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Encyclopedia > Paddle steamer

A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. Boats with paddle wheels on the sides are also called sidewheelers, while those with a single wheel on the stern are known as sternwheelers. Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of deep water navigation. ... A boat is a craft or vessel designed to float on, and provide transport over, water. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


The paddle wheel was the first form of mechanical propulsion for a boat (ignoring the oar). It has now`been almost entirely superseded by the screw propellor and other, more modern, forms of marine propulsion. An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. ... A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ...

Contents

A sternwheeler paddleboat in Louisiana.
A sternwheeler paddleboat in Louisiana.

Image:Paddleboat Natchez. ... Image:Paddleboat Natchez. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city Baton Rouge [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W...

Paddle wheels

Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne.Right: detail of a steamer
Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne.
Right: detail of a steamer

The paddle wheel is a large wheel, generally built of a steel framework, upon the outer edge of which are fitted numerous paddle blades (called floats or bunkets). In the water, the bottom quarter or so of the wheel is underwater. Rotation of the paddle wheel produces thrust, forward or backward as required. More advanced paddle wheel designs have featured feathering methods that keep each paddle blade oriented closer to vertical while it is in the water; this increases efficiency. paddle-wheel of a steamboat shows a paddle-wheel and a paddle wheel (constructed the same way) and a detailed view of a steamboat foto by focus mankind - thinknact. ... paddle-wheel of a steamboat shows a paddle-wheel and a paddle wheel (constructed the same way) and a detailed view of a steamboat foto by focus mankind - thinknact. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ...

Types of paddle steamer

The Music City Queen on the Cumberland River in Nashville is a stern-wheeler showboat.
The Music City Queen on the Cumberland River in Nashville is a stern-wheeler showboat.

There are two basic ways to mount paddle wheels on a ship; a single wheel on the rear, known as a stern-wheeler, and a paddle wheel on each side, known as a side-wheeler. Image File history File links MusicCityQueen. ... Image File history File links MusicCityQueen. ... The Music City Queen at Opry Mills. ... The Cumberland River is an important waterway in the southern United States. ... For other cities named Nashville, see Nashville (disambiguation). ... The Music City Queen on the Cumberland River, Nashville. ...


Stern-wheelers have generally been used as riverboats, especially in the United States, where they still operate for tourist use on the Mississippi River. On a river, the narrowness of a stern-wheeler is preferable. A first class tourist riverboat High speed planing riverboat High speed hydrofoil riverboat Local passenger transport craft Riverboat specialized for cargo truck transport Self propelled gravel barge M.V. Splendid China layout A riverboat is a specialized watercraft (vessel) designed for operating on inland waterways. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ...


Side-wheelers, meanwhile, have also been used as riverboats, but also commonly as coastal craft. While wider than a stern-wheeler, due to the extra width of the paddle wheels and their enclosing pontoons, a side-wheeler has extra maneuverability since the power may be directed to one wheel at a time.

Early Developments

Ox-powered Roman paddle wheel boat from a 15th century copy of De Rebus Bellicis

The use of a paddle wheel in navigation appears for the first time in the mechanical treatise of the Roman engineer Vitruvius (De architectura, X 9.5-7), where multi-geared paddle wheels working as a ship odometer are described. The first mention of paddle wheels as a means of propulsion comes from the late 4th century military treatise De Rebus Bellicis (chapter XVII), where the anonymous Roman author describes an ox-driven paddle wheel warship: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1840x1232, 1093 KB) XVth century miniature of an ox-powered paddle wheel boat from the 4th century Roman military treatise De Rebus Bellicis by Anonymous Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Român... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1840x1232, 1093 KB) XVth century miniature of an ox-powered paddle wheel boat from the 4th century Roman military treatise De Rebus Bellicis by Anonymous Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Român... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... Anonymi Auctoris De Rebus Bellicis is a 4th or 5th century writer on Roman warfare, especially about war machines used by the Roman army of the time. ...

