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Encyclopedia > Paddy Field
Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern People's Republic of China.
Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern People's Republic of China.
Planting rice in Bangladesh
Planting rice in Bangladesh
Hay stacks on stilts in paddy field Karnataka
Hay stacks on stilts in paddy field Karnataka
Rice terraces in Longji, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.
Rice terraces in Longji, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.
Paddy field prior to planting, in Taiwan
Paddy field prior to planting, in Taiwan

A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing rice and other semiaquatic crops. Rice can also be grown in dry-fields, but from the twentieth century paddy field agriculture became the dominant form of growing rice. Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice-growing countries of east, south and southeast Asia, including Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. They are also found in other rice-growing regions such as Piedmont (Italy), the Camargue (France) and the Artibonite Valley (Haiti). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x600, 276 KB) Summary Terrace rice field in Yunnan Province, China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x600, 276 KB) Summary Terrace rice field in Yunnan Province, China. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... Image File history File linksMetadata UKanaraHaystack. ... Image File history File linksMetadata UKanaraHaystack. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixelsFull resolution (1708 × 1202 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 563 pixelsFull resolution (1708 × 1202 pixel, file size: 1. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 301 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 301 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw , Largest city Yangon (Rangoon) Official languages Burmese Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Shan, Karen, Mon, Rakhine Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Senior General Than Shwe  -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Senior General... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Shoreline of the Étang de Vaccarès For other uses, see Camargue (disambiguation). ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Departments of Haiti ...


Paddy fields can be built adjacent to otherwise natural areas such as rivers or marshes. They can be constructed, often on steep hillsides with much labor and materials. The fields require large quantities of water for irrigation. Flooding provides water essential to the growth of the crop. Water also provides a favorable environment for the rice strains being grown as well as discouraging the growth of many species of weeds. The water buffalo is the only draft animal adapted for life in wetlands so they are extensively used in paddy fields. For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... A draught animal is a (semi-)domesticated animal used for transport and haulage (the heavy labour of pulling carts, hauling timber and ploughing fields are examples). ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ...


Growing rice has an adverse environmental impact because of the large quantities of methane gas it generates. World methane production due to paddy fields has been estimated to be in the range of 50 to 100 million tonnes per annum.[1] This level of greenhouse gas generation is a large component of the global warming threat produced from an expanding human population. However, recent studies have shown that methane can be significantly reduced while also boosting crop yield by draining the paddies allowing the soil to aerate, which interrupts methane production.[2] Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


The word "paddy" is derived from the Malay word padi, rice plant.[3] Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...

Contents

History

Archaeologists generally accept that wet-field cultivation originated in China. At Caoxieshan, a site of the Neolithic Majiabang culture, archaeologists excavated paddy fields [4]. Some archaeologists claim that Caoxieshan may date to 4000-3000 B.C.[5][6], but as of now the oldest excavated rice paddy field dated by absolute scientific dating techniques are from Korea[7]. There is archaeological evidence that unhusked rice was stored for the military and for burial with the deceased from the Neolithic period to the Han Dynasty in China.[8] The Majiabang culture (馬家浜文化) was a Neolithic culture that existed at the mouth of the Yangtze River, primarily around the Taihu area and north of Hangzhou Bay in China. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication...


Korean paddy-field farming is ancient. A pit-house at the Daecheon-ni site yielded carbonized rice grains and radiocarbon dates indicating that rice cultivation in dry-fields may have begun as early as the Middle Jeulmun Pottery Period (c. 3500-2000 B.C.) in the Korean Peninsula[9]. Ancient paddy fields have been carefully unearthed in Korea by institutes such as Kyungnam University Museum (KUM) of Masan. They excavated paddy field features at the Geumcheon-ni Site near Miryang, South Gyeongsang Province. The paddy field feature was found next to a pit-house that is dated to the latter part of the Early Mumun Pottery Period (c. 1100-850 B.C.). KUM has conducted excavations that have revealed similarly dated paddy field features at Yaeum-dong and Okhyeon in modern-day Greater Ulsan[10]. The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ... This article is about the Korean Peninsula. ... 경남대학교 - Kyungnam University History Founded in 1946 as Kookmin College in Seoul, the tumultuous Korean War years created a situation in which it was more advantageous to move south than to stay in the Seoul area. ... Masan is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. ... Miryang is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. ... Gyeongsangnam-do (South Gyeongsang) is a province in the southeast of South Korea. ... A dugout or dug-out is a shelter dug out of the ground. ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... Ulsan, a metropolitan city in the south-east of South Korea, facing the Sea of Japan (East Sea). ...


