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Anti-war topics Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ...

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Image File history File links Peace_Sign. ... Organized opposition to a possible future military attack against Iran by the United States (US) is known to have started during 2005-2006. ... This article is about parties opposing to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Iraq War from outside Iraq. ... It has been suggested that Post-September 11 anti-war movement be merged into this article or section. ... Criticism of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. ...  State Parties to the Ottawa Treaty The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose goal is to abolish the production and use of anti-personnel mines. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006 Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those of the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... Despite lack of reporting on this, some military personnel and civilians staunchly opposed fighting the Nazis and Fascists during World War II. One key objector who would later write a novel on this was the author of Catch-22 who did not want to lose his life even if it... The First World War was mainly opposed by left-wing groups, there was also opposition by Christain groups baised on pacifism The trade union and socialist movements had declared before the war their determined opposition to a war which they said could only mean workers killing each other in the... Opposition to the Second Boer War began slowly but grew due in part to organisations like the Stop the War Committee. ... Link titleAnti-war Popular opposition to the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865, was widespread. ... Opposition to the War of 1812 was widespread in the United States, especially in New England. ... It is widely stated that before American Revolutionary War, 1/3 of the people in the colonies favored independence, 1/3 wanted to be part of Britain, and 1/3 didnt care. ...

Agents of opposition

Anti-war organizations • Conscientious objectors • Draft dodgers • Peace movement • Peace churches • Peace camp In order to facilitate organized opposition to war, anti-war activists have often founded anti-war organizations. ... John T. Neufeld was a WWI conscientious objector sentenced to 15 years hard labour in the military prison at Leavenworth. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... First peace camps Peace camps are known from the 1920s. ...

Related ideologies

Anti-imperialism • Antimilitarism • Appeasement • Nonviolence • Pacificism • Pacifism • Satyagraha Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking, is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of imperialism. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and, more globally, in the socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ...

Media

Books • Films • Songs An anti-war book is a book that is perceived as having an anti-war theme. ... An anti-war film is a movie that is perceived as having an anti-war theme. ... An anti-war song is a musical composition perceived (by the public or critics) as having an anti-war theme on its lyrics. ...

Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views ranging from the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved; to calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war; to opposition to any organization of society through governmental force (anarchist or libertarian pacifism); to rejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals; to the condemnation of force except in cases where it is absolutely necessary to advance the cause of peace (pacificism); to opposition to violence under any circumstance, including defense of self and others. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ...


Pacifism may be based on moral principles (a deontological view) or pragmatism (a consequentialist view). Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and inter-personal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists in general reject theories of Just War. Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... In moral philosophy, deontology is the view that morality either forbids or permits actions, which is done through moral norms. ... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... Consequentialism is the belief that what ultimately matters in evaluating actions or policies of action are the consequences that result from choosing one action or policy rather than the alternative. ... Just War theory is a doctrine of military ethics studied by moral theologians, ethicists and international policy makers which holds that a conflict can and ought to meet the criteria of philosophical, religious or political justice, provided it follows certain conditions. ...


Pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that non-violent action is morally superior and/or pragmatically most effective. Some pacifists, however, support physical violence for emergency defense of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft. However, part of the pacifist belief system is taking responsibility for one's actions by submitting to arrest and using a trial to publicize opposition to war and other forms of violence. Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... Property damage is damage or destruction done to public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena. ...


Dove or dovish are informal terms used, especially in politics, for people who prefer to avoid war or prefer war as a last resort. The terms refer to the story of Noah's Ark in which the dove came to symbolize the hope of salvation and peace. Similarly, in common parlance, the opposite of a dove is a hawk or war hawk. This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... War Hawk is a term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the United States (usually from the south & southwest) who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812. ...

Contents

Early history

Vereschagin's painting Apotheosis of War (1871) came to be admired as one of the earliest artistic expressions of pacifism.

Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in history and literature. Compassion for all life, human and nonhuman, is central to Jainism, founded by Mahavira 599527 BCE. This doctrine values human life as a unique opportunity to reach enlightenment and regards the killing of any person, no matter what crime he may have committed, as unimaginably abhorrent. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x544, 42 KB)Vasily Vereshchagin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x544, 42 KB)Vasily Vereshchagin. ... Vasily Vereshchagin Vasili Vasilyevich Vereshchagin (1842 - 1904) was the most famous Russian battle painter and the first Russian artist to be widely recognized abroad. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ... This article is about the year. ...


In Ancient Greece, however, pacifism seems not to have existed except as a broad moral guideline against violence between individuals. No philosophical program of rejecting violence between states, or rejecting all forms of violence, seems to have existed. Aristophanes, in his play Lysistrata, does create the scenario of an Athenian women's anti-war sex strike during the Peloponnesian War of 431–404 BCE, and the play has gained an international reputation for its anti-war message. Nevertheless, it is both fictional and comical, and though it offers a pragmatic opposition to the destructiveness of war, its message seems to stem from frustration with the existing conflict (then in its twentieth year) rather than from a philosophical position against violence or war. Equally fictional is the nonviolent protest of Hegetorides of Thasos. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Lysistrata (Attic Greek: Λυσιστράτη Lysistratê, Doric Greek: Λυσιστράτα Lysistrata), loosely translated to she who disbands armies, is an anti-war Greek comedy, written in 411 BC by Aristophanes. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Athenian War redirects here. ... In Greek history, Hegetorides was a citizen of Thasos during the Peloponnesian War with Athens (c. ... Thasos or Thassos (Greek: Θάσος, Ottoman Turkish: طاشوز Taşöz, Bulgarian: ) is an island in the northern Aegean Sea, close to the coast of Thrace and the plain of the river Nestos (during the Ottoman times Kara-Su). ...