Animal power, directed by the resources on ingenuity, drives with ease and swiftness, wherever utility summons it, a warship suitable for naval combats, which, because of its enormous size, human frailty as it were prevented from being operated by the hands of men. In its hull, or hollow interior, oxen, yoked in pairs to capstans, turns wheels attached to the sides of the ship; paddles, projecting above the circumference or curved surface of the wheels, beating the water with their strokes like oar-blades as the wheels revolve, work with an amazing and ingenious effect, their action producing rapid motion. This warship, moreover, because of its own bulk and because of the machinery working inside it, joins battle with such pounding force that it easily wrecks and destroys all enemy warships coming at close quarters.[1]

Paddleboats were built in China from the 5th-6th Centuries,[2] and according to the Water Margin were used in the 12th century. Water Margin or Outlaws of the Marsh (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn) is one of the Four Classical Novels of Chinese literature. ...


In 1543 the Basque engineer Blasco de Garay in Barcelona made an experimental vessel propelled by a paddle-wheel on each side, worked by forty men. In the same year he showed Carlos I of Spain (also known as Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, a new idea - a ship propelled by a giant wheel powered by steam, but Carlos was not interested in it.[3] Basque may refer to: Look up Basque in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (Catalan) Ciudad Condal (Spanish) Postal code 08001-08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Carlos, King of Portugal (Eng. ... Charles V may refer to: Charles V of France, the Wise (1338–1380). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...


In 1787 Patrick Miller of Dalswinton invented a double-hulled boat, which was propelled on the Firth of Forth by men working a capstan which drove paddles on each side.[4] The banker Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, just north of Dumfries, was a shareholder in the Carron Company engineering works and an enthusiastic experimenter in ordnance and naval architecture, including double or triple hulled pleasure boats propelled by cranked paddlewheels placed between the hulls. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth The Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North...


The first paddle steamer was the Pyroscaphe built by Marquis Claude de Jouffroy of Lyon in France, in 1783. It had a horizontal double-acting steam engine driving two 13.1 ft (4 m) paddle wheels on the sides of the craft. On July 15, 1783 it steamed successfully up the Saône for fifteen minutes before the engine failed. Political events interrupted further development. Claude-François-Dorothée, marquis de Jouffroy dAbbans (1751-1832) is claimed by the French as the first inventor of the steamboat; he made a paddle steamer ply on the Rhône in 1783, but misfortunes due to the French Revolution hindered his progress, till he was forestalled... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The next successful attempt at a paddle-driven steam ship was by the Scottish engineer William Symington who suggested steam power to Patrick Miller of Dalswinton.[4] Experimental boats built in 1788 and 1789 worked successfully; in 1802, Symington built a barge-hauler, Charlotte Dundas, for the Forth and Clyde Canal Company. It successfully hauled two 70-ton barges almost 20 miles (30 km) in 6 hours against a strong headwind on test in 1802. There was much enthusiasm, but some directors of the company were concerned about the banks of the canal being damaged by the wash from a powered vessel, and no more were ordered. Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km... The first practieal steamboat was built by the engineer William Symington,1764 - 1831, born in the lead mining village of Leadhills, Lanarkshire, Scotland. ... The banker Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, just north of Dumfries, was a shareholder in the Carron Company engineering works and an enthusiastic experimenter in ordnance and naval architecture, including double or triple hulled pleasure boats propelled by cranked paddlewheels placed between the hulls. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The Charlotte Dundas is regarded as the worlds first practical steamboat, the first towing steamboat and the boat that demonstrated the practicality of steam power for ships. ... The Forth and Clyde Canal, near Bonnybridge and Larbert The Forth and Clyde Canal crosses Scotland, providing a route for sea-going vessels between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde at the narrowest part of the Scottish Lowlands. ... --69. ...


While Charlotte Dundas was the first commercial paddle-steamer and steamboat, the first commercial success was possibly Robert Fulton's North River Steam Boat in New York, which went into commercial service in 1807 between New York City and Albany. Many other paddle-equipped river boats followed all round the world. Robert Fulton Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815) was a U.S. engineer and inventor, who was widely credited with developing the first steam-powered ship marked as a commercial success. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Area    - City 56. ...


Seagoing paddle steamers

PS Waverley, the last sea-going paddle steamer.
PS Waverley, the last sea-going paddle steamer.

The first sea-going trip of a paddle steamer was that of the Albany in 1808, which steamed from the Hudson River along the coast to the Delaware River. This was purely for the purpose of moving a river-boat to a new market, but the use of paddle-steamers for short coastal trips began soon after that. Download high resolution version (802x304, 172 KB)PS Waverley on the Firth of Clyde off Greenock Esplanade, passing in front of Kilcreggan, photograph taken in 1994 by User:Dave souza File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (802x304, 172 KB)PS Waverley on the Firth of Clyde off Greenock Esplanade, passing in front of Kilcreggan, photograph taken in 1994 by User:Dave souza File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PS Waverley steaming down the Firth of Clyde - additional views at Image:PS Waverley off Brodick castle 1989. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ...