The earliest Mumun features were usually located in low-lying narrow gullies that were naturally swampy and fed by the local stream system. Some Mumun paddy fields in flat areas were made of a series of squares and rectangles separated by bunds approximately 10 cm in height, while terraced paddy fields consisted of long irregular shapes that followed natural contours of the land at various levels[11][12].


Mumun Period rice farmers used all of the elements that are present in today's paddy fields such terracing, bunds, canals, and small reservoirs. We can grasp some paddy-field farming techniques of the Middle Mumun (c. 850-550 B.C.) from the well-preserved wooden tools excavated from archaeological rice fields at the Majeon-ni Site. However, iron tools for paddy-field farming were not introduced until sometime after 200 B.C. The spatial scale of paddy-fields increased with the regular use of iron tools in the Three Kingdoms of Korea Period (c. A.D. 300/400-668). General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until...


The first paddy fields in Japan date to the Early Yayoi period[13]. The Early Yayoi has been re-dated and thus it appears that wet-field agriculture developed at approximately the same time as in the Korean peninsula. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ...


In the Philippines, the use of rice paddies can be traced to prehistoric times, as evidenced in the names of towns such as Pila, Laguna, whose name can be traced to the straight mounds of dirt that form the boundaries of the rice paddy, or "Pilapil." [14] Pila is a 4th class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. ...


Wet rice cultivation in Vietnam dates back to the Neolithic Hoa Binh culture and Bac Son culture [15] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Culture

Indonesia

Water buffalos are common tool to plough muddy paddy fields in Indonesia.
Water buffalos are common tool to plough muddy paddy fields in Indonesia.

Prime Javanese paddy yields roughly 6 metric tons of unmilled rice (2.5 metric tons of milled rice) per hectare. When irrigation is available, rice farmers typically plant Green Revolution rice varieties allowing three growing seasons per year. Since fertilizer and pesticide are relatively expensive inputs, farmers typically plant seeds in a very small plot. Three weeks following germination, the 6-8inch stalks are picked and replanted at greater separation, in a backbreaking manual procedure. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ...


Rice harvesting in Central Java is often performed not by owners or sharecroppers of paddy, but rather by itinerant middlemen, whose small firms specialize in harvesting, transport, milling, and distribution to markets. Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... Sharecropping is a system of farming in which employee farmers work a parcel of land in return for a fraction of the parcels crops. ...


The fertile volcanic soil of much of the Indonesian archipelago-- and particularly the islands of Java and Bali-- has made rice a central dietary staple. Steep terrain on Bali resulted in intricate cooperation systems, locally called subak, to manage water storage and drainage for rice terraces.[16] This article is about the Java island. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Subak is a system of water management used for growing rice in Bali, centered around the Balinese water temples, in which key decisions about the allocation of water are made by a priest. ...


Italy

Rice is grown in northern Italy, especially in the valley of the river Po.[17] The paddy fields are irrigated by fast-flowing streams descending from the Alps. Risotto, a rice dish flavoured with saffron is a typical dish from the rice-growing area near Milan that has now travelled around the world. PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Petty Officer, a Non-Commissioned Officer Rank in many Navies Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pilot Officer, a junior commissioned rank... Alp redirects here. ... Risotto prepared with mushrooms and scallions. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ...


Japan

Paddy field scarecrows in Japan
Paddy field scarecrows in Japan

The acidic soil conditions common in Japan due to volcanic eruptions have made the paddy field the most productive farming method. Paddy fields are represented by the kanji (commonly read as ta) that has had a strong influence on Japanese culture. Scarecrow Japan Paddy Field I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Scarecrow Japan Paddy Field I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...

Paddy fields near Lake Inawashiro in Japan
Paddy fields near Lake Inawashiro in Japan

In fact, the character , which originally meant 'field' in general, is used in Japan exclusively to convey the meaning 'rice paddy field'. One of the oldest samples of writing in Japan is widely credited to the kanji found on pottery at the archaeological site of Matsusaka, Mie that dates to the late 2nd century. Lake Inawashiro is the fourth-largest lake in Japan, located in the middle of Fukushima Prefecture, close to Mount Bandai. ... Matsusaka (松阪市; -shi; also Matsuzaka) is a city located in Mie, Japan. ...


