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Encyclopedia > Pacific War
Pacific War
Part of World War II

A map showing the main areas of the conflict and Allied landings in the Pacific, 1942–45.
Date 7 July 19379 September 1945
Location Asia, Pacific Ocean, its islands and neighbouring countries.
Result Allied victory, fall of Japanese Empire
Belligerents
Allies

 Australia
 China
 The Netherlands
 Soviet Union
 United Kingdom
Indian Empire
Crown Colonies
 United States
Flag of the Philippines The Philippines Pacific War refers to the conflict that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Eastern and Southern Asia, between July 7, 1937, and August 14, 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Download high resolution version (2000x1363, 414 KB)Allied landings - August 1942 to August 1945 Source: Scanned from Reports of General MacArthur (1994 facsimile printing), Vol 1. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links British_Raj_Red_Ensign. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March...

Axis Powers

 Japan
 Thailand Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ...

Commanders
Chiang Kai-shek
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Winston Churchill
John Curtin
Flag of Japan Hirohito
Flag of Japan Hideki Tojo
Flag of Japan Kuniaki Koiso
Flag of Japan Kantaro Suzuki #
Casualties and losses
Australia: 17,501 killed[citation needed]

Canada: 1,000 killed[citation needed]
China: 3.8 million soldiers killed, 15+ million civilians killed[citation needed]
France:
Netherlands: 27,600 killed
New Zealand: 661 killed
Soviet Union: 12,031 killed and missing, 24,425 wounded and sick [1]
United Kingdom & Crown Colonies:
Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... FDR redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Admiral Baron Kantaro Suzuki (Japanese: 鈴木 貫太郎 18 January 1868 - 17 April 1948) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April 1945 to 17 August 1945. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ...

  • Indian Empire: 86,838 killed

USA: 106,207 killed, 248,316 wounded and missing[2]

  • Philippines: 57,000 killed[citation needed]
1,740,955 military deaths
393,000 civilian deaths[citation needed]

The Pacific War was the part of World War II—and preceding conflicts—that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, between July 7, 1937 and August 14, 1945. The most decisive actions took place after the Empire of Japan attacked various countries, who together came to be known as the Allies (or Allied powers), on or after December 7, 1941, including an attack on Pearl Harbor. Combatants  United Kingdom  Canada  United States(1941–5)  Norway Poland Free French Navy  Germany  Italy (1940–3) Commanders  Sir Percy Noble  Sir Max K. Horton  Percy W. Nelles  Leonard W. Murray  Ernest J. King  Erich Raeder  Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the geographical region. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the actual attack. ...

Contents

Name

In western countries during the war, it was not usually distinguished from World War II in general, or it was known simply as the War with Japan. In the US, the term Pacific Theater was widely used, although technically this did not cover the China or Southeast Asia theaters. A map of the Pacific Theater. ...


During the war, Japanese sources used the name Greater East Asia War (大東亜戦争 Dai Tō-A Sensō?). This name was chosen by a cabinet decision on December 10, 1941, to refer to both the war with the western Allies and the ongoing war in China. The name was released to the public two days later, on December 12, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving independence from the western powers through the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. Japanese officials distinguished between what they called the Holy War (聖戦 Seisen?) in China, and the Greater East Asia War in the Pacific. Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ...


After the war, during the occupation of Japan, these terms were prohibited in official documents, although informal usage continued. In Japan, after 1945, the war became known as Pacific War (太平洋戦争 Taiheiyō Sensō?). This latter term has been in use since that time. Fifteen Year War (十五年戦争 Jūgonen Sensō?) is also used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 until 1945. Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria...


Participants

The Axis states which assisted Japan included the authoritarian government of Thailand, which joined the Japanese side in 1942, and sent forces to invade and occupy northeastern Burma. The Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo (parts of Manchuria and Inner Mongolia) and the Wang Jingwei Government (which controlled the coastal regions of China). Japan enlisted many soldiers from its colonies of Korea and Formosa (later known as Taiwan). To a small extent, some Vichy French, Indian National Army, and Burmese National Army forces were active in the area. To an even smaller extent, German and Italian naval forces (mainly armed merchantmen and submarines) also operated in the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... The Burma National Army was originally organized by the Minami Kikan as the Burmese Independence Army in December of 1941 , where it then served as an auxiliary of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Armed Merchantmen were merchant ships taken over by their nations navies, equipped with guns, and then used for military purposes. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


The major Allied participants were the United States (including forces of the Commonwealth of the Philippines), China, the United Kingdom, (including the forces of British India), Australia, The Netherlands (as possessor of the Dutch East Indies), and New Zealand. Canada, Mexico, Free France and many other countries also took part, especially forces from other British colonies. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


The Soviet Union fought two short, undeclared border conflicts with Japan in 1938 and 1939, then remained neutral until August 1945, when it joined the Allies and invaded Manchuria in an operation known as Operation August Storm. The Soviet-Japanese Border Wars was a series of border conflicts between the Soviet Union and Japan between 1938 to 1945. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ...


Theatres

Between 1942 and 1945, there were four main areas of conflict in the Pacific War: China, the Central Pacific, South East Asia and the South West Pacific. Theater in military terms, is a geographic location used for military operations. ... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ...


U.S. sources refer to two theaters within the Pacific War: the Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) and the China Burma India Theater (CBI). However these were not operational commands. In the PTO, the Allies divided operational control of their forces between two supreme commands, known as Pacific Ocean Areas and Southwest Pacific Area.[3] A map of the Pacific Theater. ... China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the name used by the United States Army for its forces in China, Burma, India during World War II. Well-known US units in this theater included the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the engineers who built Ledo Road, and... Map of Pacific Theater Pacific Ocean Areas was a major Allied military command during World War II. It was one of four major commands during the Pacific War, and one of two United States commands in the Pacific theatre of operations. ... A map of the Pacific Theater. ...


In 1945, for a brief period just before the Japanese surrender, the Soviet Union and its Mongolian ally engaged Japanese forces in Manchuria and northeast China. The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Conflict between China and Japan

Background

Map showing Allied landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945.
Map showing Allied landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945.

The roots of the war began in the late 19th century with China in political chaos and Japan rapidly modernising. Over the course of the late 19th century and early 20th century, Japan intervened and finally annexed Korea and expanded its political and economic influence into China, particularly Manchuria. This expansion of power was aided because by the 1910s, China had fragmented into warlordism with only a weak and ineffective central government. Download high resolution version (2000x1363, 414 KB)Allied landings - August 1942 to August 1945 Source: Scanned from Reports of General MacArthur (1994 facsimile printing), Vol 1. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1363, 414 KB)Allied landings - August 1942 to August 1945 Source: Scanned from Reports of General MacArthur (1994 facsimile printing), Vol 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to 1928 when the country was divided by various military cliques. ...


However, the situation of a weak China unable to resist Japanese demands appeared to be changing toward the end of the 1920s. In 1927, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT) led the Northern Expedition. Chiang was able to defeat the warlords in southern and central China, and was in the process of securing the nominal allegiance of the warlords in northern China. Fearing that Zhang Xueliang, the warlord controlling Manchuria, was about to declare his allegiance to Chiang, the Japanese staged the Mukden Incident in 1931 and set up the puppet state of Manchukuo. The nominal Emperor of this puppet state was better known as Henry Pu Yi of the defunct Qing Dynasty. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , sometimes shortened to 國軍 or National Army) was the party army of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMTs period of party rule beginning in 1928. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


Japan's imperialist goals in China were to maintain a secure supply of natural resources and to have puppet governments in China that would not act against Japanese interests. Although Japanese actions would not have seemed out of place among European colonial powers in the 19th century, by 1930, notions of Wilsonian self-determination meant military force in support of colonialism was no longer seen as appropriate behavior by the international community. United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ...


Hence Japanese actions in Manchuria were roundly criticized and led to Japan's withdrawal from the League of Nations. During the 1930s, China and Japan reached a stalemate with Chiang focusing his efforts at eliminating the Communist Party of China, whom he considered to be a more fundamental danger than the Japanese. The influence of Chinese nationalism on opinion both in the political elite and the general population rendered this strategy increasingly untenable. 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ...


Though they had at first cooperated in the Northern Expedition, during the period of 1930–34, the nationalist KMT and the Chinese Communist Party entered into direct conflict.[4] The Japanese capitalized on the infighting between Chinese factions to make greater inroads, forcing a landing at Shanghai in 1932.[5] Combatants Republic of China, 19th Route Army, 5th Army Empire of Japan, Imperial Japanese Army, 2nd Independent Tank Company, Shanghai Expeditionary Force Commanders 19th Route Army: Jiang Guangnai (Chinese: 蔣光鼐), 5th Army: Zhang Zhizhong (Chinese: 張治中) Commander: Yoshinori Shirakawa (Japanese: 白川義則), Chief of staff: Kanichiro Tashiro (Japanese: 田代皖一郎) Strength 50,000 90,000 Casualties...


Meanwhile, in Japan, a policy of assassination by secret societies and the effects of the Great Depression had caused the civilian government to lose control of the military. In addition, the military high command had limited control over the field armies who acted in their own interest, often in contradiction to the overall national interest, but in keeping with Hirohito's wishes.[6] Pan-Asianism was also used as a justification for expansion. This is perhaps best summarized by the "Amo Doctrine" of 1934, issued by Eiji Amo, head of information department of the Japanese Foreign Ministry. Known as the "Monroe Doctrine of Asia," it announced Japan's intention for European countries to adopt a "hands off" policy in China, thereby negating the Open Door Policy. It stated that Japan was to be the sole leader in security in East Asia, including the task of defeating communism. Economics was also a very important factor leading to the invasion of China. During the Depression, Japanese exports to American and European markets were severely curtailed, and Japan turned to completely dominating China politically and economically to provide a stable market. In the period leading up to full-scale war in 1937, Japan used force in localised conflicts to threaten China unless the latter reduced its protective tariff and suppressed anti-Japanese activities and boycotts. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a countrys strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Pan-Asianism is an ideology that Asian countries and peoples share similar values and similar histories and should be united politically or culturally. ... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers were to no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... – Spheres of influence in China prior to the Open Door Policy. ... A protective tariff is a tariff or tax imposed on goods imported from other countries in an effort to protect goods made within the country. ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ...


Second Sino-Japanese War

Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War
Japanese soldiers fighting in the streets of Shanghai, in 1937

In 1936, Chiang was kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang. As a condition of his release, Chiang agreed to form a united front with the communists and fight the Japanese. Soon after, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident took place on July 7, 1937, which succeeded in provoking a war between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. Though the Nationalist and Communist Chinese would cooperate in military campaigns against Japan and sought to create a united national front, Mao Zedong refused to directly submit to the Kuomintang, and the aim of the Communists remained social revolution. In 1939, the Chinese Communist Red Army consisted of 500,000 troops independent of the KMT.[7] Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Image File history File linksMetadata Shanghai1937IJA_streets. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shanghai1937IJA_streets. ... The Xian Incident (西安事变 Xīān shìbiàn) occurred in Xian on December 12, 1936. ... Zhang Xueliang Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Hsüeh-liang; English occasionally: Peter Hsueh Liang Chang) (3 June 1901 (according to other accounts in 1898 or 1900) in Haicheng County, Fengtian province of China – 14 October 2001 in Hawaii, United States... Belligerents National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Song Zheyuan Kanichiro Tashiro Strength 100,000 - Casualties and losses 16,700 - The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變 or the Lugouqiao Incident) was a battle between the Republic of Chinas National Revolutionary Army... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mao redirects here. ...