The first paddle-steamer to make a long ocean voyage was the Savannah, built in 1819 expressly for this service. Savannah set out for Liverpool on May 22, 1819, sighting Ireland after 23 days at sea. This was the first powered crossing of the Atlantic, although Savannah also carried a full rig of sail to assist the engines when winds were favorable. In 1822, Charles Napier's Aaron Manby, the world's first iron ship, made the first direct steam crossing from London to Paris and the first seagoing voyage by an iron ship anywhere. 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Liverpool skyline. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Napier can refer to: Charles Napier, an American actor General Sir Charles James Napier, a British soldier Admiral Sir Charles Napier, a British naval officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aaron Manby, a landmark vessel in the science of shipbuilding The Aaron Manby was the first steamship to be built of iron. ...


In 1838, Sirius, a fairly small steam packet built for the Cork to London route, became the first vessel to cross the Atlantic under sustained steam power, beating Isambard Kingdom Brunel's much larger Great Western by a day. Great Western, however, was actually built for the transatlantic trade, and its crossing began the regular sailing of powered vessels across the Atlantic. Beaver was the first coastal steamship to operate in the Pacific Northwest of North America. | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Atlantic redirects here. ... Brunel before the launching of the Great Eastern. ... The steamship SS Great Western (named for the Great Western Railway Company) was the first steamship purposely built for the Atlantic crossing. ... The Beaver The Beaver was the first steamship to operate in the Pacific Northwest of North America. ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the US. For the US only region, see Northwestern United States The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


The largest paddle-steamer ever built was Brunel's Great Eastern, but it also had an additional screw propulsion and sail rigging. It was 692 feet (211 m) long and weighed 32,000 tons, its paddle-wheels being 56 ft (17 m) in diameter. The Great Eastern was a ship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. ...


In oceangoing service, paddle steamers became obsolete rather quickly with the invention of the screw propeller, but they remained in use in coastal service, thanks to their shallow draught and good maneuverability. A propeller can be seen as a rotating fin in water or a wing in air. ...


Paddle steamers today

A paddlewheeler in Vancouver, Canada is a huge hit with tourists
A paddlewheeler in Vancouver, Canada is a huge hit with tourists

Few original paddle steamers remain in existence, and those that do are mainly preserved for tourists or as museums. Some paddle steamers still operate on the Mississippi River, as do a few in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe. PS Waverley leaving Dunoon on the Firth of Clyde in 1989, photograph taken by User:Dave souza File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PS Waverley leaving Dunoon on the Firth of Clyde in 1989, photograph taken by User:Dave souza File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PS Waverley steaming down the Firth of Clyde - additional views at Image:PS Waverley off Brodick castle 1989. ... Dunoon, looking North from the Castle hill with the old Victorian pier to the right and The Queens Hall on the left The Holy Loch seen across the Firth of Clyde with Dunoon on the left The PS Waverley leaves Dunoon Pier, to sail up the Firth of Clyde. ... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Firth of Clyde forms a large area of coastal water, sheltered from the Atlantic ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1400x881, 248 KB) This image was created by me, Flying Penguin of Pacific Spirit Photography ([email protected] ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1400x881, 248 KB) This image was created by me, Flying Penguin of Pacific Spirit Photography ([email protected] ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ...


PS Waverley, built in 1947, is the last sea-going paddle steamer in the world. This ship sails a full season of cruises every year from ports around Britain, and has sailed across the English Channel to commemorate the sinking of her predecessor of 1899 at the Battle of Dunkirk. PS Waverley steaming down the Firth of Clyde - additional views at Image:PS Waverley off Brodick castle 1989. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ...


PS Skibladner is the oldest steamship in regular operation. Built in 1856, she still operates on lake Mjøsa in Norway. PS Adelaide is the oldest wooden-hulled paddle steamer in the world. Built in 1866, she operates from the Port of Echuca, which has the largest fleet of paddle steamers in the world. PS Skibladner is a paddle steamer operating on the lake of Mjøsa in Norway. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Mjøsa with cities Lillehammer (North), Gjøvik (West), and Hamar (East) Mjøsa is Norways largest lake. ... Location of Echuca in Victoria (red) Historic Port of Echuca Echuca in Victoria (Australia) is a town of about 10,000 people situated on the Murray River (Moama is on the northern side in NSW). ...