The Moriori, of the Chatham Islands, practiced pacifism by order of their ancestor Nunuku-whenua. This enabled the Moriori to preserve what limited resources they had in their harsh climate, avoiding waste through warfare. In turn, this almost led to their complete annihilation in 1835 by invading Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama Māori from the Taranaki region of the North Island of New Zealand. The invading Māori killed, enslaved and cannibalised the Moriori. Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... View of Mount Taranaki or Mount Egmont from Stratford, facing west. ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Throughout history, many have understood Jesus of Nazareth to have been a pacifist,[1] drawing on his Sermon on the Mount (see Christian pacifism). In the sermon Jesus stated that one should "not resist an evildoer" and promoted his turn the other cheek philosophy. "If anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other also; and if anyone wants to sue you and take your coat, give your cloak as well... Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you."[2][3][4] The New Testament story is of Jesus, besides preaching these words, surrendering himself freely to an enemy intent on having him killed and proscribing his followers from defending him. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Turn the other cheek is a famous phrase taken from the Sermon on the Mount in the Christian New Testament. ...


There are those, however, who deny that Jesus was a pacifist[1] and state that Jesus never said that you should not fight[4], citing examples from the New Testament. One such instance portrays an angry Jesus driving dishonest market traders from the temple using a whip, [4] despite the absence of scriptural evidence that indicates Jesus used the whip on people. A frequently quoted passage is Luke 22:36: “He said to them, ‘But now, the one who has a purse must take it, and likewise a bag. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one.’” Others have interpreted the non-pacifist statements in the New Testament to be metaphorical and state that on no occasion does Jesus shed blood or urge others to shed blood.[1]


The early Christian church practiced Jesus' pacifist teachings quite literally.[5] However, beginning with the Roman emperor Constantine I in the 4th century A.D., the church not only began to be integrated into the rest of society, but to assume positions of power and authority. The strict practice of pacifism began to be viewed as impractical and even irresponsible when Christians could use such power to confront evil and injustice. Early church leaders such as Augustine and later Thomas Aquinas justified the use of arms as a last resort in the protection of innocent life from attack and injustice, what now often is called Just War Theory. // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Just War theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces. ...


Modern history

Beginning in the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation gave rise to a variety of new Christian sects, including the historic peace churches. Foremost among them were the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), Amish, Mennonites and Church of the Brethren. After its founding by Quaker pacifist William Penn, Quaker-controlled colonial Pennsylvania employed an anti-militarist public policy. Unlike residents of many of the colonies, Quakers chose to trade peacefully with the Indians, including for land. The colonial province was, for the 75 years from 1681 to 1756, essentially unarmed and experienced little or no warfare in that period. Reformation redirects here. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Quaker redirects here. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church of the Brethren is... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Bohemian Bernard Bolzano (1781–1848) taught about the social waste of militarism and the needlessness of war. He urged a total reform of the educational, social, and economic systems that would direct the nation's interests toward peace rather than toward armed conflict between nations. Bernard Bolzano Bernard (Bernhard) Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano (October 5, 1781 – December 18, 1848) was a Bohemian mathematician, theologian, philosopher, logician and antimilitarist of German mother tongue. ...


Leo Tolstoy was another fervent advocate of pacifism. In one of his latter works The Kingdom of God is Within You, Tolstoy provides a detailed history, account and defense of pacifism. The book was a major early influence on Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869–1948) and the two engaged in regular correspondence while Gandhi was active in South Africa. Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... The 1st English edition of The Kingdom of God is Within You, 1894 The Kingdom of God is Within You is a non-fiction work written by Leo Tolstoy and was first published in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...


In Aotearoa aka New Zealand during the latter half of the 19th century British colonists used many tactics to confiscate land from the indigenous Ma-ori, including warfare. One Ma-ori leader, Te Whiti-o-Rongomai, inspired warriors to stand up for their rights without using weapons, which had led to defeat in the past. He convinced 2000 Ma-oris to welcome battle-hardened British soldiers into their village and even offered food and drink. He allowed himself and his people to be arrested without resistance for opposing land confiscation. He is remembered as a great leader because the “passive resistance” he practiced prevented British massacres and even protected, thereby protecting far more land than violent resistance. [6] For other uses, see Aotearoa (disambiguation). ...