In addition, throughout the 1930s Japan succeeded in alienating public opinion in the West, particularly the United States and Britain. During the early 1930s, public opinion in the United States had been neutral. However, news reports of the Panay incident caused American public opinion to swing against Japan. USS Panay underway during the standardization trial off Woosung, China on August 30, 1928. ...


In 1939 Japanese forces tried to push into the Soviet Far East from Manchuria. They were soundly defeated in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol by a mixed Soviet and Mongolian force led by Georgy Zhukov. This stopped Japanese expansion to the north, and Japan and the Soviet Union kept an uneasy peace until 1945. Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


In September 1940, Japan attempted to cut Chinese links with other countries by obtaining approval for bases in French Indochina, which was controlled at the time by Vichy France. Japanese forces broke the terms of their agreement with the Vichy administration and fighting broke out, ending in a Japanese victory. On September 27, Japan signed a military alliance with Germany and Italy. Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino...


By 1941, the conflict had become a stalemate. Although Japan had occupied much of north and central China, the Kuomintang had retreated to the interior with a provisional capital set up at Chungking while the Chinese communists remained in control of base areas in Shaanxi. In addition, Japanese control of north and central China was somewhat tenuous, in that Japan was usually able to control railroads and the major cities ("points and lines"), but did not have a major military or administrative presence in the vast Chinese countryside. The Japanese found its aggression against the retreating and regrouping Chinese army was stalled by the mountainous terrain in southwestern China while the Communists organised widespread guerrilla and saboteur activities in eastern and central China behind the Japanese front line. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Guerrilla redirects here. ...


Japan sponsored several puppet governments, one of which was headed by Wang Jingwei. However, its policies of brutality toward the Chinese population, of not yielding any real power to the governments, and of supporting several rival governments failed to make any of them a popular alternative to Chiang's government. Japan was also unwilling to negotiate directly with Chiang, nor was it willing to attempt to create splits in the Chinese united front. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ...


Tensions between Japan and the western powers

In an effort to discourage Japanese militarism, western powers including Australia, the United States, Britain, and the Dutch government in exile, which controlled the petroleum-rich Netherlands East Indies, stopped selling iron ore, steel and oil to Japan, denying it the raw materials needed to continue its activities in China and French Indochina. In Japan, the government and nationalists viewed these embargos as acts of aggression; imported oil made up about 80% of domestic consumption, without which Japan's economy, let alone its military, would grind to a halt. The Japanese media, influenced by military propagandists,[8] began to refer to the embargos as the "ABCD ("American-British-Chinese-Dutch") encirclement" or "ABCD line". The Dutch government in exile was the government of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that fled to London after the German invasion of the country at the outset of World War II. Prior to 1940, the Netherlands were a neutral country, generally on good terms with Germany. ... Petro redirects here. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ...


Faced with a choice between economic collapse and withdrawal from its recent conquests (with its attendant loss of face), the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters began planning for a war with the western powers in April or May 1941. The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ...


The key objective was for the Southern Expeditionary Army Group to seize economic resources under the control of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, most notably those in Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies, known as the "Southern Plan". It was also decided—because of the close relationship between the UK and United States, and the belief the US would inevitably become involved[9]—Japan would also require an "eastern plan". The Southern Expeditionary Army Group was part of the Japanese military during the World War II era. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


The eastern plan required

The southern plans called for: This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ...

Following completion of these objectives, the strategy would turn defensive, primarily holding their newly acquired territory while hoping for a negotiated peace. Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ...


By November these plans were essentially complete, and were modified only slightly over the next month. Japanese military planners' expectation of success rested on the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union being unable to effectively respond to a Japanese attack because of the threat posed to each by Germany; the Soviet Union was even seen as unlikely to commence hostilities.


There is no evidence the Japanese planned to defeat the United States; the alternative would be negotiating for peace after their initial victories. In fact, the Imperial GHQ noted, should acceptable negotiations be reached with the Americans, the attacks were to be canceled—even if the order to attack had already been given.


They also planned, should the U.S. transfer its Pacific Fleet to the Philippines, to intercept and attack this fleet en route with the Combined Fleet, in keeping with all Japanese Navy prewar planning and doctrine.


Should the United States or Britain attack first, the plans further stipulated the military were to hold their positions and wait for orders from GHQ. The planners noted attacking the Philippines and Malaya still had possibilities of success, even in the worst case of a combined preemptive attack including Soviet forces.


German and Italian involvement

Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War. The German Navy (Kriegsmarine) and the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Both navies had access to "concession territory" naval bases in China. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, both navies had access to Japanese naval facilities. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Armed Merchantmen were merchant ships taken over by their nations navies, equipped with guns, and then used for military purposes. ... In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by another entity than the state which holds sovereignty over it. ... This article is about the actual attack. ...


Japan attacks the western powers

I shall run wild considerably for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second and third years.[10]
 

On December 8, 1941, Japanese forces attacked the British crown colony of Hong Kong, the Dutch East Indies, and the US-controlled Commonwealth of the Philippines. Japan also used its bases in French Indochina to invade Thailand, then using the gained Thai territory to launch an assault against Malaya. In this Japanese name, the family name is Yamamoto Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ...


Attack on Pearl Harbor

USS Arizona burned for two days after being hit by a Japanese bomb in the attack on Pearl Harbor.
USS Arizona burned for two days after being hit by a Japanese bomb in the attack on Pearl Harbor.

On December 7, Japan (December 8 in the Eastern Hemisphere) launched a carrier-based air attack on Pearl Harbor, knocking eight American battleships out of action. The Japanese had gambled that the United States, when faced with such a sudden and massive defeat, would agree to a negotiated settlement and allow Japan free rein in China. This gamble did not pay off. American losses were less serious than initially thought: the American aircraft carriers, far more important than battleships, were out to sea, and vital naval infrastructure (fuel oil tanks and the shipyard), submarines and signals intelligence units were unscathed. Japan's fallback strategy, relying on a war of attrition to make the US come to terms, was beyond the IJN's capabilities.[11] For the memorial to USS Arizona (BB-39) in Pearl Harbor, see USS Arizona Memorial. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Headline text OP-20-G The Navys codebreaking system was better than the Armys S.I.S. It began with a secret slush fund of $100,000 in 1918. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ...


When the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, the United States was not at war anywhere in the world. The America First Committee, 800,000 members strong, had vehemently opposed any American intervention in the foreign conflict, even as America provided military aid to Britain and the Soviet Union, through the Lend-Lease program. Opposition to war in the United States vanished after the attack. Four days after Pearl Harbor, on December 11 Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States, drawing America into a two-theater war. The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ...


Japanese offensives, 1941–42

I praise the Army for cutting down like weeds large numbers of the enemy...
 
— Hirohito[12]
Prince of Wales (left, front) and Repulse (left, rear) under attack by Japanese aircraft. A destroyer is in the foreground.
Prince of Wales (left, front) and Repulse (left, rear) under attack by Japanese aircraft. A destroyer is in the foreground.

British, Australian and Dutch forces, already drained of personnel and matériel by two years of war with Germany, and heavily committed in the Middle East, North Africa and elsewhere, were unable to provide much more than token resistance to the battle-hardened Japanese. The Allies suffered many disastrous defeats in the first six months of the war. Two major British warships, HMS Repulse and HMS Prince of Wales were sunk by a Japanese air attack off Malaya on December 10, 1941. Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ... Matériel (from the French for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ... HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. ... Combatants Force Z of the Royal Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † John Leach † William Tennant Niichi Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Thailand, with its territory already serving as a springboard for the Malayan campaign, surrendered within 24 hours of the Japanese invasion. The government of Thailand formally allied itself with Japan on December 21. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hong Kong fell on December 25, and U.S. bases on Guam and Wake Island were lost at around the same time. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the January 1, 1942 Declaration by United Nations (the first official use of the term United Nations), the Allied governments appointed the British General Sir Archibald Wavell to the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDACOM), a supreme command for Allied forces in South East Asia. This gave Wavell nominal control of a huge force, albeit thinly-spread over an area from Burma to the Philippines to northern Australia. Other areas, including India, Hawaii and the rest of Australia remained under separate local commands. On January 15, Wavell moved to Bandung in Java to assume control of ABDA Command (ABDACOM). is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Kota Kembang (City of Flowers) Motto: Bermartabat (dignity) Location of Bandung in Indonesia Coordinates: Province West Java Country Indonesia Government  - Mayor Dada Rosada Area  - City 167. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...

Japanese battleships Yamashiro, Fuso and Haruna (more distant).
Japanese battleships Yamashiro, Fuso and Haruna (more distant).

In January, Japan invaded Burma, the Dutch East Indies, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and they captured Manila, Kuala Lumpur and Rabaul. After being driven out of Malaya, Allied forces in Singapore attempted to resist the Japanese during the battle of Singapore but surrendered to the Japanese on February 15, 1942; about 130,000 Indian, British, Australian and Dutch personnel became prisoners of war.[13] The pace of conquest was rapid: Bali and Timor also fell in February. The rapid collapse of Allied resistance had left the "ABDA area" split in two. Wavell resigned from ABDACOM on February 25, handing control of the ABDA Area to local commanders and returning to the post of Commander-in-Chief, India. Image File history File links Japanese_battleships_Yamashiro,_Fuso_and_Haruna. ... Image File history File links Japanese_battleships_Yamashiro,_Fuso_and_Haruna. ... The Yamashiro (山城) was the Imperial Japanese Navys second Fusō-class battleship, and was laid down at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal on November 20, 1913, launched on November 3, 1915, and commissioned on March 31, 1917. ... Fuso (Japanese: 扶桑, an old name for Japan), was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Haruna (榛名) was a Kongo class battleship laid down by the Kawasaki Shipbuilding Company at Kobe on 16 March 1912, launched on 14 December 1913 and completed on 19 April 1915. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Timor is an island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara with the surface of 11,883 sq mi (30,777 km²). The name is a variant of timur... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ...


Meanwhile, Japanese aircraft had all but eliminated Allied air power in South-East Asia and were making attacks on northern Australia, beginning with a psychologically devastating (but militarily insignificant) attack on the city of Darwin on February 19, which killed at least 243 people. An Australian gun camera photograph of a Japanese Betty bomber during a raid on Darwin in June 1943 Between February 1942 and November 1943, during the Pacific War, the Australian mainland, domestic airspace, offshore islands and coastal shipping were attacked at least 97 times by aircraft from the Imperial Japanese... Belligerents Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties and losses 251 killed 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk one aircrew confirmed killed, several missing in action, six airmen taken prisoner; six Japanese aircraft confirmed destroyed, four probably destroyed. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the battle of the Java Sea in late February and early March, the Japanese Navy inflicted a resounding defeat on the main ABDA naval force, under Admiral Karel Doorman. The Netherlands East Indies campaign subsequently ended with the surrender of Allied forces on Java. Combatants Netherlands United States United Kingdom Australia Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Karel Doorman â€  Conrad Helfrich Takeo Takagi Strength 2 heavy cruisers 3 light cruisers 12 destroyers 2 heavy cruisers 2 light cruisers 14 destroyers 10 transports Casualties 5 cruisers sunk 5 destroyers sunk 2,300 sailors killed 4 loaded troop... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Karel Willem Frederik Marie Doorman (April 23, 1889 – February 28, 1942) was a Schout-bij-Nacht (the Dutch equivalent of a Rear Admiral) during World War II. He was originally a naval aviator in the Royal Netherlands Navy but quickly rose through the ranks to become Schout-bij-Nacht... The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ...


