literally, To perform! ... Put on the costume, but more often known in English as On with the motley). One of Enrico Caruso's recordings of Vesti la giubba was the first record to sell one million copies. In 1907, Pagliacci became the first entire opera to be recorded. In 1931, it became the first complete opera to be filmed with sound, in a now obscure version starring the tenor Fernando Bertini, in his only film, as Canio, and the San Carlo Opera Company. [2] An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ... Vesti la Giubba (Put on the costume) is a famous tenor aria performed as part of the opera Pagliacci, written and composed by Ruggiero Leoncavallo, and first performed in 1892. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... The San Carlo Opera Company was an touring grand opera company founded by the Italian-American impresario Fortune Gallo. ...


As a staple of the standard operatic repertoire, it appears as number 14 on Opera America's list of the 20 most-performed operas in North America[3]. Opera America, officially OPERA America, is a service organization in North America promoting the creation, presentation, and enjoyment of opera. ... North American redirects here. ...


Roles

Enrico Caruso as Canio in Pagliacci, one of his signature roles.
Enrico Caruso as Canio in Pagliacci, one of his signature roles.
Role Role in Commedia Voice type Premiere Cast, May 21, 1892
(Conductor: Arturo Toscanini )
Canio, head of the troupe Pagliaccio tenor Fiorello Giraud
Nedda, Canio's wife,
in love with Silvio
Colombina, Pagliaccio's wife,
in love with Arlecchino
soprano Adelina Stehle
Tonio, the fool Taddeo baritone Victor Maurel
Beppe, actor Arlecchino, Colombina's lover tenor
Silvio, Nedda's lover baritone Mario Ancona
Chorus of villagers

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... Victor Maurel (June 17, 1848 in Marseilles-October 22, 1923 in New York City ) was a French baritone. ... Mario Ancona (1860-1931) was a Italian baritone, born in Livorno, Italy, and died in Florence. ...

Synopsis

The story is set in Calabria, near Montalto, on the Feast of the Assumption, between 1865 and 1870. For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Montalto is used in a number of contexts: Montalto delle Marche - Town and diocese Montalto Uffugo Montalto Dora Montalto Ligure Montalto Pavese Montalto di Castro John Attard Montalto Alessandro Peretti di Montalto Cardinal Montalto (Pope Sixtus V) Category: ...


Prologue

During the overture, the curtain rises. From behind a second curtain, Tonio, dressed as his commedia character Taddeo, addresses the audience. (Si può?... Si può?... Signore! Signori! ... Un nido di memorie.) He reminds the audience that actors have feelings too, and that the show is about real humans.


Act I

At three o'clock in the afternoon, the commedia troupe enters the village, and the villagers cheer. Canio describes the night's performance: The troubles of Pagliaccio. He says the play will begin at "ventitre ore". This is an agricultural method of time-keeping, and means the play will begin an hour before sunset. As Nedda steps down from the cart, Tonio offers his hand, but Canio pushes him aside and helps her down himself. The villagers suggest drinking at the tavern. Canio and Beppe accept, but Tonio stays behind. The villagers tease Canio that Tonio is planning an affair with Nedda. Canio warns everyone that while he may act the foolish husband in the play, in real life he will not tolerate other men making advances to Nedda. Shocked, a villager asks if Canio really suspects her. He says no, and sweetly kisses her on the forehead. As the church bells ring vespers, he and Beppe leave for the tavern, and Nedda is left alone. Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ...


Nedda, who is cheating on Canio, is frightened by Canio's vehemence ("Qual fiamma avea nel guardo"), but the birdsong comforts her ("Stridono lassu"). Tonio returns and confesses his love for her, but she laughs. Enraged, Tonio grabs Nedda, but she takes a whip, strikes him, and drives him off. Silvio, who is Nedda's lover, comes from the tavern, where he has left Canio and Beppe drinking. He asks Nedda to elope with him after the performance, and though she is afraid, she agrees. Tonio, who has been eavesdropping, leaves to inform Canio and catch Silvio and Nedda together. Canio and Tonio return, and as Silvio escapes, Nedda calls after him, "I will always be yours!"