"Leading Citizens want War and declare War; Citizens Who are Led fight the War" 1910 cartoon
"Leading Citizens want War and declare War; Citizens Who are Led fight the War" 1910 cartoon

Mohandas K. Gandhi was a major political and spiritual leader of India, and of the Indian independence movement. Grateful Indians christened him with the title “Mahatma” or “Great Soul.” He was the pioneer of a brand of nonviolence (or ahimsa) which he called satyagraha -- translated literally as "truth force". This was the resistance of tyranny through civil disobedience that was not only nonviolent, but sought to change the heart of the opponent. He contrasted this with duragraha - “resistant force” - which merely sought to change behavior with stubborn protest. anti war political cartoon, scanned from the book War-- What For? by George R. Kirkpatrick, 1910. ... anti war political cartoon, scanned from the book War-- What For? by George R. Kirkpatrick, 1910. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ...


During his thirty year leadership of the Indian Independence Movement from 1917 to 1947 Gandhi led dozens of nonviolent campaigns, spent over seven years in British prisons, and fasted nearly to the death on several occasions to obtain British compliance with a demand or to stop inter-communal violence. His efforts helped lead India to independence in 1947, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom worldwide. The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ...


There was strong anti-war sentiment in Western Europe during the 19th century. Many socialist groups and movements were antimilitarist, arguing that war by its nature was a type of governmental coercion of the working class for the benefit of capitalist elites. French socialist pacifist leader Jean Jaurès's assassination on July 31, 1914 was followed by the socialist Second International's dissolution into chauvinism and militarism as international socialist groups supported their respective nations in war. Nevertheless many groups protested that war, including the traditional peace churches, the Woman's Peace Party which was organized in 1915 and led by noted reformer Jane Addams and the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace (ICWPP), also organized in 1915.[7] Other groups included the American Union Against Militarism, the Fellowship of Reconciliation, and the American Friends Service Committee.[8] Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Alternative meaning: Elite (computer game) In sociology as in general usage, the elite (the elect; sometimes the French form élite is used) refers to a relatively small dominant group within a larger society, which enjoys privileged status and, almost invariantly, exploits individuals of lower social status. ... Jean Jaurès. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... Chauvinism (IPA:) is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Laura Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement, and the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. ...


In the aftermath of World War I there was a great revulsion against war, leading to the formation of more peace groups like War Resisters' International and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. War Resisters International or WRI is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries. ... Founded in 1915, the Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) is the oldest womens peace organization in the world. ...


The Spanish Civil War proved a major test for international pacifism, and the heroic work of pacifist organisations and individuals in that arena has been largely ignored or forgotten by historians, overshadowed by the memory of the International Brigades and other militaristic interventions. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


With the start of World War II, pacifist and anti-war sentiment declined in nations affected by war. Even the communist-controlled American Peace Mobilization reversed its anti-war activism once Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, mainstream isolationist groups like the America First Committee, declined, though many smaller religious and socialist groups continued their opposition to war. Bertrand Russell argued that the necessity of defeating Adolf Hitler and the Nazis was a unique circumstance where war was not the worst of the possible evils; he called his position relative pacifism. H. G. Wells, who had claimed after the armistice ending World War I that the British had suffered more from the war than they would have from submission to Germany, urged in 1941 a large-scale British offensive on the continent of Europe to combat Hitler and Nazism. Similarly Albert Einstein wrote: "'I loathe all armies and any kind of violence; yet I'm firmly convinced that at present these hateful weapons offer the only effective protection."[9] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Protest at the White House. ... Isolationism is a diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations. ... The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ...


Conscientious objectors and war tax resisters were active in both World War I and World War II. The United States government did allow sincere objectors to serve in noncombatant military roles. However, those draft resisters who refused any cooperation with the war effort often spent much of each war in federal prisons. During World War II pacifist leaders like Dorothy Day and Ammon Hennacy of the Catholic Worker Movement urged young Americans not to enlist in military service. A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Ammon Hennacy Ammon Hennacy (July 24, 1893 - January 14, 1970) was an American pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement and a Wobbly, and was known for establishing the Joe Hill House of Hospitality in Salt Lake City, Utah and never paying taxes. ... The Catholic Worker Movement is a Catholic organization founded by the Servant of God Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin in 1933. ...


Martin Luther King, Jr (1929 - 1968), a Baptist minister, lead the American civil rights movement which successfully used Gandhian nonviolent resistance to repeal laws enforcing racial segregation and work for integration of schools, businesses and government. In 1957 his wife Coretta Scott King, Albert Schweitzer, Dr. Benjamin Spock and others formed the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (now Peace Action) to resist the nuclear arms race. In 1958 British activists formed the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament with Bertrand Russell as its president. Martin Luther King Jr. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... SANE redirects here. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... CND redirects here. ...