In March and April, a raid into the Indian Ocean by a powerful Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier force resulted in a wave of major air raids against Ceylon and the sinking of a British aircraft carrier, HMS Hermes as well as other Allied ships and driving the British fleet out of the Indian Ocean. This paved the way for a Japanese assault on Burma and India. It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Hermes. ...


The British, under intense pressure, made a fighting retreat from Rangoon to the Indo-Burmese border. This cut the Burma Road which was the western Allies' supply line to the Chinese Nationalists. Cooperation between the Chinese Nationalists and the Communists had waned from its zenith at the Battle of Wuhan, and the relationship between the two had gone sour as both attempted to expand their area of operations in occupied territories. Most of the Nationalist guerrilla areas were eventually overtaken by the Communists. On the other hand, some Nationalist units were deployed to blockade the Communists and not the Japanese. Furthermore, many of the forces of the Chinese Nationalists were warlords allied to Chiang Kai-Shek, but not directly under his command. "Of the 1,200,000 troops under Chiang's control, only 650,000 were directly controlled by his generals, and another 550,000 controlled by warlords who claimed loyalty to his government; the strongest force was the Szechuan army of 320,000 men. The defeat of this army would do much to end Chiang's power."[14] The Japanese used these divisions to press ahead in their offenses. Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ... Burma Road The Burma Road is a road linking Burma (also called Myanmar) with China. ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Military Region 5, 9, Soviet Air Force volunteers[1] Imperial Japanese Army, Central China Expeditionary Force, 11th Army, 2nd Army, China Area Fleet, Central China Aviation Army Corps Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Xue Yue, Wu Qiwei, Zhang Fakui, Wang Jingjiu, Ou Zhentong, Yu Jishi,Duan Langru...


Filipino and U.S. forces put up a fierce resistance in the Philippines until May 8, 1942, when more than 80,000 soldiers were ordered to surrender. By this time, General Douglas MacArthur, who had been appointed Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific, had retreated to the safer confines of Australia. The U.S. Navy, under Admiral Chester Nimitz, had responsibility for the rest of the Pacific Ocean. This divided command had unfortunate consequences for the commerce war,[15] and consequently, the war itself. is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ...


Allies re-group

For every advance that the Japanese have made since they started their frenzied career of conquest, they have had to pay a very heavy toll in warships, in transports, in planes, and in men. They are feeling the effects of those losses.[16]
 
— Franklin D. Roosevelt, 28 April 1942

In early 1942, the governments of smaller powers began to push for an inter-governmental Asia-Pacific war council, based in Washington D.C.. A council was established in London, with a subsidiary body in Washington. However the smaller powers continued to push for a U.S.-based body. The Pacific War Council was formed in Washington on April 1, 1942, with President Franklin D. Roosevelt, his key advisor Harry Hopkins, and representatives from Britain, China, Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Canada. Representatives from India and the Philippines were later added. The council never had any direct operational control, and any decisions it made were referred to the U.S.-British Combined Chiefs of Staff, which was also in Washington. Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Pacific War Council was an inter-governmental body established in 1942 and intended to control the Allied war effort in the Pacific and Asian campaigns of World War II. Following the establishment of the short-lived American-British-Dutch-Australian military command (ABDACOM) in January 1942, the governments of... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelts closest advisors. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military command for the western Allies during World War II. It was a body constituted from the British Chiefs of Staff Committee and the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff. ...


Allied resistance, at first symbolic, gradually began to stiffen. Australian and Dutch forces led civilians in a prolonged guerilla campaign in Portuguese Timor. The Doolittle Raid did minimal damage but was a huge morale booster for the Allies, especially the United States, and it caused repercussions throughout the Japanese military because they were sworn to protect the Japanese emperor and homeland but did not intercept, down, or damage a single bomber[2]. The Battle of Timor (1942–43) occurred on the island of Timor, in the Pacific theatre of World War II. It involved forces from the Empire of Japan, which invaded on February 20, 1942, on one side and Allied personnel, predominantly from Australia and the Netherlands, on the other. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ...


Coral Sea and Midway: the turning point

Lexington on fire at the Coral Sea.
Lexington on fire at the Coral Sea.

By mid-1942, the Japanese Combined Fleet found itself holding a vast area, even though it lacked the aircraft carriers, aircraft, and aircrew to defend it, and the freighters, tankers, and destroyers necessary to sustain it. Moreover, Fleet doctrine was inadequate to execute the proposed "barrier" defence.[17] Instead, they decided on additional attacks in both the south and central Pacific. While Yamamoto had used the element of surprise at Pearl Harbor, Allied codebreakers now turned the tables. They discovered an attack against Port Moresby, New Guinea, was imminent with intent to invade and conquer all of New Guinea. If Port Moresby fell, it would give Japan control of the seas to the immediate north of Australia. Nimitz rushed the carrier USS Lexington, under Admiral Fletcher, to join USS Yorktown and a U.S.-Australian task force, with orders to contest the Japanese advance. The resulting Battle of Coral Sea was the first naval battle in which ships involved never sighted each other and aircraft were solely used to attack opposing forces. Although Lexington was sunk and Yorktown seriously damaged, the Japanese lost the aircraft carrier Shōhō, suffered extensive damage to Shōkaku, took heavy losses to the air wing of Zuikaku (both missed the operation against Midway the following month), and saw the Moresby invasion force turn back. Even though losses were almost even, the Japanese attack on Port Moresby was thwarted and their invasion forces turned back, yielding a strategic victory for the Allies. Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Belligerents United States Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 264 carrier aircraft,[1] 16 floatplanes Casualties and... The Aircraft Carrier USS Lexington on fire during the Battle of Coral Sea, Public domain photo from history. ... The Aircraft Carrier USS Lexington on fire during the Battle of Coral Sea, Public domain photo from history. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... Downtown Port Moresby Port Moresby (IPA: ), or Pot Mosbi in Tok Pisin, population 255,000 (2000), is the capital of Papua New Guinea. ... The fourth USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed the Gray Lady or Lady Lex, was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USN Photographed on board ship, 17 September 1942. ... The third USS Yorktown (CV-5) was lead ship of the Yorktown class aircraft carrier of World War II, sunk at the Battle of Midway. ... Battle of the Coral Sea Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date May 4 – May 8, 1942 Place Coral Sea, between Australia, New Guinea, and the United States, Japan Commanders Frank Jack Fletcher Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 small carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties... For the aircraft carrier, see Japanese aircraft carrier Shōhō. Shōhō (正保) was a Japanese era after Kanei and before Keian and spanned from 1644 to 1648. ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


Destruction of U.S. carriers was Yamamoto's main objective, and he planned an operation to lure them to battle. After Coral Sea, he had four fleet carriers operational — Sōryū, Kaga, Akagi and Hiryū — and believed Nimitz had a maximum of two: Enterprise and/or Hornet. Saratoga was out of action, undergoing repair after a torpedo attack, and Yorktown sailed after three days' work to repair her flight deck and make essential repairs, with civilian work crews still aboard. Soryu (Japanese KyÅ«jitai: 蒼龍, Shinjitai: 蒼竜, soryu, meaning blue (or green) dragon) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Kaga (Japanese: 加賀, formerly Kaga Province, in present-day Ishikawa Prefecture) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Akagi (Japanese: 赤城) was an aircraft carrier serving with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The only ship in her class, Akagi played a major part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, but was sunk along with three other large carriers by dive bombers from US carriers Enterprise... HiryÅ« (Japanese: 飛龍, meaning flying dragon) was a SōryÅ«-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz... The fifth USS Saratoga (CV-3) was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A large Japanese force was sent north to attack the Aleutian Islands, off Alaska. The next stage of Yamamoto's plan called for the capture of Midway Atoll, which would give him an opportunity to destroy Nimitz's remaining carriers; afterward, it would be turned into a major Japanese airbase, giving them control of the central Pacific. In May, Allied codebreakers discovered his intentions. Nagumo was again in tactical command but was focused on the invasion of Midway; Yamamoto's complex plan had no provision for intervention by Nimitz before the Japanese expected him. Planned surveillance of the U.S. fleet by long range seaplane did not happen (as a result of an abortive identical operation in March), so U.S. carriers were able to proceed to a flanking position on the approaching Japanese fleet without being detected. Nagumo had 272 planes operating from his four carriers, the U.S. 348 (of which 115 were land-based). Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... This article is about the military tactic. ...

Hiryū under attack by B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers.
Hiryū under attack by B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers.

As anticipated by U.S. commanders, the Japanese fleet arrived off Midway on June 4 and was spotted by PBY patrol aircraft[3]. Nagumo executed a first strike against Midway, while Fletcher launched his aircraft, bound for Nagumo's carriers. At 09:20 the first U.S carrier aircraft arrived, TBD Devastator torpedo bombers from Hornet', and their attacks were poorly coordinated and ineffectual;[18] they failed to score a single hit, and Zero fighters shot down all 15. At 09:35, 15 TBDs from Enterprise skimmed in over the water; 14 were shot down by Zeroes. Fletcher's attacks had been disorganized, yet succeeded in distracting Nagumo's defensive fighters. When U.S. dive bombers arrived, the Zeros could not offer any protection. In addition, Nagumo's four carriers had drifted out of formation, reducing the concentration of their anti-aircraft fire. His most-criticized error was twice changing his arming orders: he first held aircraft for shipping attack as a hedge against discovery of U.S. carriers, changed this based on reports an additional strike was needed against Midway, then again after sighting the Fletcher, wasting time and leaving his hangar decks crowded with refueling and rearming aircraft, and ordnance stowed outside the magazines. Yamamoto's dispositions, which left Nagumo with inadequate reconnaissance to detect (and therefore attack) Fletcher before he launched, are often ignored.[19] (Official caption:) Photo #USAF 75712AC Hiryu Under B-17 attack at Midway Hiryu under B-17 attack, Midway, June 4, 1942. ... (Official caption:) Photo #USAF 75712AC Hiryu Under B-17 attack at Midway Hiryu under B-17 attack, Midway, June 4, 1942. ... Hiryū (Japanese: 飛龍, meaning flying dragon) was a Sōryū-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The PBY Catalina was the definitive air-sea rescue aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s. ... TBD from Torpedo Eight taxiing up the flight deck of CV-8 circa 15 May 1942. ... A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... The Mitsubishi A6M Zero (A for fighter, 6th model, M for Mitsubishi) was a lightweight, carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service from 1940 to 1945. ...