The Elbe river Saxon Paddle Steamer Fleet in Dresden (known as "White Fleet"), Germany, is said to be the oldest and biggest in the world, which over ca. 700.000 passengers per year.[5] This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Dresden at the Blaues Wunder bridge. ...


Switzerland too has a large paddle steamer fleet, most of the "Salon Steamer-type" built by Sulzer in Winterthur or Escher-Wyss in Zürich. There are five active and one inactive on Lake Lucerne, two on Lake Zürich, and one each on Lake Brienz, Lake Thun and Lake Constance. Lake Geneva has three converted to diesel electric power in the 1960s and five retaining steam. One, Montreux, was been reconverted in 2000 from diesel to an all-new steam engine. It is the world's first electronically remote-controlled steam engine and has operating costs similar to state of the art diesels, while producing up to 90 percent less air pollution. Sulzer is a Swiss engineering firm which produces large motors. ... Winterthur is a city in the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland. ... Zürich (German:   , Zürich German: Züri , in English generally Zurich, Italian: Zurigo) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Lake Lucerne (German: Vierwaldstättersee, lit. ... Lake Brienz as seen from the mountains above it Lake Brienz (German: Brienzersee) is a lake in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland. ... Lake Thun (German: Thunersee) is a lake in the Bernese Oberland in Switzerland. ... Map of the Bodensee; Schweiz is Switzerland, Deutschland is Germany, and Osterreich is Austria. ... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ...


A small paddle steamer fleet operates on the lake of Como, Italy, mostly but not only for touristic purposes. Como (Comm in the local dialect of Lombard language) is a city in Lombardy, Italy, 45 km north of Milan. ...


The Paddle Steamer Curlip is currently being reconstructed in Gippsland Australia. The paddle steamer Curlip was built in 1989 in a Tabbara sawmill by Samuel Richardson and his sons, and operated along the Snowy River between 1890 and 1919, she was then washed out to sea, and her back broken on Marlo beach, by a flash flood. ... John Longstaffs Gippsland, Sunday night, February 20th, 1898, depicting the Red Tuesday bushfires that ravaged Gippsland For the electoral district in the Australian House of Representatives, see Division of Gippsland. ...


In Soviet Union, the river paddle steamers of the type Iosif Stalin (project 373), later renamed as type Ryazan, were build till 1951. Between 1952 and 1959 ships of this type were build for Soviet Union by Obuda Hajogyar Budapest factory in Hungary. In total, 75 type Iosif Stalin/Ryazan paddle steamers were build. Few of them still remain in active service, as in 2007.[6][7]


Iosif Stalin/Ryazan paddle steamers are side-wheelers. They are 70m long and can carry up to 360 passengers.


References

  1. ^ De Rebus Bellicis (anon.), chapter XVII, text edited by Robert Ireland, in: BAR International Series 63, part 2, p. 34
  2. ^ Nito Verdera, referring to Joseph Needham's Science and Civilisation in China.
  3. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. The Basque History of the World. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 56
  4. ^ a b Smiles, Samuel (1884). Men of Invention and Industry. Gutenberg e-text. 
  5. ^ http://www.saechsische-dampfschiffahrt.de/?sprache=en (the biggest and oldest)
  6. ^ Russian river ships (in English)
  7. ^ Russian passenger river fleet (in Russian)

Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... Samuel Smiles (December 23, 1812 – April 16, 1904), was a Scottish author and reformer. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Paddle steamers

  Results from FactBites:
 
paddle wheel: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1330 words)
A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine.
The first sea-going trip of a paddle steamer was that of the Albany in 1808, which steamed from the Hudson River along the coast to the Delaware River.
In oceangoing service, the paddle steamer became obsolete rather quickly with the invention of the screw propeller, but they remained in use in coastal service, thanks to their shallow draught and good maneuverability.
Paddle steamer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1360 words)
The paddle steamer is obsolete technology and few have been built since the 1940s.
Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne.
The paddle steamer Waverley, built in 1947, is the last sea-going paddle steamer in the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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