In 1960, Thich Nhat Hanh came to the U.S. to study comparative religion at Princeton University, and subsequently was appointed lecturer in Buddhism at Columbia University. Thich Nhat Hanh had written a letter to Martin Luther King in 1965 entitled: “Searching for the Enemy of Man” and during his 1966 stay in the U.S. met with King and urged him to publicly denounce the Vietnam War.[10] King gave his famous speech at the Riverside Church in New York City in 1967,[11] his first to publicly question the U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thich Nhat Hanh Thích Nhất Hạnh (born 1926) is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist monk, peace activist, and prolific author in English. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Riverside Church as seen from West 121st Street The Riverside Church in the City of New York is an interdenominational (American Baptist and United Church of Christ), interracial, international church in New York City, famous not only for its elaborate Gothic architecture — which includes the worlds largest carillon — but... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

A peace sign, which is widely associated with pacifism.
A peace sign, which is widely associated with pacifism.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Pacifism and religion

Pacifist social movements in Buddhism

Buddhist Daw Aung San Suu Kyi is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Myanmar (Burma). A devout Buddhist, Suu Kyi won the Rafto Prize and the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990 and in 1991 was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her peaceful and non-violent struggle under a repressive military dictatorship. One of her best known speeches is the "Freedom From Fear" speech, which begins "It is not power that corrupts but fear. Fear of losing power corrupts those who wield it and fear of the scourge of power corrupts those who are subject to it."[12] Aung San Suu Kyi Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (ေအာင္ဆန္းဆုဳကည္) born June 19, 1945 in Rangoon, Burma (which is now known as Yangôn, Myanmar), is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist in Myanmar. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... The flag features a yellow dancing peacock, which has been a sign of freedom in modern Burmese history. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The Rafto Prize is awarded annually by the Rafto Foundation for Human Rights Former receipients: 1987 -- Jiří Hájek, Czechoslovakia 1988 -- Trivimi Velliste, Estonia 1989 -- Doina Cornea, Romania and FIDESZ, Hungary 1990 -- Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma 1991 -- Jelena Bonner, Russia 1992 -- Preah Maha Ghosananda, Cambodia 1993 -- The people of... The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1985 by the European Parliament as a means to honour individuals or organizations who had dedicated their lives to the defence of human rights and freedoms. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ...

An anti-war Tank Stencil
An anti-war Tank Stencil

Especially famous for leading a pacifist movement, Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama, and as such, is often referred to in Western media as simply the Dalai Lama. On November 17, 1950, at the age of fifteen, he was enthroned as Tibet's Head of State and most important political ruler, while Tibet faced occupation by the forces of the People's Republic of China. After the collapse of the Tibetan resistance movement in 1959, Tenzin Gyatso fled to India, where he was active in establishing the Central Tibetan Administration (the Tibetan government in exile) and preserving Tibetan culture and education among the thousands of refugees who accompanied him. A charismatic figure and noted public speaker, Tenzin Gyatso is the first Dalai Lama to travel to the West, where he has helped to spread Buddhism and to publicise the cause of Free Tibet. In 1989, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[13] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Visual diagram of a basic stencil. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The initial Peoples Republic of Chinas military invasion of Tibet in 1950 met with high resistance in the heart of the country. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language Tibetan Headquarters Dharamsala, India Head of State Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Head of Government Professor Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche National Anthem Tibetan National Anthem, (Link) The Central Tibetan Administration (CTA), officially the Central Tibetan Administration of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, is a government in exile headed by... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... A feature of Buddhism in the West has been the emergence of groups, which although they draw on traditional Buddhism, are in fact an attempt at creating a new style of Buddhist practice. ... The Free Tibet Campaign is an organisation based in London that is dedicated to establishing the right of Tibetans to determine their own government. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Christian peace churches

Peace churches are Christian denominations explicitly advocating pacifism. The term historic peace churches refers specifically to certain Anabaptist traditions: the Brethren, Mennonites, Amish, and Hutterites, and the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). The historic peace churches have, from their origins as far back as the 16th century, always taken the position that Jesus was himself a pacifist who explicitly taught and practiced pacifism, and that his followers must do likewise. Pacifist churches vary on whether physical force can ever be justified in self-defense or protecting others, as many adhere strictly to nonresistance when confronted by violence. But all agree that violence on behalf of a country or a government is prohibited for Christians. Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church of the Brethren is... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Like the two best-known Anabaptist denominations, the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hutterites had their beginnings in the Radical Reformation of the 16th Century. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ...


Pacifism in Pentecostal churches

Jay Beaman's thesis[14] states that 13 of 21, or 62% of American Pentecostal groups formed by 1917 show evidence of being pacifist sometime in their history.Furthermore Jay Beaman has shown in his thesis[14] that there has been a shift away from pacifism in the American Pentecostal churches to more a style of military chaplaincy and support of war. The major organisation for Pentecostal Christians who believe in pacifism is the PCPF, the Pentecostal Charismatic Peace Fellowship. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Pacifism in mainstream Christian denominations

The Peace Pledge Union was a pacifist organisation from which the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship (APF) later emerged within the Anglican Church. The APF succeeded in gaining ratification of the pacifist position at two successive Lambeth Conferences, though many Anglicans would not regard themselves as pacifists. South African Bishop Desmond Tutu is the most prominent Anglican pacifist. Rowan Williams led an almost united Anglican Church in Britain in opposition to the 2003 Iraq War. In Australia Peter Carnley similarly led a front of bishops opposed to the Australian Government's involvement in the invasion of Iraq. The Peace Pledge Union is a British non-governmental organization which emerged from an initiative by Richard Sheppard, canon of St Pauls Cathedral, in 1933. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Most Reverend Dr Peter Carnley AO (1937-) was the Archbishop of Perth, Australia from 1981 to 2005 and was Primate of the Anglican Church of Australia from 2000 until July 2005. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation, and a parliamentary democracy. ...