Ta () is used as a part of many place names as well as in many family names. Most of these places are somehow related to the paddy field and in many cases, are based on the history of a particular location. For example, where a river runs through a village, the place east of river may be called Higashida (東田), literally "east paddy field." A place with a newly irrigated paddy field, especially those during or later than Edo period, may be called Nitta or Shinden (both 新田), "new paddy field." In some places, lakes and marshes were likened to a paddy field and were named with ta, like Hakkōda (八甲田). Japanese place names include names for geographic features, present and former administrative divisions, transportation facilities such as railroad stations, and historic sites in Japan. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


Today, many family names have ta as a component, a practice which can be largely attributed to a government edict in the early Meiji Period requiring all Japanese people to have a family name. Many chose a name based on or near the place they lived or the job they had, and with nearly three fourths of population being farmers, many made family names using ta. Some common examples are Tanaka (田中) and Nakata (中田), literally meaning "middle of paddy field," Kawada (川田), "paddy field by a river," and Furuta (古田), "old paddy field." The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Tanaka (田中 in the ricefield) is the 4th most common Japanese surname. ... Nakata (中田) is a Japanese surname. ... Kawada ), also read as Kawata, is a common Japanese surname. ...


Korea

Paddy field near Namwon, South Korea, early June.
Paddy field near Namwon, South Korea, early June.

Arable land in small alluvial flats of most rural river valleys in South Korea are dedicated to paddy-field farming. Farmers assess paddy fields for any necessary repairs in February. Fields may be rebuilt, and bund breaches are repaired. This work is carried out until mid-March, when warmer spring weather allows the farmer to buy or grow rice seedlings. They are transplanted (usually by hand) from the indoors into freshly flooded paddy fields in May. Farmers tend and weed their paddy fields through the summer until around the time of Chuseok, a traditional holiday held on August 15th of the Lunar Calendar (circa mid-September by Solar Calendar). The harvest begins in October. Coordinating the harvest can be challenging because many Korean farmers have small paddy fields in a number of locations around their villages, and modern harvesting machines are sometimes shared between extended family members. Farmers usually dry the harvested grains in the sun before bringing them to market. Namwon (Namwon-si 남원시) is a city in North Jeolla Province, South Korea. ... Chuseok], a major holiday in Korea, is celebrated on the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar Korean calendar. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ...


The Chinese (or Sino-Korean) character for 'field', jeon (Hangeul: 전; Hanja: 田), is found in some place names, especially small farming townships and villages. However, the specific Korean term for 'paddy' is derived from Sino-Korean and is literally 'water-field' or sujeon (Hangeul: 수전; Hanja: 水田). Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ...


Myanmar

Rice is grown primarily in three areas - the Ayeyarwaddy Delta, the area along and the delta of the Kaladan River, and the Central plains around Mandalay. Up til the later 1960s, Myanmar was the main exporter of rice. Termed the rice basket of South East Asia, much of the rice grown in Myanmar does not rely on fertilizers and pesticides, thus, although "organic" in a sense, it has been unable to cope with population growth and other rice economies which utilized fertilizers. The Ayeyarwady River or Irrawaddy River (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a river that flows through Burma (Myanmar). ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ...


Rice is now grown in all the three seasons of Myanmar, though primarily in the Monsoon season - from June to October. Rice grown in the delta areas rely heavily on the river water and sedimented minerals from the northern mountains, whilst the rice grown in the central regions require irrigation from the Ayeryarwaddy River.


The fields are tilted when the first rains arrive - traditionally measured at 40 days after Thingyan, the Burmese New Year - around the beginning of June. In modern times, tractors are used, but traditionally, buffalos were employed. The rice plants are planted in nurseries and then transplanted, by hand into the prepared fields. The rice are then harvested in late November - "when the rice bends with age". Most of the rice planting and harvesting are done by hand. The rice are then trashed and stored, ready for the mills. Thingyan (Burmese: ) is the Burmese New Year Festival and usually falls around mid-April. ...