Canio chases Silvio but does not catch him and does not see his face. He demands that Nedda tell him the name of her lover, but she refuses. He threatens her with a knife, but Beppe disarms him. Beppe insists that they prepare for the performance. Tonio tells Canio that her lover will surely give himself away at the play. Canio is left alone to put on his costume and prepare to laugh (Vesti la giubba - "Put on the costume"). Vesti la Giubba (Put on the costume) is a famous tenor aria performed as part of the opera Pagliacci, written and composed by Ruggiero Leoncavallo, and first performed in 1892. ...


Act II

As the crowd arrives, Nedda, costumed as Colombina, collects their money. She whispers a warning to Silvio, and the crowd cheers as the play begins. This article is about the theatrical character. ...


Colombina's husband Pagliaccio has gone away until morning, and Taddeo is at the market. She anxiously awaits her lover Arlecchino, who soon serenades her from beneath her window. Taddeo returns and confesses his love, but she mocks him and lets in Arlecchino through the window. He boxes Taddeo's ears and kicks him out of the room, and the audience laughs. Arlecchino (also known as Harlequin in English, Arlequin in French) is the most popular of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dellArte. ...


Arlecchino and Colombina dine, and he delivers a sleeping potion. When Pagliaccio returns, Colombina will drug him and elope with Arlecchino. Taddeo bursts in, warning that Pagliaccio is suspicious of his wife and is about to return. As Arlecchino escapes through the window, Colombina tells him, "I will always be yours!" The Love Potion by Evelyn de Morgan. ...


As Canio enters, he hears Nedda and exclaims, "Name of God! Those same words!" He tries to continue the play but loses control and demands to know her lover's name. Nedda, hoping to continue the play, calls Canio by his stage name "Pagliaccio" to remind him of the audience's presence. He answers with his arietta: No! Pagliaccio non son! and states that if his face is pale, it is not from the stage makeup but from the shame she has brought to him. The crowd, impressed by his emotional, and very real, performance, cheers him.


Nedda, trying again to continue the play, admits that she has been visited by the very innocent Arlecchino. Canio, furious and forgetting the play, demands the name of her lover. Nedda swears she will never tell him, and the crowd finally realizes they are not acting. Silvio begins to fight his way toward the stage. Canio, grabbing a knife from the table, stabs Nedda. As she dies she calls, "Help! Silvio!" Canio stabs Silvio and declares, "La Commedia è finita!" ("The play is over!") Originally, Tonio had the final line, "La commedia è finita!" but it has traditionally been given to Canio. Leoncavallo himself sanctioned this substitution.


Orchestration

The orchestra consists of 2 flutes, 1 piccolo, 2 oboes, 1 cor anglais, 2 clarinets, 1 bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 tuba, 2 harps, timpani, tubular bells, percussion (triangle, cymbals, bass drum, glockenspiel) and strings. Additionally, there is an onstage violin, oboe, trumpet, and bass drum. â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... French horn redirects here. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ...


Notable arias

  • Prologue ("Si può? ... Signore! Signori! ... Un nido di memorie") (Tonio)
  • "Un tal gioco" (Canio)
  • "Stridono lassu" (Nedda)
  • "Nedda! Silvio, a quest'ora" (Silvio, Nedda)
  • "E fra quest'anise...E allor perchè" (Silvio)
  • "Vesti la giubba" (Canio)
  • "Ohe! Ohe! Presto!" (Chorus)
  • "O Colombina" (Beppe)
  • "No, Pagliaccio non son" (Canio)

A prologue (Greek πρόλογος, from προ~, pro~ - fore~, and lógos, word), or rarely prolog, is a prefatory piece of writing, usually composed to introduce a drama. ... Vesti la Giubba (Put on the costume) is a famous tenor aria performed as part of the opera Pagliacci, written and composed by Ruggiero Leoncavallo, and first performed in 1892. ...