The Catholic Worker Movement is concerned with both social justice and pacifist issues, and voiced consistent opposition to the Spanish Civil War and World War II. Many of its early members were imprisoned for their opposition to conscription.[15] Within the Roman Catholic Church, the Pax Christi organisation is the premiere pacifist lobby group. It holds positions similar to APF and the two organisations are known to work together on ecumenical projects. Within Roman Catholicism there has been a discernible move towards a more pacifist position through the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Popes Benedict XV, John XXIII and John Paul II were all vocal in their opposition to specific wars. By taking the name Benedict XVI, some suspect that Joseph Ratzinger will continue the strong emphasis upon non-violent conflict resolution of his predecessor. However, the Roman Catholic Church officially maintains the legitimacy of Just War, which is rejected by some pacifists. The Catholic Worker Movement is a Catholic organization founded by the Servant of God Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin in 1933. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Pax Christi is an international Catholic peace movement, which nowadays regards itself as ecumenical. ... Pope Benedict XV (Latin: ), (Italian: Benedetto XV), (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from September 3, 1914 to January 22, 1922; he succeeded Pope Pius X (1903–14). ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...


In the twentieth century there was a notable trend among prominent Roman Catholics towards pacifism. Individuals such as Dorothy Day and Henri Nouwen stand out among them. The monk and mystic Thomas Merton was noted for his commitment to social justice and pacifism during the Vietnam War era. Martyred El Salvadorian Bishop Oscar Romero was notable for using non-violent resistance tactics and wrote meditative sermons focusing on the power of prayer and peace. School of the Americas Watch was founded by Maryknoll Fr. Roy Bourgeois in 1990 and uses strictly pacifist principles to protest the training of Latin American military officers by United States Army officers at the School of the Americas in the state of Georgia. This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Henri Nouwen teaching at the Yale Divinity School in 1971. ... Thomas Merton (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was one of the most influential Catholic authors of the 20th century. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ... It has been suggested that Presente litany be merged into this article or section. ...


The Greek Orthodox Church also tends towards pacifism, though it has accepted defensive warfare through most of its history. However, more recently it took a strong stance towards the war in Lebanon and its large community there refused to take up arms during its civil wars. It also supports dialogue with Islam. In 1998 the Third Pre-conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference drew up a text on ‘the contribution of the Orthodox Church to the achievement of peace’ emphasizing respect for the human person and the inseparability of peace from justice. The text states in part: “Orthodoxy condemns war in general, for she regards it as a consequence of the evil and sin in the world.”[16] Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Southern Baptist Convention has stated in the Baptist Faith and Message that: "It is the duty of Christians to seek peace with all men on principles of righteousness. In accordance with the spirit and teachings of Christ they should do all in their power to put an end to war."[17] The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States-based Christian denomination that consists of numerous agencies including six seminaries, two mission boards and a variety of other organizations such as: the Executive Committee of the Southern Baptist Convention, which can act for the SBC ad interim between annual meetings... The Baptist Faith and Message (BF&M) is the Southern Baptist Convention confession of faith. ...


Pacifism in the Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith abolished holy war, and noted it as a central teaching of his faith.[18] However, the Bahá'í Faith does not have an absolute pacifistic position. For example Bahá'ís are advised to do social service instead of active army service, but when this is not possible due to obligations in certain countries, the Bahá'í law of loyalty to one's government is preferred and the individual should perform the army service.[19][20] Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, noted that in the Bahá'í view, absolute pacifists are anti-social and exalt the individual over society which could lead to anarchy; instead he noted that the Bahá'í conception of social life follows a moderate view where the individual is not suppressed or exalted.[21] Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Baháí laws are laws and ordinances used in the Baháí Faith, according to the instructions of the Baháulláh, and written in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ...


On the level of society, Bahá'u'lláh promotes the principle of collective security, which does not abolish the use of force, but prescribes "a system in which Force is made the servant of Justice."[22] The idea of collective security from the Bahá'í teachings states that if a government violates a fundamental norm of international law or provision of a future world constitution which Bahá'ís believe will be established by all nations, then the other governments should step in.[23] Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ...


Pacifism in Jainism

Compassion for all life, human and non-human, is central to Jainism. Human life is valued as a unique, rare opportunity to reach enlightenment; to kill any person, no matter what crime he may have committed, is considered unimaginably abhorrent. It is a religion that requires monks and laity, from all its sects and traditions, to be vegetarian. Some Indian regions, such as Gujarat, have been strongly influenced by Jains and often the majority of the local non-Jain population has also become vegetarian.[24] The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...