When SBD Dauntlesses from Enterprise and Yorktown appeared at an altitude of 10,000 feet (3,000 m), the Zeroes at sea level were unable to respond before the bombers pushed over. They scored a small number of significant hits; Sōryū, Kaga, and Akagi all caught fire. Hiryū survived this wave of attacks and launched an attack against the American carriers which caused severe damage to Yorktown (which was later finished off by a Japanese submarine). A second attack from the U.S. carriers a few hours later found and destroyed Hiryū. Yamamoto had four additional small carriers, assigned to his scattered surface forces, all too slow to keep up with the Kido Butai and therefore never in action. Yamamoto's enormous superiority in gun power was irrelevant as the U.S. had air superiority at Midway and could refuse a surface gunfight (and, by remarkable good fortune, Spruance moved to avoid, based on a faulty submarine report[20]); Yamamoto's flawed dispositions had made closing to engage after dark on June 4 impossible.[21] Midway was a decisive victory for the U.S. Navy and the high point in Japanese aspirations in the Pacific. SBD may refer to: Smart Battery Data — a battery that predicts when it will go flat. ... Dauntless may refer to: The Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bomber. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


New Guinea and the Solomons

Japanese land forces continued to advance in the Solomon Islands and New Guinea. From July 1942, a few Australian reserve battalions, many of them very young and untrained, fought a stubborn rearguard action in New Guinea, against a Japanese advance along the Kokoda Track, towards Port Moresby, over the rugged Owen Stanley Ranges. The militia, worn out and severely depleted by casualties, were relieved in late August by regular troops from the Second Australian Imperial Force, returning from action in the Mediterranean theatres. The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500... A Second AIF recruiting poster The Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II. Under the Defence Act (1903), neither the part-time Militia nor full-time the Permanent Military Force (PMF) could serve outside Australia... The Mediterranean region. ...

The Pacific Theater in August, 1942.
The Pacific Theater in August, 1942.

In early September 1942, Japanese marines attacked a strategic Royal Australian Air Force base at Milne Bay, near the eastern tip of New Guinea. They were beaten back by the Australian Army, which inflicted the first outright defeat on Japanese land forces since 1939. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1199x873, 141 KB) THE BATTLE OF PELLIEU Pacific_Theater_Areas; http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1199x873, 141 KB) THE BATTLE OF PELLIEU Pacific_Theater_Areas; http://www. ... The Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF), (海軍陸戦隊 Kaigun Rikusentai) were the marine troops of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and were only part of the IJN Land Forces. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ...


Guadalcanal

Main article: Guadalcanal campaign

At the same time as major battles raged in New Guinea, Allied forces identified a Japanese airfield under construction at Guadalcanal. In August, 16,000 Allied infantry — primarily US Marines — made an amphibious landing, to capture the airfield. Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia New Zealand British Solomon Is. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Japanese and Allied forces occupied various parts of the island. Over the following six months, both sides fed resources into an escalating battle of attrition on the island, at sea, and in the sky. Most of the Japanese aircraft in the South Pacific were drafted into the Japanese defence of Guadalcanal, facing Allied air forces based at Henderson Field. Japanese ground forces launched attacks on US positions around Henderson Field, suffering high casualties. These offensives were resupplied by Japanese convoys known to the Allies as the "Tokyo Express", which often faced night battles with the Allied navies, and expended destroyers that the IJN could ill-afford to lose. Later fleet battles involving heavier ships and even daytime carrier battles resulted in a stretch of water near Guadalcanal becoming known as "Ironbottom Sound", from the severe losses to both sides. However, only the US Navy could quickly replace and repair its losses. The Allies were victorious on Guadalcanal in February 1943. Cactus Air Force refers to the ensemble allied air power assigned to the island of Guadalcanal from August 1942 until December 1942 during the early stages of the Guadalcanal Campaign, particularly those operating from Henderson Field . ... Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ... The Tokyo Express was the nickname given by United States sailors and marines to the Japanese attempts to reinforce and resupply their forces during the battle of Guadalcanal and subsequent operations in the Solomon Islands in World War II. Airplanes from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal made it too dangerous for... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Ironbottom Sound is the name given by sailors of the United States Navy to the stretch of water between Guadalcanal, Savo Island, and Florida Island of the Solomon Islands. ...


Allied advances in New Guinea and the Solomons

Australian commandos in New Guinea during July 1943
Australian commandos in New Guinea during July 1943

By late 1942, the Japanese were also retreating along the Kokoda Track in the highlands of New Guinea. Australian and U.S. counteroffensives culminated in the capture of the key Japanese beachhead in eastern New Guinea, the Buna-Gona area, in early 1943. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Australia, United States Japan Commanders George Vasey (Australia); Edwin F. Harding/ Robert L. Eichelberger (United States) Ken Yamagata Strength 20,000+ 7,400+ Casualties 3,500 (not counting tropical diseases); 1,300 Australian and 1,000 US personnel killed in action. ...


In June 1943, the Allies launched Operation Cartwheel, which defined their offensive strategy in the South Pacific. The operation was aimed at isolating the major Japanese forward base, at Rabaul, and cutting its supply and communication lines. This prepared the way for Nimitz's island-hopping campaign towards Japan. The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... This image portrays the island hop of Christopher Columbuss second voyage to the Caribbean. ...


Stalemate in China and South-East Asia

Main articles: Second Sino-Japanese War and South-East Asian Theatre of World War II
Chinese troops during the Battle of Changde in November, 1943.
Chinese troops during the Battle of Changde in November, 1943.

British Commonwealth forces were also counter-attacking in Burma, albeit with limited success. Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... Image File history File links Changde_battle. ... Image File history File links Changde_battle. ... The Battle of Changde (Traditional Chinese: 常德會戰; Simplified Chinese: 常德会战; pinyin: ) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown...


In August 1943, the western Allies formed a new South East Asia Command (SEAC) to take over strategic responsibilities for Burma and India from the British India Command, under Wavell. In October 1943, Winston Churchill appointed Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten as Supreme Allied Commander, SEAC. General William Slim was commander of Commonwealth land forces and directed the Burma Campaign. General Joseph Stilwell commanded U.S. forces in the CBI Theater, directed aid to China and assisted in the coordination of Chinese operations. South East Asia Command (SEAC) was the body set up to be in overall charge of Allied operations in the South-East Asian Theatre during World War II. The initial supreme commander of the theatre was General Sir Archibald Wavell, initially as head of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command... The British India Command the name given to the general staff of the India. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Field Marshal Sir William Slim (pictured here as a Major General) Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim (6 August 1897 - 14 December 1970), British military commander and 13th Governor-General of Australia, was born near Bristol, Gloucestershire. ... Stilwell with Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek. ... China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the name used by the United States Army for its forces in China, Burma, India during World War II. Well_known US units in this theater included the Flying Tigers, transport and bomber units flying the Hump, the engineers who built Ledo Road, and Merrill...


On November 22, 1943, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and ROC leader Chiang Kai-Shek met in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss a strategy to defeat Japan. The meeting was also known as Cairo Conference and concluded with the Cairo Declaration. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in Cairo, 11/25/1943. ... The Cairo Declaration was an statement released at Cairo, Egypt on December 1, 1943 by President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. ...


Allied offensives, 1943–44

The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theaters: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943.
The Allied leaders of the Asian and Pacific Theaters: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meeting at the Cairo Conference in 1943.

Midway proved to be the last great naval battle for two years. The United States used the two years to turn its vast industrial potential into actual ships, planes, and trained aircrew. At the same time, Japan, lacking an adequate industrial base or technological strategy, a good aircrew training program, and adequate naval resources and doctrine for commerce defense, fell further and further behind. In strategic terms the Allies began a long movement across the Pacific, seizing one island base after another. Not every Japanese stronghold had to be captured; some, like Truk, Rabaul and Formosa were neutralized by air attack and bypassed. The goal was to get close to Japan herself, then launch massive strategic air attacks, improve the submarine blockade, and finally (only if necessary) execute an invasion. File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... File links The following pages link to this file: Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Cairo Conference Military history of Egypt during World War II ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in Cairo, 11/25/1943. ... For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ...


In November 1943, U.S. Marines sustained high casualties when they overwhelmed the 4,500-strong garrison at Tarawa. This helped the Allies to improve the techniques of amphibious landings, learning from their mistakes and implementing changes such as thorough pre-emptive bombings and bombardment, more careful planning regarding tides and landing craft schedules, and better overall coordination. Combatants  United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibazaki  â€  Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 990 killed 2,296 injured 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured Map of Tarawa Atoll Map of Betio, Tarawa Atoll...


The U.S. Navy did not seek out the Japanese fleet for a decisive battle, as Mahanian doctrine would suggest (and as Japan hoped); the Allied advance could only be stopped by a Japanese naval attack, which oil shortages (induced by submarine attack) made impossible.[22] Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840–December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. ...


Submarine warfare

US submarines, as well as some British and Dutch vessels, operating from bases at Cavite, in the Philippines (1941-42) Fremantle and Brisbane in Australia; Pearl Harbor; Trincomalee, Ceylon; Midway; and later Guam, played a major role in defeating Japan. This was the case even though submarines made up a small proportion of the Allied navies — less than two percent in the case of the US Navy.[23] Submarines strangled Japan by sinking its merchant fleet, intercepting many troop transports, and cutting off nearly all the oil imports essential to weapons production and military operations. By early 1945 the oil tanks were dry. The Japanese military claimed its defenses sank 468 Allied subs.[24] Only 42 US submarines were sunk in the Pacific, with 10 others going down in accidents, the Atlantic Ocean, or as the result of friendly fire.[25] This article is about the province of Cavite. ... Fremantle redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Trincomalee District Map Trincomalee (Tamil: (Thirukonamalai, hist: Sirigonakanda); Sinhala: (Thirikunamalaya)) is a port city on the northeast coast of Sri Lanka, about 110 miles northeast of Kandy. ... Midway may refer to: Midway Atoll, an island in the Pacific Ocean Battle of Midway, a World War II battle fought on and around that island Midway (game), a board game by Avalon Hill based on the Battle of Midway Midway Campaign, a computer game, also by Avalon Hill Midway... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ...

A torpedoed Japanese destroyer as seen through the periscope of an American submarine in June, 1942.
A torpedoed Japanese destroyer as seen through the periscope of an American submarine in June, 1942.

US submarines accounted for 56% of the Japanese merchantmen sunk; most of the rest were hit by planes at the end of the war, or were destroyed by mines.[26] US submariners also claimed 28% of Japanese warships destroyed.[27] Furthermore, they played important reconnaissance roles, as at the battles of the Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf (and, coincidentally, at Midway), when they gave accurate and timely warning of the approach of the Japanese fleet. Submarines also rescued hundreds of downed fliers. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (2985 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 549 pixelsFull resolution (2985 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The Allied submarines did not adopt a defensive posture and wait for the enemy to attack. Within hours of Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt ordered a new doctrine into effect: unrestricted submarine warfare against Japan. This meant sinking any warship, commercial vessel, or passenger ship in Axis controlled waters, without warning and without help to survivors.[28] Allied submarine bases were well-protected by surface fleets and aircraft. Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ...