Selected recordings

Paired with Mascagni’s Cavalleria Rusticana Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 - Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... Cavalleria rusticana (Rustic Chivalry) is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to a libretto by Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, adapted from a short story by Giovanni Verga. ...

Year Cast
(Canio, Nedda, Tonio)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label
1954 Giuseppe di Stefano,
Maria Callas,
Tito Gobbi
Tullio Serafin,
La Scala Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: EMI Classics
Cat: 0724358683028
 ?? Luciano Pavarotti,
Mirella Freni,
Ingvar Wixell
Giuseppe Patanè,
National Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: Decca Classics
Cat: 00289 414 5902
?? Franco Corelli,
Lucine Amara,
Tito Gobbi
Lovro von Matacic
La Scala Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: EMI Classics
Cat: 0077776396750
1981 Plácido Domingo,
Teresa Stratas,
Juan Pons
Georges Prêtre
La Scala Orchestra and Chorus
(Film - directed by Franco Zeffirelli)
DVD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 0044007 34033

Paired with Puccini’s Il Tabarro The Italian tenor Giuseppe Di Stefano (born 24 July 1921) is a famous opera singer whose career spanned from the late 1940s to the early 1970s. ... Maria Callas in a casual moment, 1960s Maria Callas (Greek: Μαρία Κάλλας) (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American born, Greek dramatic coloratura soprano and perhaps the best-known opera singer of the post-World War II period. ... Tito Gobbi (October 24, 1913 – March 5, 1984) was an Italian baritone. ... Tullio Serafin (1878 - 1968) was an Italian conductor of opera. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, by night. ... EMI Classics is a record label of EMI. It was formed in 1990 in order to reduce the need to create country-specific packaging and catalogs for internationally distributed classical music releases. ... Luciano Pavarotti performing on June 15, 2002 at a concert in the Stade Vélodrome in Marseille Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI[1] (October 12, 1935 – September 6, 2007) was a celebrated Italian tenor in operatic music, who successfully crossed into popular music becoming one of the most... Mirella Freni Mirella Freni (born 27 February 1935) is a famous Italian opera soprano much admired for the youthful quality of her voice and her acting skills. ... Ingvar Wixell born May 7, 1931 in LuleÃ¥ is a Swedish baritone opera singer. ... Giuseppe Patanè (born 1932, Italy - died 29 May 1989, Germany) was an Italian opera conductor. ... The National Philharmonic Orchestra is a British orchestra created exclusively for recording purposes. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... Franco Corelli. ... Lucine Amara is a diva. ... Tito Gobbi (October 24, 1913 – March 5, 1984) was an Italian baritone. ... Lovro von Matacic (born February 14, 1899 in SuÅ¡ak, died January 4, 1985 in Zagreb) was a Croatian conductor. ... EMI Classics is a record label of EMI. It was formed in 1990 in order to reduce the need to create country-specific packaging and catalogs for internationally distributed classical music releases. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... Teresa Stratas (b. ... Joan Pons Álvarez (Ciutadella, Spain, August 8, 1946), Spanish dramatic baritone. ... Georges Prêtre (born August 14, 1924) is a French conductor. ... Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ... Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) is regarded as one of the great operatic composers of the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Il tabarro (The Cloak) is an opera in one act by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Giuseppe Adami, based on Didier Golds La Houppelande. ...

Year Cast
(Canio, Nedda, Tonio)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label
1994 Luciano Pavarotti,
Teresa Stratas,
Juan Pons
James Levine,
Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and Chorus
DVD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 00440 073 4024

Stand-alone recordings: Luciano Pavarotti performing on June 15, 2002 at a concert in the Stade Vélodrome in Marseille Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI[1] (October 12, 1935 – September 6, 2007) was a celebrated Italian tenor in operatic music, who successfully crossed into popular music becoming one of the most... Teresa Stratas (b. ... Joan Pons Álvarez (Ciutadella, Spain, August 8, 1946), Spanish dramatic baritone. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ...