Pacifism and government

While many governments have tolerated pacifist views and even accommodated pacifists' refusal to fight in wars, others at times have outlawed pacifist and anti-war activity. During the periods between World Wars I and II, Pacifist literature or public advocacy was banned in nations such as Italy under Mussolini, and Germany after the rise of Hitler. In these nations, pacifism was denounced as cowardice. The United States Congress passed the Sedition Act of 1918 because President Woodrow Wilson opposed dissent in time of war. Mussolini redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Sedition Act of 1918 was an amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson, who was concerned that dissent, in time of war, was a significant threat to morale. ...


Today the United States requires that all young men register for selective service, but does not allow them to be classified as conscientious objectors unless they are drafted in some future reinstatement of the draft. It does permit enlisted personnel to become conscientious objectors, allowing them to be discharged or transferred to noncombatant status.[25] Some European governments like Switzerland, Greece, Norway and Germany offer civilian service. However, even during periods of peace, many pacifists still refuse to register for or report for military duty, risking criminal charges. Civilian service is service to a government made as a civilian, particularly such service as an option for anti-militarists and pacifists who object to military service. ...


Anti-war and “pacifist” political parties seeking to win elections may moderate their demands, calling for de-escalation or major arms reduction rather than the outright disarmament which is advocated by many pacifists. Once in power, parties have been known to drop their anti-war leanings. Green parties list "non-violence" and "decentralization" towards anarchist co-operatives or minimalist village government as two of their ten key values. However, in power, Greens like all politicians often compromise. The German Greens in the cabinet of Social Democrat Gerhard Schröder supported an intervention by German troops in Afghanistan in 2001, but on condition that they host the peace conference in Berlin. However, during the 2002 election Greens did force Schröder to swear that no German troops would invade Iraq. An approach to conflict resolution and reducing tension during the discussion of controversial topics. ... Disarmament means the act of reducing or depriving arms i. ... This article is about the green parties around the world. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...


The controversial democratic peace theory holds that liberal democracies have never (or rarely) made war on one another and that lesser conflicts and internal violence are rare between and within democracies. It also argues that the growth in the number of democratic states will, in the not so distant future, end warfare. The democratic peace theory, liberal peace theory,[1] or simply the democratic peace is a theory and related empirical research in international relations, political science, and philosophy which holds that democracies — usually, liberal democracies — never or almost never go to war with one another. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Some pacifists and multilateralists are in favor of the establishment of a world government as a means to prevent and control international aggression. Such a government would not have to worry about the UN veto being used by one of its members when it or one of its allies decides to agress on another nation, as currently is the case. While some unions, like the European Union, have been brought together peacefully, most large nation states have been united through war and held together by military action against secessionists. So it is questionable whether a world government devoted to peace could be formed without years of warfare. Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... World empire redirects here. ... The UN Security Council Veto Power is a power wielded solely by the 5 permanent members of the UN Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council resolution regardless of the level of general support. ... This article is about the political concept. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


Some pacifists, such as the Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy, consider the state a form of warfare. Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ...


The Italian Constitution enforces a 'mild' pacifist character on the Italian Republic, as Article 11 states that "Italy repudiates war as an instrument offending the liberty of the peoples and as a means for settling international disputes [...]". To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Criticisms of pacifism

One common argument against pacifism is the possibility of using violence to prevent further acts of violence (and reduce the "net-sum" of violence). This argument hinges on the idea that the ends justify the means—i.e., that an otherwise morally objectionable action can be justified if it results in a positive outcome. For example, either violent rebellion - or another state sending in its military - to end a dictator's violent oppression may save millions of lives, even if many thousands died in the war. Most pacifists would oppose such violent action, arguing that nonviolent resistance should be just as effective and with a much lesser loss of life. Others would oppose organized military responses but support individual and small group self-defense against specific attacks if initiated by the dictator’s forces. Pacificists may argue that military action could be justified should it subsequently advance the general cause of peace. Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ...


Still more pacifists would argue that a non-violent reaction may not save lives immediately but would in the long run. The acceptance of violence for any reason makes it easier to use in other situations. Learning and committing to pacifism helps to send a message that violence is, in fact, not the most effective way. It can also help people to think more creatively and find more effective ways to stop violence without more violence.


Japanese, Italian and Nazi aggression that precipitated World War II often is cited as an argument against pacifism. If these forces had not been challenged and defeated militarily, the argument goes, many more people would have died under their oppressive rule. A frequently used quote is from Edmund Burke: "The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing." Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ...


Pacifists can claim that the United State's entry into World War I broke the multi-year stalemate between Germany and the allies, ensuring an overwhelming victory rather than a negotiated settlement. This permitted the victors to bankrupt Germany with war reparations, leading to economic unrest that hastened the rise of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. Pacifists also might note that Japanese imperialism against China only mirrored the centuries of European imperialism in the Asia and that United States economic and military actions towards Japan provoked it to attack Pearl Harbor in 1941.[26] Also pacifists would point out that the "something" good men must do is not necessarily violent. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... World War I reparations refers to the payments and transfers of property and equipment that the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the war guilt clause) held Germany solely responsible for all loss and damage suffered by the... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Some commentators on the most nonviolent forms of pacifism, including Jan Narveson, argue that such pacifism is a self-contradictory doctrine. Narveson claims that everyone has rights and corresponding responsibilities not to violate others' rights. Since pacifists give up their ability to protect themselves from violation of their right not to be harmed, then other people thus have no corresponding responsibility, thus creating a paradox of rights. As Narveson puts it, “the prevention of infractions of that right is precisely what one has a right to when one has a right at all." Narveson then discusses how rational persuasion is a good but often inadequate method of discouraging an aggressor. He considers that everyone has the right to use any means necessary to prevent deprivation of their civil liberties and force could be necessary.[27] Jan Narveson (born 1936) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Waterloo, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ...