While Japan had a large number of submarines, they did not make a significant impact on the war. In 1942, the Japanese fleet subs performed well, knocking out or damaging many Allied warships. However, Imperial Japanese Navy (and pre-war US) doctrine stipulated naval campaigns are won only by fleet battles, not guerre de course (commerce raiding). So, while the US had an unusually long supply line between its west coast and frontline areas, and was vulnerable to submarine attack, Japan's submarines were instead primarily used for long range reconnaissance and only occasionally attacked US supply lines. The Japanese submarine offensive against Australia in 1942 and 1943 also achieved little.[29] As the war turned against Japan, IJN submarines were increasingly used to resupply strongholds which had been cut off, such as Truk and Rabaul. In addition, Japan honored its neutrality treaty with the Soviet Union and ignored US freighters shipping millions of tons of war supplies from San Francisco to Vladivostok.[30] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bermuda Gazette of 12 November, 1796, calling for privateering against Spain and its allies, and with advertisements for crew for two privateer vessels. ... A propaganda poster calling on Australians to avenge the sinking of the Australian Hospital Ship Centaur by the Japanese submarine I-177 in May 1943. ... A view of Chuuk Chuuk is an island group that comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), along with Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ...

The Japanese submarine I-400. The Sen Toku I-400 class were the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed. Japanese submarines were not used to their full potential during the Pacific War.
The Japanese submarine I-400. The Sen Toku I-400 class were the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed. Japanese submarines were not used to their full potential during the Pacific War.

The US Navy, by contrast, relied on commerce raiding from the outset. However, the problem of Allied forces surrounded in the Philippines, during the early part of 1942, led to diversion of boats to "guerrilla submarine" missions. As well, basing in Australia placed boats under Japanese aerial threat while en route to patrol areas, inhibiting effectiveness, and Nimitz relied on submarines for close surveillance of enemy bases. Furthermore, the standard issue Mark 14 torpedo and its Mark VI exploder were both defective, problems not corrected until September 1943. Worst of all, before the war, an uninformed US Customs officer had seized a copy of the Japanese merchant marine code (called the "maru code" in the USN), not knowing Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) had broken it;[31] The Japanese government promptly changed it, and the new code was not broken again until 1943. Image File history File links I400_2. ... Image File history File links I400_2. ... The I-400 class (イ-400) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2. ... The Mark 14 torpedo was the U.S. Navys most common submarine-launched torpedo of World War II. Although this weapon was plagued with many problems which crippled its performance at the beginning of the war, and was largely supplanted by the Mark 18 electric torpedo in the war... The United States Customs Service (now part of U.S. Customs and Border Protection or CBP) was the portion of the US Federal Government dedicated to keeping illegal products outside of US borders. ... The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882. ...


Thus, it was not until 1944 the US Navy began to use its 150 submarines to maximum effect: effective shipboard radar was installed, commanders lacking in aggression were replaced, and faults in torpedoes were fixed. Japanese commerce protection was "shiftless beyond description,"[32] and convoys were poorly organised and defended compared to Allied ones, a product of flawed IJN doctrine and training — errors concealed by American faults as much as Japanese overconfidence. The number of U.S. submarines patrols (and sinkings) rose steeply: 350 patrols (180 ships sunk) in 1942, 350 (335) in 1943, and 520 (603) in 1944.[33] By 1945, sinkings had decreased because so few targets dared to move on the high seas. In all, Allied submarines destroyed 1,200 merchant ships for about five million tons of shipping. Most were small cargo carriers, but 124 were tankers bringing desperately needed oil from the East Indies. Another 320 were passenger ships and troop transports. At critical stages of the Guadalcanal, Saipan, and Leyte campaigns, thousands of Japanese troops were killed or diverted before they arrived where they were needed. Over 200 warships were sunk, ranging from many auxiliaries and destroyers to one battleship and no fewer than eight carriers. Underwater warfare was especially dangerous; of the 16,000 Americans who went out on patrol, 3,500 (22%) never returned, the highest casualty rate of any American force in World War II.[34] The Japanese losses, 130 submarines in all,[35] were even higher.


A single German submarine, U-862, operated in the Pacific Ocean during the war, patrolling off the Australian east coast and New Zealand in December 1944 and January 1945. It sank one ship in the Pacific before it was recalled to Batavia.[36] Unterseeboot 862 (U-862) was a Type IXD2 submarine of the Kriegsmarine. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ...


Japanese counteroffensives in China, 1944

Main article: Battle of Henan-Hunan-Guangxi

In mid-1944, Japan launched a massive invasion across China, under the code name Operation Ichigo. These attacks, the biggest in several years, gained much ground for Japan before they were stopped in Guangxi. Combatants National Revolutionary Army (Republic of China) Japan Commanders General Wei Lihuang Field Marshal Shunroku Hata Strength 390,000 400,000 men, 12,000 cars and 70,000 horses The Battle of Henan-Hunan-Guangxi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) also known as Operation Ichigo or Tairiku Datsū Sakusen (Japanese... This article needs to be wikified. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: Guǎngxī; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū) is a Zhuang autonomous region of...


The beginning of the end in the Pacific, 1944

Saipan and Philippine Sea:

On June 15, 1944, 535 ships began landing 128,000 U.S. Army and Marine personnel on the island of Saipan. The Allied objective was the creation of airfields within B-29 range of Tokyo. The ability to plan and execute such a complex operation in the space of 90 days was indicative of Allied logistical superiority. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito â€  Chuichi Nagumo â€  Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aguijan For other uses, see Saipan (disambiguation). ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ...


It was imperative for Japanese commanders to hold Saipan. The only way to do this was to destroy the U.S. Fifth Fleet, which had 15 fleet carriers and 956 planes, 28 battleships and cruisers , and 69 destroyers. Vice Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa attacked with nine-tenths of Japan's fighting fleet, which included nine carriers with 473 planes, 18 battleships and cruisers , and 28 destroyers. Ozawa's pilots were outnumbered 2-1 and their aircraft were becoming obsolete. The Japanese had substantial anitiaircraft defenses but lacked proximity fuzes or good radar. With the odds against him, Ozawa devised an appropriate strategy. His planes had greater range because they were not weighed down with protective armor; they could attack at about 480 km (300 mi)[citation needed] , and could search a radius of 900 km[citation needed] (560 mi). U.S. Navy Hellcat fighters could only attack within 200 miles (320 km) and only search within a 325-mile (523 km)[citation needed] radius. Ozawa planned to use this advantage by positioning his fleet 300 miles (480 km)[citation needed] out. The Japanese planes would hit the U.S. carriers, land at Guam to refuel, then hit the enemy again, when returning to their carriers. Ozawa also counted on about 500 land-based planes at Guam and other islands. Jisaburo Ozawa (小沢治三郎 Ozawa Jisaburō, October 2, 1886 – November 9, 1966) was a Japanese admiral during World War II. He was the last Commander-in-Chief of Combined Fleet. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... A proximity fuze (also called a VT fuze, for variable time) is a fuze that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when the distance to target becomes smaller than a predetermined value or when the target passes through a given plane. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... The Grumman F6F Hellcat started development as an improved F4F Wildcat, but turned into a completely new design sharing a family resemblance to the Wildcat but with practically no shared parts. ...

The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku and two destroyers under attack in the Battle of Philippine Sea.
The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku and two destroyers under attack in the Battle of Philippine Sea.

Admiral Raymond A. Spruance was in overall command of the Fifth Fleet. The Japanese plan would have failed if the much larger U.S. fleet had closed on Ozawa and attacked aggressively; Ozawa had the correct insight that the unaggressive Spruance would not attack. U.S. Admiral Marc Mitscher, in tactical command of Task Force 58, with its 15 carriers, was aggressive but Spruance vetoed Mitscher's plan to hunt down Ozawa because Spruance's orders made protecting the landings on Saipan his first priority. This has led to postwar criticism of Spruance for lack of aggressiveness. Image File history File links P-sea. ... Image File history File links P-sea. ... Raymond Spruance Raymond Ames Spruance (July 3, 1886 - December 13, 1969) was a United States Navy admiral in World War II, and commanded US naval forces at the turning point of the Pacific War, the Battle of Midway. ... Marc Andrew Pete Mitscher, (26 January 1887 – 3 February 1947) was an admiral in the United States Navy, notable as commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force in the latter half of World War II in the Pacific. ...


The forces converged in the largest sea battle of World War II up to that point. Over the previous month American destroyers had destroyed 17 of 25 submarines out of Ozawa's screening force. Repeated U.S. raids destroyed the Japanese land-based planes. Ozawa's main attack lacked coordination, with the Japanese planes arriving at their targets in a staggered sequence. Following a directive from Nimitz, the U.S. carriers all had combat information centers, which interpreted the flow of radar data and radioed interception orders to the Hellcats. The result was later dubbed the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot. The few attackers to reach the U.S. fleet encountered massive AA fire with proximity fuzes. Only one American warship was slightly damaged.


On the second day U.S. reconnaissance planes finally located Ozawa's fleet, 275 miles (443 km)[citation needed] away and submarines sank two Japanese carriers. Mitscher launched 230 torpedo planes and dive bombers. He then discovered that the enemy was actually another 60 miles (97 km)[citation needed] further off, out of aircraft range. Mitscher decided that this chance to destroy the Japanese fleet was worth the risk of aircraft losses. Overall, the U.S. lost 130 planes and 76 aircrew. However, Japan lost 450 planes, three carriers, and 445 aircrew. The Imperial Japanese Navy's carrier force was effectively destroyed.


Leyte Gulf 1944

Main article: Battle of Leyte Gulf

The Battle of Leyte Gulf was arguably the largest naval battle in history. It was a series of four distinct engagements fought off the Philippine island of Leyte from October 23 to October 26, 1944. Leyte Gulf featured the largest battleships ever built, it was the last time in history that battleships engaged each other, and was also notable as the first time that kamikaze aircraft were used. Allied victory in the Philippine Sea established Allied air and sea superiority in the western Pacific. Nimitz favored blockading the Philippines and landing on Formosa. This would give the Allies control of the sea routes to Japan from southern Asia, cutting off substantial Japanese garrisons. MacArthur favoured an invasion of the Philippines, which also lay across the supply lines to Japan. Roosevelt adjudicated in favor of the Philippines. Meanwhile, Japanese Combined Fleet Chief Toyoda Soemu prepared four plans to cover all Allied offensive scenarios. On October 12, Nimitz launched a carrier raid against Formosa to make sure that planes based there could not intervene in the landings on Leyte. Soemu put Plan Sho-2 into effect, launching a series of air attacks against the U.S. carriers. However the Japanese lost 600 planes in three days, leaving them without air cover. Combatants  United States  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts... The title of largest naval battle in history depends on criteria that may include the number of people and ships involved, the total tonnage of vessels, the size of the battlefield, and the duration of the action. ... Leyte (pronounced LAY-teh or LAY-tee) is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Soemu Toyoda (豊田副武 Toyoda Soemu, May 22, 1885 - September 22, 1957) was a Japanese admiral of World War II. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1905 and joined the Imperial Japanese Navy and by 1941 had reached the rank of admiral and was commander of the Kure Naval Station. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The four engagements in the battle of Leyte Gulf.
The four engagements in the battle of Leyte Gulf.