Philippines

A vast paddy field in San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
A vast paddy field in San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

Paddy fields are a common sight in the Philippines. Several vast paddy fields exists in the provinces of Nueva Ecija, Isabela, Cagayan, Bulacan, etc. Nueva Ecija produces the biggest share of rice for national food security. San Leonardo is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. ... Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The province (Filipino: lalawigan... Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Isabela Region: Cagayan Valley (Region II) Capital: Ilagan Founded: May 01, 1856 Population: 2000 census—1,287,575 (17th largest) Density—121 per km² (18th lowest) Area: 10,664. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Cagayan Region: Cagayan Valley (Region II) Capital: Tuguegarao City Founded: 1581 Population: 2000 census—993,580 (25th largest) Density—110 per km² (16th lowest) Area: 9,002 km² (3rd largest) Divisions: Highly urbanized cities—0 Component cities—1 Municipalities—28 Barangays—820 Congressional districts... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bulacan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Malolos City Founded: 1572 Population: 2000 census—2,234,088 (4th largest) Density—851 per km² (5th highest) Area: 2,625. ... Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. ...


Banaue rice terraces

Filipino farmer harrowing a flooded rice field; Luzon, Philippines
Filipino farmer harrowing a flooded rice field; Luzon, Philippines
Main article: Banaue Rice Terraces
Banaue Rice Terraces, Ifugao Province, Philippines
Banaue Rice Terraces, Ifugao Province, Philippines

The Banaue Rice Terraces are located in Northern Luzon and were built by the Ifugaos 2,000 years ago. Streams and springs found in the mountains were tapped and channeled into irrigation canals that run downhill through the rice terraces. Other notable Philippine paddy fields are the Batad Rice Terraces, the Bangaan Rice Terraces, the Mayoyao Rice Terraces and the Hapao Rice Terraces.[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Panoramic view of the Banaue Rice Terraces The Banaue Rice Terraces are 2000-year old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the Batad indigenous people. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ...


Located at Barangay Batad in Banaue, the Batad Rice Terraces are shaped like an amphitheatre, and can be reached by a 12-kilometer ride from Banaue Hotel and a 2-hour hike uphill through mountain trails. The Bangaan Rice Terraces portray the typical Ifugao community, where the livelihood activities are within the village and its surroundings. The Bangaan Rice Terraces is accessible in a one-hour ride from Poblacion, Banaue, then a 20-minute trek down to the village. It can be viewed best from the road to Mayoyao. The Mayoyao Rice Terraces is located at Mayoyao, 44 kilometers away from Poblacion, Banaue. The town of Mayoyao lies in the midst of these rice terraces. All dikes are tiered with flat stones. The Hapao Rice Terraces can be reached within 55 kilometers from the capital town of Lagawe. Other Ifugao stone-walled rice terraces are located in the municipality of Hungduan.[18] The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ...


Vietnam

A rice field in Vietnam
A rice field in Vietnam

Rice fields in Vietnam (ruộng, cánh đồng or điền in Vietnamese) are the predominant land use in the valley of the Red River and the Mekong Delta). In the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam, farmers must dam up (nowadays 3000 km long) against the annual flood, and it is also the necessary condition to form an alliance among Vietnamese ancient tribals to found Vietnamese people's first state. In the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam, there is an interlacing drainage and irrigation canal system that has become the symbol of this area and impacts on the lifestyle of local people. In Northwestern Vietnam, Thai people built their "valley culture" based on the economic foundation of glutinous rice upland fields. Flowing from China through Vietnam to the South China Sea, the Red River (Vietnamese Sông Hồng, Chinese Hónghé) is also known as the Yuan Jiang (元江, pinyin yuan2jiang1), which means Primary River. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Language(s) Vietnamese Religion(s) Predominantly Confucian and Mahayana Buddhist (esp. ... Glutinous rice ( or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice) is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked. ...


The primary festival related to rice fields is "lễ hạ điền" (Vietnamese)/"lồng tồng" (Tay language) in the first day of every crop wishing for yield more than usual. In the past, this was the official national ceremony that the King would make the first plough and people would worship Than Nong (god of agriculture), thổ địa (god of the soil), thành hoàng làng (god of the village), and thần lúa (god of rice plants). Tay can refer to any of the following: The Tay is a river in the highlands of Scotland. ...