Narveson's arguments, however, assume that violence is the only method by which one can protect his rights and self. Many pacifists would argue that not only are there other ways to protect oneself, but that some of those ways are far more effective than violence. It also assumes that harm can only be done physically. Often pacifists would much rather take the physical harm inflicted by another rather than cause themselves emotional or psychological harm, not to mention harming the other.


The ideology and political practice of pacifism also have been criticized by the radical American activist Ward Churchill, in his essay, Pacifism as Pathology. Churchill argues that the social and political advancements pacifists claim resulted from non-violent action always have been made possible by concurrent violent struggles. In the late 1990s Churchill's work convinced many anarchist and left wing activists to adopt what they called "diversity of tactics" using "black bloc" formations that engage in property destruction and scuffles with police at larger mainstream protests.[28][29] Ward LeRoy Churchill (born October 2, 1947) is an American writer and political activist. ... A black bloc is an affinity group, or cluster of affinity groups,[1] that comes together during some sort of protest, demonstration, or other event involving class struggle, anti-capitalism, or anti-globalization. ...


The most powerful of many pacifist replies to Churchill was from American activist George Lakey, a founder of Movement for a New Society, in a detailed response to Pacifism as Pathology. Lakey quotes Martin Luther King in entitling his year 2001 article Nonviolent Action as the Sword that Heals.[30] However, he takes on Churchill's assumptions and reading of history from a pragmatic viewpoint, arguing the superiority of nonviolent action by describing "some movements that learned, from their own pragmatic experience, that they could wage struggle more successfully through nonviolent direct action than through violence." The Movement for a New Society (MNS) was a US-based network of social activists, committed to the principles of nonviolence, who played a key role in social movements of the 1970s and 80s. ...


Quotations

What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy? - Mahatma Gandhi
In all history there is no war which was not hatched by the governments, the governments alone, independent of the interests of the people, to whom war is always pernicious even when successful. - Leo Tolstoy
Returning violence for violence multiplies violence, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars. Darkness cannot drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that. Hate multiplies hate, violence multiplies violence, and toughness multiplies toughness in a descending spiral of destruction.... The chain reaction of evil — hate begetting hate, wars producing more wars — must be broken, or we shall be plunged into the dark abyss of annihilation. -Martin Luther King Jr.
Being a pacifist between wars is as easy as being a vegetarian between meals. - Ammon Hennacy
The concept of nonviolence is a false ideal. It presupposes the existence of compassion and a sense of justice on the part of one's adversary. When this adversary has everything to lose and nothing to gain by exercising justice and compassion, his reaction can only be negative. - George Jackson.
Since pacifists have more freedom of action in countries where traces of democracy survive, pacifism can act more effectively against democracy than for it. Objectively the pacifist is pro-Nazi.- George Orwell.
Being a pacifist to save your own life is normal, being a pacifist for the lives of others is true pacifism. - Jacob Borer
My pacifism is an instinctive feeling, a feeling that possesses me because the murder of men is disgusting. - Albert Einstein

“Gandhi” redirects here. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Ammon Hennacy Ammon Hennacy (July 24, 1893 - January 14, 1970) was an American pacifist, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement and a Wobbly, and was known for establishing the Joe Hill House of Hospitality in Salt Lake City, Utah and never paying taxes. ... Cover of Soledad Brother George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a Black American militant who became a member of the Black Panther Party while in prison, where he spent the last 12 years of his life. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ...

See also

This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. Other related articles can be found at the Politics Portal.