Sho-1 called for V. Adm. Jisaburo Ozawa's force to use an apparently vulnerable carrier force to lure the U.S. 3rd Fleet away from Leyte and remove air cover from the Allied landing forces, which would then be attacked from the west by three Japanese forces: V. Adm. Takeo Kurita's force would enter Leyte Gulf and attack the landing forces; R. Adm. Shoji Nishimura's force and V. Adm. Kiyohide Shima's force would act as mobile strike forces. The plan was likely to result in the destruction of one or more of the Japanese forces, but Toyoda justified it by saying that there would be no sense in saving the fleet and losing the Philippines. Download high resolution version (1001x1454, 240 KB)The four engagements of the battle of Leyte Gulf: Battle of the Sibuyan Sea Battle of Surigao Strait Battle off Cape Engaño Battle off Samar A modification of Image:Leyte Gulf. ... Download high resolution version (1001x1454, 240 KB)The four engagements of the battle of Leyte Gulf: Battle of the Sibuyan Sea Battle of Surigao Strait Battle off Cape Engaño Battle off Samar A modification of Image:Leyte Gulf. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Jisaburo Ozawa (小沢治三郎 Ozawa Jisaburō, October 2, 1886 – November 9, 1966) was a Japanese admiral during World War II. He was the last Commander-in-Chief of Combined Fleet. ... In the United States Navy, the 3rd Fleet is the fleet responsible for naval activities in the eastern and northern Pacific Ocean. ... Categories: People stubs | 1889 births | 1977 deaths | Imperial Japanese Navy admirals | Japanese World War II people ... Leyte Gulf is the body of water immediately east of the island of Leyte in the Philippines, adjoining the Philippine Sea of the Pacific Ocean, at . ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Shoji Nishimura ( - 1944) was a Japanese Vice Admiral who died in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. ... Kiyohide Shima (February 25, 1890 – November 7, 1973) was a commander in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. From November 15, 1939 until October 15, 1940 he was the Chief of Staff of the Maizuru Naval District. ...


Kurita's "Center Force" consisted of five battleships, 12 cruisers and 13 destroyers. It included the two largest battleships ever built: Yamato and Musashi. As they passed Palawan Island after midnight on October 23, the force was spotted, and U.S. submarines sank two cruisers. On October 24, as Kurita's force entered the Sibuyan Sea, USS Intrepid and USS Cabot launched 260 planes, which scored hits on several ships. A second wave of planes scored many direct hits on Musashi. A third wave, from USS Enterprise and USS Franklin hit Musashi with 11 bombs and eight torpedoes. Kurita retreated but in the evening turned around to head for San Bernardino Strait. Musashi sank at about 19:30. Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ... Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa region. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sibuyan Sea is a small sea in the Philippines that separates the Visayas from the northern Philippine island of Luzon. ... This article is about the aircraft carrier USS Intrepid. ... It has been suggested that Spanish aircraft carrier Dédalo be merged into this article or section. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... The fifth USS Franklin (CV-13) (also CVA-13, CVS-13, and AVT-8), nicknamed Big Ben, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, notable as the hardest-hit carrier to survive World War II. The actual kamikaze attacks on the ship are depicted in the...


Meanwhile, V. Adm. Onishi Takijiro had directed his First Air Fleet, 80 land-based planes, against U.S. carriers, whose planes were attacking airfields on Luzon. USS Princeton was hit by an armour-piercing bomb and suffered a major explosion which killed 200 crew and 80 on a cruiser which was alongside. Princeton sank, and the cruiser was forced to retire. Takijiro Onishi was a Japanese general with a especially romantic view on life, being obsessed with self-sacrifice. ... The fourth USS Princeton (CVL-23) was a United States Navy light aircraft carrier lost at the battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944. ...


Nishimura's force consisted of two battleships, one cruiser and four destroyers. Because they were observing radio silence, Nishimura was unable to synchronise with Shima and Kurita. Nishimura and Shima had failed to even coordinate their plans before the attacks — they were long time rivals and neither wished to have anything to do with the other. When he entered the narrow Surigao Strait at about 02:00, Shima was 22 miles (40 km) behind him, and Kurita was still in the Sibuyan Sea, several hours from the beaches at Leyte. As they passed Panaon Island, Nishimura's force ran into a trap set for them by the U.S.-Australian 7th Fleet Support Force. R. Adm. Jesse Oldendorf had six battleships, four heavy cruisers, four light cruisers, 29 destroyers and 39 PT boats. To pass the strait and reach the landings, Nishimura had to run the gauntlet. At about 03:00 the Japanese battleship Fuso and three destroyers were hit by torpedoes and Fuso broke in two. At 03:50 the U.S. battleships opened fire. Radar fire control meant they could hit targets from a much greater distance than the Japanese. The battleship Yamashiro, a cruiser and a destroyer were crippled by 16-inch (406mm) shells; Yamashiro sank at 04:19. Only one of Nishimura's force of seven ships survived the engagement. At 04:25 Shima's force of two cruisers and eight destroyers reached the battle. Seeing Fuso and believing her to be the wrecks of two battleships, Shima ordered a retreat. Surigao Strait is a body of water in the Philippines located between the islands of Mindanao and Leyte. ... Panaon Island is a small island in the Philippines, in the province of Southern Leyte. ... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. ... Jesse Bartlett Oley Oldendorf (16 February 1887 - 27 April 1974) was an admiral in the United States Navy, famous for defeating a Japanese force in the Battle of Leyte Gulf during World War II. Graduating from the United States Naval Academy in 1909, he served on cruisers and destroyers before... HMS Raleigh a Hawkins class cruiser around which the treaty limits for Heavy cruisers were written. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... PT boats in line astern. ... Fuso (Japanese: 扶桑, an old name for Japan), was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... The Yamashiro (山城) was the Imperial Japanese Navys second Fusō-class battleship, and was laid down at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal on November 20, 1913, launched on November 3, 1915, and commissioned on March 31, 1917. ...


Ozawa's "Northern Force" had four aircraft carriers, two obsolete battleships partly converted to carriers, three cruisers and nine destroyers. The carriers had only 108 planes. The force was not spotted by the Allies until 16:40 on October 24. At 20:00 Soemu ordered all remaining Japanese forces to attack. Halsey saw an opportunity to destroy the remnants of the Japanese carrier force. The U.S. Third Fleet was formidable — nine large carriers, eight light carriers, six battleships, 17 cruisers, 63 destroyers and 1,000 planes — and completely outgunned Ozawa's force. Halsey's ships set out in pursuit of Ozawa just after midnight. U.S. commanders ignored reports that Kurita had turned back towards San Bernardino Strait. They had taken the bait set by Ozawa. On the morning of October 25, Ozawa launched 75 planes. Most were shot down by U.S. fighter patrols. By 08:00 U.S. fighters had destroyed the screen of Japanese fighters and were hitting ships. By evening, they had sunk the carriers Zuikaku, Zuiho, and Chiyoda, and a destroyer. The fourth carrier, Chitose and a cruiser were disabled and later sank. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Imperial Japanese Ship Zuiho was first laid down as the high-speed oiler Takasaki in 1934. ... Chiyōda was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Chitose (千歳) was a light aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. It should not be confused with the earlier Japanese cruiser Chitose. ...

The Japanese aircraft carriers Zuikaku, left, and (probably) Zuiho come under attack by dive bombers early in the battle off Cape Engaño.
The Japanese aircraft carriers Zuikaku, left, and (probably) Zuiho come under attack by dive bombers early in the battle off Cape Engaño.

Kurita passed through San Bernardino Strait at 03:00 on 25 October and headed along the coast of Samar. The only thing standing in his path was three groups (Taffy 1, 2 and 3) of the Seventh Fleet, commanded by Admiral Thomas Kinkaid. Each group had six escort carriers, with a total of more than 500 planes, and seven or eight destroyers or destroyer escorts (DE). Kinkaid still believed that Lee's force was guarding the north, so the Japanese had the element of surprise when they attacked Taffy 3 at 06:45. Kurita mistook the Taffy carriers for large fleet carriers and thought he had the whole Third Fleet in his sights. Since escort carriers stood little chance against a battleship, Adm. Clifton Sprague directed the carriers of Taffy 3 to turn and flee eastward, hoping that bad visibility would reduce the accuracy of Japanese gunfire, and used his destroyers in to divert the Japanese battleships. The destroyers made harassing torpedo attacks against the Japanese. For ten minutes Yamato was caught up in evasive action. Two U.S. destroyers and a DE were sunk, but they had bought enough time for the Taffy groups to launch planes. Taffy 3 turned and fled south, with shells scoring hits on some of its carriers and sinking one of them. The superior speed of the Japanese force allowed it to draw closer and fire on the other two Taffy groups. However, at 09:20 Kurita suddenly turned and retreated north. Signals had disabused him of the notion that he was attacking the Third Fleet, and the longer Kurita continued to engage, the greater the risk of major air strikes. Destroyer attacks had broken the Japanese formations, shattering tactical control, and two of Kurita's heavy cruisers had been sunk. The Japanese retreated through the San Bernardino Strait, under continuous air attack. The Battle of Leyte Gulf was over. Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku (left center) and (probably) Japanese aircraft carrier Zuiho (right) under attack by U.S. Navy dive bombers during the battle off Cape Engaño, October 25, 1944. ... Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku (left center) and (probably) Japanese aircraft carrier Zuiho (right) under attack by U.S. Navy dive bombers during the battle off Cape Engaño, October 25, 1944. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Imperial Japanese Ship Zuiho was first laid down as the high-speed oiler Takasaki in 1934. ... The San Bernardino Strait is a strait in the Philippines. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Samar is an island in the Visayas, which is in the central Philippines. ... Thomas Cassin Kinkaid (3 April 1888 – 17 November 1972) was an admiral of the United States Navy, who commanded the 7th Fleet in the Pacific during World War II. Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid watches landing operations in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, from the bridge of his flagship, USS Wasatch (AGC-9... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... A Destroyer Escort (DE) is classification for a small, comparatively slower warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Navy in World War II. It is usually employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also some protection against aircraft and smaller... A memorial to Sprague next to the USS Midway in San Diego. ...


The battle secured the beachheads of the U.S. Sixth Army on Leyte against attack from the sea, broke the back of Japanese naval power and opened the way for an advance to the Ryukyu Islands in 1945. The only significant Japanese naval operation afterwards was the disastrous Operation Ten-Go, in April 1945. Kurita's force had begun the battle with five battleships; when he returned to Japan, only Yamato was combat-worthy. Nishimura's sunken Yamashiro was the last battleship to engage another in combat. Shoulder sleeve insignia of the U.S. Sixth Army. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Marc A. Mitscher Seiichi Ito â€  Strength 11 aircraft carriers 386 aircraft 1 battleship 1 light cruiser 8 destroyers Casualties 10 aircraft destroyed 12 dead 1 battleship sunk 1 light cruiser sunk 4 destroyers sunk 3,700 dead Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign Iwo...


