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Encyclopedia > Paestum
Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archaeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Paestum overview.
State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Reference 842
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1998  (22nd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Paestum is the classical Roman name of a major Graeco-Roman city in the Campania region of Italy. It is located near the coast about 85 km SE of Naples in the province of Salerno and belongs to the commune of Capaccio. Velia is an ancient town located on the territory of the modern comune of Ascea, Salerno, Campania, Italy in a geographical sub-area named Cilento. ... The Certosa di Padula, also known as Carthusian Monastery of Padula or Chartreuse of Padula or or , is a large famous Carthusian monastery in the Cilento National Park near Salerno in Southern Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... Cappacio is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. ...

Contents

History

Founded around the end of the 7th century BCE[1] by colonists from the Greek city of Sybaris, and originally known as Poseidonia. Outside of archaeological evidence very little is known about Paestum during its first centuries. Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was expanding with the building of roads, temples and other features of a growing city. Coinage, architecture and molded votive figurines all attest to close relations maintained with Metaponto in the sixth and fifth centuries. It is not until the end of the fifth century BCE that the city is mentioned, when according to Strabo the city was conquered by the Lucani. From the archaeological evidence it appears that the two cultures, Greek and Oscan, were able to get together and thrive. What is known is it later became the Roman city of Paestum in 273 BCE after the Graeco-Italian Poseidonians sided with the loser, Pyrrhus, in war against Rome during the first quarter of the third century BCE. (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse... Coin from Sybaris, c. ... Location Map Metaponto is a small town of about a 1000 people in the province of Matera, Basilicata, Italy. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Lucani (Lucanians) were an ancient people of Italy who spoke an Oscan language, a member of the Italic languages. ... (Redirected from 273 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC 275 BC 274 BC - 273 BC - 272... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


During the invasion of Italy by Hannibal the city remained faithful to Rome and afterwards was granted special favours such as the minting of its coinage. The city continued to prosper during the Roman imperial period, but started to go into decline between the 4th and 7th centuries. It was abandoned during the Middle Ages and its ruins only came to notice again in the 18th century, following the rediscovery of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The decline and desertion were probably due to changes in local land drainage patterns, leading to swampy malarial conditions (this is difficult to picture, with the present aridity; the site is now left to lizards and a few tourists). Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... Families Many, see text. ...


Overview

The main features of the site today are the standing remains of three major temples in Doric style, dating from the first half of the 6th century BCE. These were dedicated to Hera, Apollo and Athena, although they have traditionally been identified as a basilica and temples of Neptune and Ceres, owing to 18th-century mis-attribution. a narrow blacony in ancient rome ecpecialy at the colluseum ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera, (Greek , IPA pronunciation ; or Here in Ionic and in Homer) was the wife and older sister of Zeus. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ... St. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ...


The city of Paestum covers an area of approximately 120 hectares. Its only the 25 hectares that contain the three main temples that have excavated. The other 95 hectares remain on private land and have not been excavated. The city is surrounded by defensive walls that still stand. The walls are approximately 4750 m long, 5 - 7 m thick and 15 m high. Positioned along the wall are 24 square and round towers. There may have been up to 28 but some of them were destroyed during the construction of highway in 18th century that effectively cuts the site in two.


The modern town of Paestum, directly to the north of the archaeological site, is a popular seaside resort. In the region of Paestum there are long, sandy beaches.

Temple of Hera

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2418x1731, 2742 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2418x1731, 2742 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

Historic buildings

The temple of Hera, built around 550 BCE by Greek colonists, is the oldest surviving temple in Paestum. Eighteenth-century archaeologists named it "The Basilica" because they mistakenly believed it to be a Roman building. A basilica in Roman times was a civil building, not a religious one. Inscriptions revealed that the goddess worshiped here was Hera. Later, an altar was unearthed in front of the temple, in the open-air site usual for a Greek altar; the faithful could attend rites and sacrifices without entering the cella. In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera, (Greek , IPA pronunciation ; or Here in Ionic and in Homer) was the wife and older sister of Zeus. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... A cella, in Ancient Greek and Roman temples was the central room that housed cult statues. ...