An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and, more globally, in the socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Aparigraha is the Jain concept of non-possessiveness. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) is an international organization set up to support teams of peace workers in conflict areas around the world. ... Criticisms of the War on Terrorism addresses the issues, morals, ethics, efficiency, and other questions surrounding the War on Terrorism. Arguments are also made against the phrase itself, calling it a misnomer. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... An old red shirt activist, picture taken by Mukulika Banerjee: The Pathan Unarmed Khudai Khidmatgar (Pashto: خدای خدمتگر) literally translates as the servants of God. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Martialism is an approach to self-defense first described by martial arts author Phil Elmore. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... A nuclear-free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... A Pacifist organisation promotes the pacifist principles of standing against war and aggression. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... First peace camps Peace camps are known from the 1920s. ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article is about the social movement. ... This article is about protests concerning the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Soka University of America (SUA) is a private university located in Aliso Viejo, California. ... A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax, or to some of that institution’s policies. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations formed by the consolidation in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America. ... Weak theology -- in close association with deconstruction-and-religion -- is a school of thought within continental philosophical theology that has been heavily influenced by Jacques Derridas style of theorizing known as deconstruction. ... World empire redirects here. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Weidhorn, Manfred (2004). "Pacifism Lost". International Journal of Humanities and Peace 20 (1): pp.13-18. 
  2. ^ oremus Bible Browser : Matthew 5
  3. ^ oremus Bible Browser : Luke 6
  4. ^ a b c Cleave, Joanne; Geddes, Gordon D.; Griffiths, Jane; (2004). GCSE Religious Studies for AQA Christianity: Christianity: Behaviour, Attitudes & Lifestyles. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publisher, p. 75. ISBN 0-435-30714-2. 
  5. ^ Just War Theology
  6. ^ Winder, Virginia, “Conflict and Protest - Pacifist of Parihaka - Te Whiti o Rongomai”
  7. ^ Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women's Organizations in the 1920s.
  8. ^ Chatfield, Charles, “Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy” 2002.
  9. ^ Quoted on Albert Einstein at Peace Pledge Union, and but also discussed in detail in articles in Einstein, Albert (1954), Ideas and Opinions, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-517-00393-7
  10. ^ "Searching for the Enemy of Man", in Nhat Nanh, Ho Huu Tuong, Tam Ich, Bui Giang, Pham Cong Thien. Dialogue. Saigon: La Boi, 1965. P. 11-20., archived on the African-American Involvement in the Vietnam War website, King's Journey: 1964 - April 4, 1967
  11. ^ "Beyond Vietnam", April 4, 1967, speech made by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at the Riverside Church, NYC, archived on the African-American Involvement in the Vietnam War website
  12. ^ Aung San Suu Kyi — Biography. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 4 May, 2006.
  13. ^ The Nobel Prize. Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso). Retrieved on July 9, 2005.
  14. ^ a b Beaman, J: Pentecostal Pacifism: The Origin, Development, and Rejection of Pacfic Belief among the Pentecostals, Center for Mennonite Brethren Studies, Hillsboro, KA, 1989
  15. ^ Catholic Worker Movement http://www.catholicworker.org
  16. ^ Clément, Olivier, “ The Orthodox Church and Peace Some Reflections” on the Orthodox Peace Fellowship website.
  17. ^ SBC, “ Baptist Faith and Message 2000”
  18. ^ Troxel, Duane (2003-10-17). Tablet of Ridván: Wilmette Institute faculty notes. bahai-library.org. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.
  19. ^ Mazal, Peter (2003-10-21). Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.
  20. ^ Effendi, Shoghi. Unfolding Destiny, pp. 134-135. 
  21. ^ Effendi, Shoghi. Directives from the Guardian. India: Baha'i Publishing Trust, pp.53-54. 
  22. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1938). The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, pp. 191-203. ISBN 0-87743-231-7. 
  23. ^ Sarooshi, Danesh (1994). "Search for a Just Society, Review". Baha'i Studies Review 4 (1). Retrieved on 2006-09-13. 
  24. ^ Titze, Kurt, Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-Violence, Mohtilal Banarsidass, 1998
  25. ^ “Conscientious Objection Today, Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors”
  26. ^ "Principal Causes of the Second World War". BBC.CO.UK.
  27. ^ Narveson, January 1965. “Pacifism: A Philosophical Analysis.” Ethics, LXXV: 4, pp 259-271.
  28. ^ Hurl, Chris (2003-10-17). Anti-Globalization and "Diversity of Tactics". Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  29. ^ Conway, Janet (2003). Civil Resistance and the “Diversity of Tactics” in the Anti-globalization Movement: Problems of Violence, Silence, and Solidarity in Activist Politics. Osgood Hall Law Journal, York University, Toronto, Canada. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  30. ^ Lakey, George (2001). Nonviolent Action as the Sword that Heals. TrainingforChange.Org. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bennett, Scott H. Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915-1963 (New York: Syracuse Univ. Press, 2003).
  • Bennett, Scott H., ed. Army GI, Pacifist CO: The World War II Letters of Fank and Albert Dietrich (New York: Fordham Univ. Press, 2005).
  • True, Michael, "Justice Seekers, Peace Makers: 32 Portraits in Courage", 1985. ISBN 0-89622-212-8

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pacifism (0 words)
Pacifism also describes a stance under particular circumstances, in contrast with those who believe that the criteria have been met for the justification of violence under those same circumstances.
Pacifism may be adopted as a pragmatic political strategy, in which case its effectiveness is open to debate.
Non-pacifistic religions, including Judaism, many varients of Christianity and Islam, have usually made no pretense of meaning "pacifism" by their messages concerning the great obligation to pursue peace: typically constructing rules, sometimes very elaborately defined, under which the use of aggression for the establishment and maintenance of justice may be legitimate.
Pacifism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (0 words)
Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes.
Pacifism covers a spectrum of views ranging from the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, to absolute opposition to the use of violence, or even force, under any circumstances.
Pragmatic (or Consequential) pacifism does not hold to such an absolute principle but considers there to be better ways of resolving a dispute than war or considers the benefits of a war to be outweighed by the costs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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