Philippines, 1944–45

General Douglas MacArthur wading ashore at Leyte
General Douglas MacArthur wading ashore at Leyte
Main article: Philippines campaign (1944–45)

On October 20, 1944, the U.S. Sixth Army, supported by naval and air bombardment, landed on the favorable eastern shore of Leyte, north of Mindanao. The U.S. Sixth Army continued its advance from the east, as the Japanese rushed reinforcements to the Ormoc Bay area on the western side of the island. While the Sixth Army was reinforced successfully, the U.S. Fifth Air Force was able to devastate the Japanese attempts to resupply. In torrential rains and over difficult terrain, the advance continued across Leyte and the neighboring island of Samar to the north. On December 7, U.S. Army units landed at Ormoc Bay and, after a major land and air battle, cut off the Japanese ability to reinforce and supply Leyte. Although fierce fighting continued on Leyte for months, the U.S. Army was in control. Combatants United States Australia Commonwealth of the Philippines Mexico[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Tomoyuki Yamashita Casualties 14,000 killed, 48,000 wounded 336,000 killed, 12,000 prisoners The Philippines campaign of 1944–45 was the Allied campaign to defeat Japanese forces occupying The Philippines, during World... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sixth United States Army was a field army of the United States Army. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Leyte Region: Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Capital: Tacloban City Founded: 1543 and March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,592,336 (14th largest) Density—279 per km² (24th highest) Area: 5,712. ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ... Ormoc Bay is a bay on the island of Leyte in the Philipines. ... The Fifth Air Force (5AF), with headquarters currently located at Yokota Air Base,Japan, is one of very few numbered air forces of the United States Air Force never to have been based in the United States itself. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 15, 1944, landings against minimal resistance were made on the southern beaches of the island of Mindoro, a key location in the planned Lingayen Gulf operations, in support of major landings scheduled on Luzon. On January 9, 1945, on the south shore of Lingayen Gulf on the western coast of Luzon, General Krueger's Sixth Army landed his first units. Almost 175,000 men followed across the twenty-mile (32 km) beachhead within a few days. With heavy air support, Army units pushed inland, taking Clark Field, 40 miles (64 km) northwest of Manila, in the last week of January. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Beach in Northern Mindoro Mindoro is the seventh-largest island in the Philippines. ... The Lingayen Gulf is an extension of the South China Sea on Luzon in the Philippines. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Walter Krueger (26 January 1881-20 August 1967) was a German-American soldier and general in the first half of the 20th century. ... Clark Air Base, 1975. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ...


Two more major landings followed, one to cut off the Bataan Peninsula, and another, that included a parachute drop, south of Manila. Pincers closed on the city and, on February 3, 1945, elements of the 1st Cavalry Division pushed into the northern outskirts of Manila and the 8th Cavalry passed through the northern suburbs and into the city itself. The Bataan Peninsula is a rocky extension of the Zambales Mountains, on Luzon in the Philippines. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The 1st Cavalry Division (1st Cav Div) is a heavy armored division of the United States Army with base of operations in Fort Hood, Texas. ...


As the advance on Manila continued from the north and the south, the Bataan Peninsula was rapidly secured. On February 16, paratroopers and amphibious units assaulted Corregidor, and resistance ended there on February 27. is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay Corregidor in 1941 Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines Manila Bay. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In all, ten U.S. divisions and five independent regiments battled on Luzon, making it the largest campaign of the Pacific war, involving more troops than the United States had used in North Africa, Italy, or southern France.


Palawan Island, between Borneo and Mindoro, the fifth largest and western-most Philippine Island, was invaded on February 28, with landings of the Eighth Army at Puerto Princesa. The Japanese put up little direct defence of Palawan, but cleaning up pockets of Japanese resistance lasted until late April, as the Japanese used their common tactic of withdrawing into the mountain jungles, dispersed as small units. Throughout the Philippines, U.S. forces were aided by Filipino guerrillas to find and dispatch the holdouts. Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. ... Φ Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eighth United States Army—often abbreviated EUSA—(the acronym EUSA was deemed unauthorized by LTG Charles Campbell in 2002) is the commanding formation of all US Army troops in South Korea. ... The City of Puerto Princesa (Filipino: Lungsod ng Puerto Princesa) is a first class city in the province of Palawan, Philippines. ...


The U.S. Eighth Army then moved on to its first landing on Mindanao (17 April), the last of the major Philippine Islands to be taken. Mindanao was followed by invasion and occupation of Panay, Cebu, Negros and several islands in the Sulu Archipelago. These islands provided bases for the U.S. Fifth and Thirteenth Air Forces to attack targets throughout the Philippines and the South China Sea. is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For American vessels, see USS Panay. ... For other uses, see Cebu (disambiguation). ... Map of the Philippines showing the location of Negros. ... Sulu Archipelago is an island chain in the southwest Philippines. ... Like the Fifth Air Force, the Thirteenth Air Force has never been stationed in the United States; it is also one of the oldest, continuously active, numbered air forces. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ...


Final stages

Allied offensives in Burma, 1944–45

Main article: Burma Campaign
British Royal Marines land at Ramree
British Royal Marines land at Ramree

The British launched a series of offensive operations back into Burma during late 1944 and the first half of 1945. Command of the British formations on the front was rearranged in November 1944; the 11th Army Group was replaced with Allied Land Forces South East Asia. Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ...


The Japanese Burma Area Army withdrew the 15th Army behind the Irrawaddy River (Operation BAN). 28th Army was to continue to defend the Arakan and lower Irrawaddy valley (Operation KAN), while 33rd Army would attempt to prevent the completion of the new Ledo Road between India and China by defending Bhamo and Lashio, and mounting guerrilla raids (Operation DAN). The Irrawaddy (newer spelling Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is Myanmars most important commercial waterway. ... Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar. ... The Ledo Road was built during World War II so that the Western Allies could continue to supply the Chinese after the Japanese cut the Burma Road. ... Bhamo is a city in Kachin State in Myanmar, located 186 km south from the capital of Myitkyina. ... Lashio is the capital of Shan, Myanmar. ...


In Arakan, as the monsoon ended, the British Commonwealth XV Corps resumed its advance on Akyab Island for the third year in succession. This time the Japanese were numerically far weaker, and had already lost the most favorable defensive positions. The Indian 25th Infantry Division advanced on Foul Point and Rathedaung at the end of the Mayu Peninsula, while the West African 81st Division and West African 82nd Division converged on Myohaung at the mouth of the Kaladan River. The Japanese evacuated Akyab Island on December 31, 1944. It was occupied by XV Corps without resistance two days later. The Indian XV Corps was a British Commonwealth corps. ... The 82nd (West Africa) Division was formed under British control during World War II. It took part in the later stages of the Burma Campaign. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the incursion into western Burma, XV Corps operations were halted in order to transfer transport aircraft to support Fourteenth Army. With the coastal area secured the Allies were free to build sea-supplied airbases on the two offshore islands, Ramree Island and Cheduba. Cheduba, the smaller of the two islands, had no Japanese garrison, but the clearing of the small but typically tenacious Japanese garrison on Ramree took about six weeks The British Fourteenth Army was a multinational force comprising units from Commonwealth countries during World War II. Many of its units were from the Indian Army as well as British units and there were also significant contributions from West and East African divisions within the British Army. ... Ramree Island is an island off the coast of Myanmar (Burma). ... Cheduba Island is an island belonging to Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... The Battle of Ramree Island was fought for six weeks during January and February 1945, as part of the British Fourteenth Army 1944/45 offensive on the Southern Front of the Burma Campaign during World War II. Ramree Island lies off the Burma coast and was captured along with the...


NCAC's operations were limited from late 1944 onwards by the need for Chinese troops on the main front in China. The American and British commanders attacked the Chinese leadership's decision to focus their limited resources on the defensive of Chinese cities rather than the defeat of the Japanese in Burma. In spite of these limitations, General Sultan was still able to resume his advance against the Japanese 33rd Army. The Northern Combat Area Command or NCAC was a mainly Sino-American formation that held the northern end of the Allied front in Burma during World War II. For much of its existence it was commanded by the acerbic General Joseph Stilwell. ...


On his right, the British 36th Infantry Division, brought in to replace the Chindits, made contact with the Indian 19th Infantry Division near Indaw on December 10, 1944, and Fourteenth Army and NCAC now had a continuous front. Meanwhile, three Chinese divisions and a US Force known as the "Mars Brigade" (which had replaced Merrill's Marauders) advanced slowly from Myitkyina to Bhamo. The Japanese resisted for several weeks, but Bhamo fell on December 15. The British 36th Infantry Division was a Second World War British Army formation created from the Indian Army 36th Infantry Division during the campaign in Burma. ... The Chindits (Officially in 1942 77th Indian Infantry Brigade and in 1943 Indian 3rd Infantry Division) were a British Indian Army Special Force that served in Burma and India from 1942 until 1945 during the Burma Campaign in World War II. They were formed into long range penetration groups trained... The Indian 19th Infantry Division was raised during World War II, and played a prominent part in the final part of the Burma Campaign. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Merrill’s Marauders officially 5307th Composite Unit (provisional) was a US commando unit in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II who fought in the Burma Campaign. ... Myitkyina is a city, and the capital of Kachin State in Myanmar, located 919miles from Yangon, or 487 miles from Mandalay. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Chinese forces on M3 light tanks on the Ledo Road
Chinese forces on M3 light tanks on the Ledo Road

Sultan's forces made contact with Chiang's Yunnan armies on January 21, 1945, and the Ledo road could finally be completed, although it was not yet secure. The Ledo road by this point in the war was also of uncertain value. It would not be completed soon enough to change the overall military situation in China. Chiang, to the annoyance of the British and Americans, ordered Sultan to halt his advance at Lashio, which was captured on March 7. In April, OSS Detachment 101 took over control of American forces from the NCAC, which had withdrawn to China, while the 36th Division withdrew to India. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Light Tank M3 was an American light tank of World War II in use with British and Commonwealth forces prior to the entry of the USA into the European theatre. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... THIS ALL SUCKS!!!!!! Detachment 101 of the Office of Strategic Services operated in the China Burma India Theater of World War II. On January 17, 1946, it was awarded a Presidential Distinguished Unit Citation by Dwight Eisenhower, who wrote, The courage and fighting spirit displayed by its officers and men...


Fourteenth Army made the main thrust into central Burma. It had IV Corps and XXXIII Corps under its command, with six infantry divisions, two armoured brigades and three independent infantry brigades. Logistics were the primary problem the advance faced. A carefully designed system involving large amounts of supply by air was introduced as well endless construction projects designed to improve the land route from India into Burma.

The British Indian Army's Gurkha Rifles crossing the Irrawaddy River on January 27, 1945. The Gurkhas were involved in hard fought actions with the Japanese during the early months of 1945.
The British Indian Army's Gurkha Rifles crossing the Irrawaddy River on January 27, 1945. The Gurkhas were involved in hard fought actions with the Japanese during the early months of 1945.