During the Trần Dynasty, there were three kinds of rice field: ruộng quốc khố (national budget rice field) with 3 levels, ruộng thác điền with 3 levels (the name derives from a story about Lê Phụng Hiểu. He refused the King's present for his feat of arms but required that how far he would throw his knife, how wide of the rice field he could possess. Since then, it's become the name of rice field for rewarding Vietnamese mandarins: thác đao- abbreviation: thác- throw the knife and điền- rice field), and ruộng ao of the common people. The Trần Dynasty (陳朝 Trần Triều; or vernacularly Nhà Trần, meaning the Trần Family) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that time known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. ...


In Vietnamese literature, the immensity of rice field's imagined that's wide enough for flock of storks can span their wings long: "đồng lúa thẳng cánh cò bay" and the sway lightly in the wind of rice plants compared with sea wave and called "sóng lúa". These describing forms are very popular and conjure tranquil memories about Vietnamese homeland. For other uses, see Stork (disambiguation). ...


See also

Chinampas is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. ... The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international NGO. Its headquarters are in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, and it has offices in ten countries. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Methane gas generation from paddy fields Methane Sources - Rice Paddies. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  2. ^ SHIFTS IN RICE FARMING PRACTICES IN CHINA REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS METHANE. Retrieved on 2002-12-19.
  3. ^ paddy. Merrium Webster. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  4. ^ Fujiwara, H. (ed.). Search for the Origin of Rice Cultivation: The Ancient Rice Cultivation in Paddy Fields at the Cao Xie Shan Site in China. Miyazaki: Society for Scientific Studies on Cultural Property, 1996. (In Japanese and Chinese)
  5. ^ Fujiwara 1996
  6. ^ Tsude, Hiroshi. Yayoi Farmers Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Agricultural Development in East Asia. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 21(5):53-59, 2001.
  7. ^ Crawford, Gary W. and Gyoung-Ah Lee. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87-95, 2003.
  8. ^ Expansion of Chinese Paddy Rice to the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  9. ^ Crawford and Lee 2003
  10. ^ Bale, Martin T. Archaeology of Early Agriculture in Korea: An Update on Recent Developments. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 21(5):77-84, 2001.
  11. ^ Bale 2001
  12. ^ Kwak, Jong-chul. Urinara-eui Seonsa – Godae Non Bat Yugu [Dry- and Wet-field Agricultural Features of the Korean Prehistoric].In Hanguk Nonggyeong Munhwa-eui Hyeongseong [The Formation of Agrarian Societies in Korea]: 21-73. Papers of the 25th National Meetings of the Korean Archaeological Society, Busan, 2001
  13. ^ Barnes, Gina L. Paddy Soils Now and Then. World Archaeology 22(1):1-17, 1990.
  14. ^ Ongpin Valdes, Cynthia, "Pila in Ancient Times", Treasures of Pila, Pila Historical Society Foundation Inc..
  15. ^ Vietnam Embassy in USA information page http://www.vietnamembassy-usa.org/learn_about_vietnam/history/
  16. ^ Lansing and Miller
  17. ^ Channel 4 notes for schools. [1]
  18. ^ a b Ifugao is Famous for..., Wow Philippines, Tourism.gov.ph (undated), retrieved on: July 21, 2007

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Korean Archaeological Society is the most important professional and scholarly association of archaeologists in the Republic of Korea. ...

References

  • Bale, Martin T. Archaeology of Early Agriculture in Korea: An Update on Recent Developments. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 21(5):77-84, 2001.
  • Barnes, Gina L. Paddy Soils Now and Then. World Archaeology 22(1):1-17, 1990.
  • Crawford, Gary W. and Gyoung-Ah Lee. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87-95, 2003.
  • Kwak, Jong-chul. Urinara-eui Seonsa – Godae Non Bat Yugu [Dry- and Wet-field Agricultural Features of the Korean Prehistoric].In Hanguk Nonggyeong Munhwa-eui Hyeongseong [The Formation of Agrarian Societies in Korea]: 21-73. Papers of the 25th National Meetings of the Korean Archaeological Society, Busan, 2001.

The Korean Archaeological Society is the most important professional and scholarly association of archaeologists in the Republic of Korea. ...

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