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Encyclopedia > Pager

A pager (sometimes referred as a Beeper) is a personal telecommunications device used to request a phone call from a pager subscriber and/or receive simple text communications in the form of e-mail and SMS. Pagers exist as one-way numeric and alphanumeric models that only receive incoming communications and two-way alphanumeric models capable of sending e-mails and SMS messaging. Example output of the more command. ... less is a program on Unix and Unix-like systems used to view (but not change) the contents of a text file one screen at a time. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... SMS may refer to: Short message service, a form of text messaging on cell phones Sega Master System – an 8-bit video game console from the 1980s Seiner Majestät Schiff, His Majestys Ship in the German Kaiserliche Marine and the Austro-Hungarian Navy SMS (comics), a British comic...


Until the popular adoption of mobile phones in the late 1990s, pagers fulfilled the role of common personal and mobile communications. As of 2007, pagers have fallen into obsolescence and preserved only by niche markets consisting largely of emergency service personnel, medical personnel, and information technology support staff. A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector. ...

Contents

History

Paging was invented in 1956 at St Thomas' Hospital in London to alert doctors attending emergencies. Since then, paging has evolved in sophistication and today millions of messages are transmitted to people needing fast reliable messaging communications. Saint Thomas’ Hospital. ...


In the world of paging there are two distinct categories of system in operation. There are on-site paging systems that are used in hospitals to convey the same urgent information when invented in 1956. The other is wide area paging, which offers similar features as on-site paging, but provides the radio coverage across a city, region or country rather than in just one hospital building.


Originally operating on AM radio frequencies paging moved to FM schemes prior to becoming a ubiquitous form of communications around the developed and developing world. In some cases before the advent of cellular phone systems the pager was used as a replacement for a lack of cheap local or international phone services.


Function and operation

The front end of a numeric pager
The front end of a numeric pager
A Motorola alphanumeric pager used in Brazil in the 1990s, operated by Teletrim
A Motorola alphanumeric pager used in Brazil in the 1990s, operated by Teletrim

Paging is a subscription service offered in a variety of plans and options to meet the needs of a subscriber and the type of device used. In general, all pagers were given unique phone numbers while alphanumeric pagers were given an e-mail address usually consisting of the phone number. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2072x1545, 559 KB) Numeric Pager used to receive numeric pages. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2072x1545, 559 KB) Numeric Pager used to receive numeric pages. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 501 KB) A Motorola Pager used in Brazil in the 90s, service operated by Teletrim. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 501 KB) A Motorola Pager used in Brazil in the 90s, service operated by Teletrim. ...


Upon calling a phone number assigned to a pager, the calling party reaches a recorded greeting asking the caller to enter a numeric message, and sometimes giving the caller an option to leave voice mail. Usually within a few minutes, the paged person would receive an alert emanating from the pager with the phone number to return the call and/or a pager code. In the case of e-mail paging, the text would be displayed. Voicemail (or voice mail; abbreviated v-mail or vmail) is a specific application of an interactive voice response system. ...

  • Numeric pagers are the simplest of the type of devices offering only a numeric display of the phone number to be called and pager codes
  • Alphanumeric pagers are essentially modified versions of numeric pagers with sophisticated display to accommodate text. These devices are usually given an e-mail address to receive text messages.
  • Two-way Alphanumeric pagers are alphanumeric pagers with the ability to send text messages typed in with a small keyboard.

Most modern paging systems use simulcast delivery, by satellite controlled networks. This type of distributed system makes them inherently more reliable than terrestrial based cellular networks for message delivery. Many paging transmitters may overlap a coverage area, where in contrast cellular systems are built to fill the holes. When terrestrial networks go down in an emergency, satellite systems continue to perform. Because of superior building penetration and availability of service in disaster situations pagers are often used by life saving first responders.


Pager use in the 21st century

A Skyper pager that is in use for HAM Radio
A Skyper pager that is in use for HAM Radio
A pager that is in use for emergency services
A pager that is in use for emergency services

Pagers are still in use today in places where mobile phones typically cannot reach users and in places where the operation of radio transmitters contained in mobile phones is problematic or prohibited. One such type of location is a large hospital complex, where cellular coverage is often weak or nonexistent, where radio transmitters are suggested to interfere with sensitive medical equipment and where there's a greater need of assurance for a timely delivery of a message. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 539 KB) Summary / Beschreibung en: Description: Skyper Author: Denis Apel (Stardado) Date: 27. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 539 KB) Summary / Beschreibung en: Description: Skyper Author: Denis Apel (Stardado) Date: 27. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 745 KB) Photographer: Patrick Permien Picture taken 09/May/2005 Source: This image has been taken and uploaded by the photographer Pagers link this one are in use in some towns for the purpose of alarming fire brigade units / EMS... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 745 KB) Photographer: Patrick Permien Picture taken 09/May/2005 Source: This image has been taken and uploaded by the photographer Pagers link this one are in use in some towns for the purpose of alarming fire brigade units / EMS... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Some common environments in which pagers are still used are:

  • Pagers remain in use to notify emergency personnel. For example, they are required to be used by UK lifeboat men and retained firefighters.
  • Pagers are mostly carried by staff in medical establishments, allowing them to be summoned to emergencies.
  • Pagers are also widely used in the IT world, especially in cases where on-call technicians cannot rely on more modern cellular telephone systems. A good example would be in a cellular telephone company, where a service interruption in the cellular network would also mean that it would not be possible to notify a technician due to the outage in the network. Therefore, in these companies, engineers are usually equipped with a pager that uses another telco's mobile network to ensure reachability in case of emergency. Pagers are also frequently used by non-telco IT departments.