Just south of the city walls, at a site still called Santa Venera, a series of small terracotta offertory molded statuettes of a standing female nude wearing the polos headdress of Anatolian and Syrian goddesses, which were dated to the first half of the sixth century BCE, were found in the sanctuary; other similar ones have been excavated at other Paestum sanctuaries during excavations in the 1980s, but the figure is highly unusual in the Western Mediterranean.[2] The open-air temenos was established at the start of Greek occupation: a temple on the site was not built until the early fifth century. A nude goddess is a figure alien to Greek culture before Praxiteles' famous Cnidian Aphrodite in the fourth century: iconographic analogies must be sought in Phoenician Astarte and the Cypriote Aphrodite. "In places where the Greeks and Phoenicians came in contact with one another, there is often an overlapping in the persona of the two deities," Rebecca Miller Ammerman has explained (Ammerman 1991), in identifying the cult at the site as that of Phoenician Astarte or Cypriot Aphrodite. In Roman times, inscriptions make clear, the cult was reserved to Venus. Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ... Kotekan is a style of playing fast interlocking parts in most varieties of Balinese Gamelan music, including Gamelan gong kebyar, Gamelan angklung, Gamelan jegog and others. ... Greek Temenos ([1], from the Greek verb to cut) (plural = temene) is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, holy grove or holy... Praxiteles of Athens, the son of Cephisodotus, was the greatest of the Attic sculptors of the 4th century BC, who has left an imperishable mark on the history of art. ... The Ludovisi Cnidian Aphrodite, Roman marble copy (torso and thighs) with restored head, arms, legs and drapery support The Aphrodite of Cnidus was one of the most famous works of the Attic sculptor Praxiteles (4th century BC). ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ...

Temple of Apollo
Temple of Apollo

The nearby temple, the temple of Apollo, was built in about 450 BCE. It has been in the past variously thought of as a temple dedicated to Poseidon or to Hera (as Temple of Hera II). There are visible on the east side the remains of two altars, one large and one smaller. The smaller one is a Roman addition, built when they cut through the larger one to build a road to the forum. Again, offertory statues around the larger altar are used to demonstrate that Apollo was the patron of the temple. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2414x1740, 2221 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2414x1740, 2221 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ...


In the central part of the complex is the Roman Forum, thought to have been built on the site of the preceding Greek agora. On the north side of the forum is a small Roman temple, dated to around 200 BCE. It was dedicated to the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... Stoa of the ancient agora de Thessaloniki An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was a public space and an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ... (Redirected from 200 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC... The Capitoline Triad was comprised of three deities of Roman mythology who were worshipped most famously in an elaborate temple on Romes Capitoline Hill. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ...


To the north-west of the forum is the amphitheater. This is of normal Roman pattern, though much smaller than later examples. Only the southern half is visible; in 1930 AD, a road was built across the site, burying the northern half. It is said by local inhabitants that the civil engineer responsible was tried, convicted and received a prison sentence for what was described as wanton destruction of a historic site. The name amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is given to a public building of the Classical period (being particularly associated with ancient Rome) which was used for spectator sports, games and displays. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Temple of Athena
Temple of Athena

On the highest point of the town, some way from the other temples, is the temple of Athena. It was built in about 500 BCE, and was for some time incorrectly thought to have been dedicated to Ceres. The architecture is transitional, being partly in the Ionic mode and partly early Doric. Three mediaeval Christian tombs in the floor show that the temple was at one time used as a Christian church. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and trends September 13, 509 BC - The temple of Jupiter on Romes Capitoline Hill is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a...


All three temples have undergone some renovation and repair in recent years. Close access is allowed, but entry by visitors into the buildings is no longer permitted.


Notes

  1. ^ The earliest Greek pottery found at Paestum sites dates ca 600 BCE. E. Greco, "Qualche riflessioni ancora sulle origini di Poseidionia DialArch 1 (1979) pp53-54.
  2. ^ Rebecca Miller Ammerman, "The Naked Standing Goddess: A Group of Archaic Terracotta Figurines from Paestum", American Journal of Archaeology 95.2 (April 1991), pp. 203-230.

References

  • A.C. Carpiceci and L. Pennino, Paestum and Velia, Matonti, Salerno, 1995

External links

  • Official site
  • Fondazione Paestum
  • A virtual recostruction
  • IL Cilento Photodocumention about people culture in Cilento from Antonio Jannotti and Enzo Mastrangelo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Paestum

Coordinates: 40°25′N, 15°00′E Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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