Year Cast
(Canio, Nedda, Tonio)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label
1934 Beniamino Gigli,
Pacetti,
Basiola
Franco Ghione,
La Scala Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: Naxos
Cat:8.110155
?? Carlo Bergonzi,
Joan Carlyle,
Giuseppe Taddei
Herbert von Karajan,
La Scala Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD:
Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 449 727-2
1953 Jussi Björling,
Victoria de los Angeles,
Leonard Warren
Renato Cellini
RCA Victor Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: EMI Classics
Cat: 0724358565027
?? Richard Tucker,
Lucine Amara,
Giuseppe Valdengo
Fausto Cleva
Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and Chorus
LP: Columbia Masterworks Records
1971 Placido Domingo,
Montserrat Caballe,
Sherrill Milnes
Nello Santi
London Symphony Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: RCA

Note: "Cat:" is short for catalogue number by the label company; "ASIN" is amazon.com product reference number. Beniamino Gigli (March 20, 1890 - November 30, 1957) was an Italian singer, widely regarded as one of the greatest operatic tenors of his time. ... Franco Ghione (1886-1964) was an Italian conductor and violinist. ... -1... The Italian singer Carlo Bergonzi (born 13 July 1924) is one of the most admired tenors of the post-war period. ... // Her Career British opera singer (Born 6th April 1931 Wirrel, Cheshire). ... Giuseppe Taddei (born June 26, 1916) was an Italian baritone known for his work in Italian opera, particularly the works of Giuseppe Verdi, as well as for his work in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts and Richard Wagners operas. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Johan Jonatan   (5 February 1911 – 9 September 1960) was a Swedish tenor and one of the most highly regarded opera singers of the 20th century. ... The Catalan singer Victoria de los Ángeles (November 1, 1923 – January 15, 2005) was a well-known soprano whose career spanned the early 1940s to the mid 1970s. ... The American opera singer Leonard Warren (April 21, 1911 - March 4, 1960) was a famous baritone who was associated for many years with the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... Renato Cellini (c. ... EMI Classics is a record label of EMI. It was formed in 1990 in order to reduce the need to create country-specific packaging and catalogs for internationally distributed classical music releases. ... Richard Tucker (August 28, 1913 – January 8, 1975) was an American tenor. ... Lucine Amara is a diva. ... Giuseppe Valdengo (born 24 May 1914) was an Italian operatic baritone. ... Columbia Masterworks Records is a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ... Plácido Domingo (born January 21, 1941) is a world-renowned opera singer, conductor, and general manager. ... Catalan soprano Montserrat Caballé The Catalan soprano Montserrat Caballé (born 12 April 1933) is a famous opera singer, renowned for her bel canto technique and her interpretations of the great bel canto roles of Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the former RCA Corporation. ...


Media

Image File history File links Vesti_La_Giubba. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links No_Pagliaccio_non_son. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ San Francisco Opera Guild, 2003; Sansone, M., 1989
  2. ^ The Durbeck Archive
  3. ^ OPERA America's "The Top 20" list of most-performed operas

Bibliography

  • Pagliacci Libretto in the original Italian
  • Pagliacci Libretto in English translation
  • San Francisco Opera Guild, 2003, Cavalleria Rusticana and Pagliacci: A Teacher's Guide and Resource Book (accessed 23 May 2007)
  • Sansone, Matteo, 1989, 'The Verismo of Ruggero Leoncavallo: A Source Study of Pagliacci', Music & Letters, Vol. 70, No. 3 (Aug., 1989).
  • Sims, Michael, 2007, 'Cavalleria Rusticana, I Pagliacci, and the Verismo Style', Programme notes, Concert Opera Boston (accessed 21 May 2007)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pagliacci - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1617 words)
Pagliacci (Clowns) is an opera in two acts written and composed by Ruggiero Leoncavallo.
It is the tragedy of a jealous husband in a commedia dell'Arte troupe.
Pagliacci is the 14th most performed opera in North America according to Opera America.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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