Additionally, some irrigation control systems, and traffic signals are now controlled by messages sent via paging networks. Due to energy concerns in the United States and other countries 2Way paging networks are being used for power company meter reading and control. Swanage lifeboat being winched up its slipway The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is a charity based in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland dedicated to saving lives at sea around the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. ... This article discusses national trends and protocol in fire fighting. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... An irrigation controller is a device to operate automatic irrigation systems such as lawn sprinkler systems and drip irrigation systems. ... Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ...


Security

Pagers also have privacy advantages compared with cellular phones. Since a one-way pager is a passive receiver only (it sends no information back to the base station), its location cannot be tracked. But this can also be disadvantageous, as a message sent to a pager must be broadcast from every paging transmitter in the pager's service area. Thus, if a pager has nationwide service, a message sent to it could be intercepted by criminals or law enforcement agencies anywhere within the nationwide service area. Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ...


Technical information

Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging networks via email. This is convenient for many users, due to the widespread adoption of email; but email-based message submission methods do not usually provide any way to ensure that messages have been received by the paging network. This can result in pager messages being delayed or lost. Older forms of message submission using the Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol protocol involve modem connections directly to a paging network, and are less subject to these delays. For this reason, older forms of message submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency services personnel. E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... 1985 MetroMedia IXO Device Motorola AlphaMate II Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol was also known at PET and IXO protocol. ... Emergency services are public services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ...


Common paging protocols include TAP, FLEX, ReFLEX, POCSAG, Golay, ERMES and NTT. Past paging protocols include Two-tone and 5/6-tone. 1985 MetroMedia IXO Device Motorola AlphaMate II Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol was also known at PET and IXO protocol. ... FLEX is a communication protocol developed by Motorola and used in many pagers. ... This article is about biological reflex. ... POCSAG is a standard used to transmit data to pagers. ... NTT may refer to Nippon Telegraph and Telephone The New Technology Telescope in La Silla, Chile. ...


In the United States, pagers typically receive signals using the FLEX protocol in the 900 MHz band. Commercial paging transmitters typically radiate 1000 watts of effective power, resulting in a much wider coverage area per tower than a mobile phone transmitter, which typically radiates around 0.6 Watts per channel. FLEX is a communication protocol developed by Motorola and used in many pagers. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... In radio communication systems, Effective isotropically-radiated power (EIRP) is the amount of power that would have to be emitted by an isotropic antenna (that evenly distributes power in all directions) to produce the peak power density observed in the direction of maximum antenna gain. ...


Although 900 MHz FLEX paging networks tend to have stronger in-building coverage than mobile phone networks, commercial paging service providers will work with large institutions to install repeater equipment in the event that service is not available in needed areas of the subscribing institution's buildings. This is especially critical in hospital settings where emergency staff must be able to reliably receive pages in order to respond to patient needs.


Unlike mobile phones, most one-way pagers do not display any information about whether a signal is being received or about the strength of the received signal. Since one-way pagers do not contain transmitters, one-way paging networks have no way to track whether a message has been successfully delivered to a pager. Because of this, if a one-way pager is turned off or is not receiving a usable signal at the time a message is transmitted, the message will never be received and the sender of the message will not be notified of this fact.


Other radio bands used for pagers include the 400 MHz band, the VHF band, and the FM commercial broadcast band (88-108 MHz). Other paging protocols used in the VHF, 400 MHz UHF, and 900 MHz bands include POCSAG and ERMES. Pagers using the commercial FM band receive a subcarrier, called the Subsidiary Communications Authority, of a broadcast station. Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. ... Ultra high frequency (UHF) designates a range (band) of electromagnetic waves whose frequency is between 300 MHz and 3. ... POCSAG is a standard used to transmit data to pagers. ... Subsidiary Communications Authority (SCA), is the FCCs official designation for subcarrier channels transmitted by a broadcast FM radio station along with its main carrier. ...


See also

Alfred J. Gross (February 22, 1918 – December 21, 2000) was a pioneer in mobile wireless communication. ... A Plectron is a specialized VHF/UHF single-channel, emergency alerting radio receiver, used to activate emergency response personnel, and disaster warning systems. ... The Motorola MINITOR is a portable, analog, receive only, voice pager typically carried by fire, rescue, and EMS personnel (both volunteer and paid) to alert of emergencies. ...

External links

  • BBC news reports closure of UK domestic pager systems in 2001
  • POCSAG and FLeX pager gallery

  Results from FactBites:
 
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PAGER will distribute alarms via pager, mobile phone, and e-mail that will include a concise estimate of impact: red for severe, yellow for moderate, and green for little or no impact.
PAGER uses these earthquake solutions to calculate estimates of ground shaking using the methodology and software developed for ShakeMap.
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Pager - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (938 words)
Pagers remain in use to notify part-time emergency personnel, such as lifeboat men and retained fire fighters that they are required, and in this use can be thought of as a modern equivalent of maroons.
Pager subscriptions have been on the decline since the widespread availability of mobile phones and their ability to send SMS based text messages which duplicates some pager functions.
Pagers are still in use today in places where mobile phones typically cannot reach users and in places where the operation of radio transmitters contained in mobile phones is problematic or prohibited.
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COMMENTARY     

Lilly Adams
9th August 2010
Check out http://www.turn-keytechnologies.com if you are looking for a paging alarm system They offer Database capacity from 100 to over 1 million users.
Lilly Adams
9th August 2010
If you are looking for a paging alarm system check out http://www.turn-keytechnologies.com they offer a wide range of paging systems to fit all needs.

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