When it was realised that the Japanese had fallen back behind the Irrawaddy River, the plan was modified. Initially both corps had been attacking into the Shwebo Plain between the Chindwin and Irrawaddy rivers. Now, only XXXIII Corps would continue this attack, while IV Corps changed its axis of advance to the Gangaw Valley west of the Chindwin, aiming to cross the Irrawaddy close to Pakokku and then capture the main Japanese line of communication centre of Meiktila. Diversionary measures (such as dummy radio traffic) would persuade the Japanese that both corps were aimed at Mandalay. Image File history File links Royal_Indian_Army. ... Image File history File links Royal_Indian_Army. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... Gorkha regiments have been serving in the Indian Army ever since independence in 1947, when the Tripartite Agreement was signed. ... The Irrawaddy (newer spelling Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows through the centre of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is Myanmars most important commercial waterway. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... MEIKTILA is in Mandalay division of Myanmar; population (1901) 252,305, and is located at 20°53N, 95°53 E. It is situated on the banks of magnificent Lake Meiktila, an ancient irrigation and drinking water reservoir, and at the junction of the Bagan-Taunggyi and Yangon-Mandalay roads. ... This article is about the city in Myanmar. ...


The plan was completely successful. Allied air superiority and the thin Japanese presence on the ground meant that the Japanese were unaware of the strength of the force moving on Pakokku. During January and February, XXXIII Corps seized crossings over the Irrawaddy River near Mandalay. There was heavy fighting, which attracted Japanese reserves and fixed their attention. Late in February, Indian 7th Division, leading IV Corps, seized crossings at Nyaungu, near Pakokku. Indian 17th Division and 255th Indian Armoured brigade followed them across and struck for Meiktila.


While the Japanese were distracted by events at Meiktila, XXXIII Corps had renewed its attack on Mandalay. It fell to Indian 19th Division on March 20, though the Japanese held the former citadel of Fort Dufferin for another week. The battle was extremely costly in that much of the historically and culturally significant portions of Mandalay, including the old royal palace, were burned to the ground. With the fall of Mandalay (and of Maymyo to its east), communications to the Japanese front in the north of Burma were cut. The Japanese 15th Army was completely scattered, leaving only small detachments and parties of stragglers making their way east. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Allied armies continued their southward drive towards Rangoon, with the goal of capturing the vital port before the monsoon season cut the overland supply routes. IV Corps made the main attack, down the "Railway Valley" by striking at the delaying position held by the remnants of Japanese 33rd Army at Pyawbwe. The Indian 17th Division and 255th Armoured Brigade were initially halted by a strong defensive position behind a dry chaung, but a flanking move by tanks and mechanized infantry struck the Japanese from the rear and shattered them. Following the route of the 33rd Army, organised resistance along the route to Rangoon all but ceased. Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city of Burma. ...


A general uprising delayed the Japanese 15th Division long enough for the Allied forces to reach the city of Toungoo, only 136 miles (219 km) from Rangoon. The Indian 17th Division reached Pegu, 40 miles (65 km) north of Rangoon by April 25. Kimura had formed the various service troops, naval personnel and even Japanese civilians in Rangoon into the Japanese 105 Independent Mixed Brigade. This scratch formation used buried aircraft bombs, anti-aircraft guns and suicide attacks with pole charges to delay the British advance, holding the British off until April 30, and covered the evacuation of the Rangoon area. Taungoo (Toungoo) is a city in the Bago Division of Myanmar, located 220 km from Yangon, towards the northern end of the division, with mountain ranges to both east and west. ... The 54-m Shwethalyaung Buddha, constructed in 994 A.D. by King Migadepa Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Myanmar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


General Slim feared that the Japanese would defend Rangoon to the last man through the monsoon, which would put Fourteenth Army in a disastrous supply situation. His lines of communication by land were impossibly long, and the troops relied on supplies ferried by aircraft to airfields close behind the leading troops. Heavy rain would make these airfields unusable, and curtail flying. However, Kimura had ordered Rangoon to be evacuated, starting on April 22. Many troops were evacuated by sea, although British submarines claimed several ships. Kimura's own HQ left by land. The Japanese 105 Independent Mixed Brigade, by holding Pegu, covered this evacuation. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 1, a Gurkha parachute battalion was dropped on Elephant Point, which cleared Japanese rearguards from the mouth of the Rangoon River. The Indian 26th Infantry Division landed the next day and took over Rangoon, which had seen an orgy of looting and lawlessness similar to the last days of the British in the city in 1942. Following the capture of Rangoon, there were still Japanese forces to take care of in Burma, but it was largely a mopping up operation. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Indian XV Corps Japan Commanders Sir Philip Christison Strength 1 infantry division 1 airborne battalion RAF 1 infantry division Casualties 24 (from friendly fire) Unknow During World War II, Operation Dracula was the name given to an airborne and amphibious attack on Rangoon by British and Indian forces, part...


Liberation of Borneo

US LVTs land Australian soldiers at Balikpapan on July 7, 1945
US LVTs land Australian soldiers at Balikpapan on July 7, 1945

The Borneo Campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. Allied naval and air forces, centred on the U.S. 7th Fleet under Admiral Thomas Kinkaid, the Australian First Tactical Air Force and the U.S. Thirteenth Air Force also played important roles in the campaign. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... I Corps of the Australian Army was the main frontline corps of the army during World War II. Various Australian and other Allied divisions came under its control at various times. ... Lieutenant General Sir Leslie James Morshead, KCB, KBE, CMG, DSO, ED (September 18, 1889 – September 26, 1959) was an Australian soldier with a distinguished career in both world wars. ... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. ... Thomas Cassin Kinkaid (3 April 1888 – 17 November 1972) was an admiral of the United States Navy, who commanded the 7th Fleet in the Pacific during World War II. Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid watches landing operations in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, from the bridge of his flagship, USS Wasatch (AGC-9... The Australian First Tactical Air Force (1 TAF) was formed on October 25, 1944 by the Royal Australian Air Force to provide fighter and ground attack support to Allied ground and naval forces, fighting the Empire of Japan in the South West Pacific Area. ... Like the Fifth Air Force, the Thirteenth Air Force has never been stationed in the United States; it is also one of the oldest, continuously active, numbered air forces. ...


The campaign opened with a landing on the small island of Tarakan on May 1. This was followed on June 1 by simultaneous assaults in the north west, on the island of Labuan and the coast of Brunei. A week later the Australians attacked Japanese positions in North Borneo. The attention of the Allies then switched back to the central east coast, with the last major amphibious assault of World War II, at Balikpapan on July 1. The Battle of Tarakan occured May 1945. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders George Wootten Operation Oboe Six was the codename for the campaign by Australian forces to retake Brunei and Labuan island, from Japanese forces, between June 10, 1945 and the end of World War II. The operation commenced with amphibious landings by the... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... The name Battle of Balikpapan may refer to three actions in the Pacific campaign of World War II, centred on an oil refinery and port in the Indonesia): The Naval Battle of Balikpapan, in which American destroyers damaged a Japanese troop convoy in the Makassar Strait near Balikpapan on January... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the campaign was criticised in Australia at the time, and in subsequent years, as pointless or a "waste" of the lives of soldiers, it did achieve a number of objectives, such as increasing the isolation of significant Japanese forces occupying the main part of the Dutch East Indies, capturing major oil supplies and freeing Allied prisoners of war, who were being held in deteriorating conditions.[37] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Landings in the Japanese home islands

Main article: Japan campaign
A mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet (18 km) into the air on the morning of August 9, 1945.
A mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet (18 km) into the air on the morning of August 9, 1945.

Hard-fought battles on the Japanese home islands of Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and others resulted in horrific casualties on both sides but finally produced a Japanese defeat. Faced with the loss of most of their experienced pilots, the Japanese increased their use of kamikaze tactics in an attempt to create unacceptably high casualties for the Allies. The U.S. Navy proposed to force a Japanese surrender through a total naval blockade and air raids.[38] The Japan campaign was a series of battles and engagements in and around the Japanese Home Islands, between Allied forces and Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific campaign of World War II from around June, 1944 until September, 1945. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ... Belligerents United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties and losses 6,821 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 26,504 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The Battle of Iwo Jima took place between... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33...


Towards the end of the war as the role of strategic bombing became more important, a new command for the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific was created to oversee all U.S. strategic bombing in the hemisphere, under United States Army Air Forces General Curtis LeMay. Japanese industrial production plunged as nearly half of the built-up areas of 64 cities were destroyed by B-29 firebombing raids. On March 9-March 10, 1945 alone, about 100,000 people were killed in a fire storm caused by an attack on Tokyo. In addition, LeMay also oversaw Operation Starvation, in which the inland waterways of Japan were extensively mined by air, which disrupted the small amount of remaining Japanese coastal sea traffic. The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906–October 3, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the comic book superhero, see Firestorm (comics). ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ...


Atomic bomb and the Soviet invasion

On August 6, 1945, a B-29, the Enola Gay, dropped an atom bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, in the first nuclear attack in history. On August 9, another was dropped on Nagasaki. This was the last ever nuclear attack. More than 240,000 people died as a direct result of these two bombings.[39] The necessity of the atomic bombings has long been debated, with detractors claiming that a naval blockade and bombing campaign had already made invasion, and hence the atomic bomb, unnecessary.[40] However, other scholars have argued that the bombings did obviate invasion, including a planned Soviet invasion of Hokkaidō, or a prolonged blockade and bombing campaign, any of which may have exacted even higher casualties among Japanese civilians.[41] The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Colonel Paul Tibbets waving from Enola Gays cockpit before the bombing of Hiroshima. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ...

Douglas MacArthur signs the formal surrender of Japanese forces on the USS Missouri, September 2, 1945.
Douglas MacArthur signs the formal surrender of Japanese forces on the USS Missouri, September 2, 1945.

On February 3, 1945, the Soviet Union agreed with Roosevelt to enter the Pacific conflict. It promised to act 90 days after the war ended in Europe and did so exactly on schedule on August 9, by launching Operation August Storm. A battle-hardened, one million-strong Soviet force, transferred from Europe attacked Japanese forces in Manchuria and quickly defeated the Japanese Kantōgun (Kwantung Army group). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1464x1047, 227 KB) Description: General Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1464x1047, 227 KB) Description: General Douglas MacArthur signs as Supreme Allied Commander during formal surrender ceremonies on the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender The Instrument of Surrender of Japan was the armistice ending World War II. It was signed by representatives of the Empire of Japan, the United States, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kwantung Army ), also known as the Guandong Army simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kwan-tung chün; Korean: ), was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the early twentieth century. ...


In Japan, August 14 is considered to be the day that the Pacific War ended. However, Imperial Japan actually surrendered on August 15, and this day became known in the English-speaking countries as "V-J Day" (Victory in Japan).[42] The formal Instrument of Surrender was signed on September 2, 1945, on the battleship USS Missouri, in Tokyo Bay. The surrender was accepted by General Douglas MacArthur as "Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers", with representatives of several Allied nations, from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender The Instrument of Surrender of Japan was the armistice ending World War II. It was signed by representatives of the Empire of Japan, the United States, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Tokyo Bay from space Tokyo Bay ) is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. ... SCAP, short for Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along...


Following this period, MacArthur went to Tokyo to oversee the postwar development of the country. This period in Japanese history is known as the occupation. History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Surrender of Japan Japan surrendered to the Allies...


Pacific War campaigns

Flag of the Republic of China Second Sino-Japanese war Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio...

Soviet-Japanese Border Wars is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Soviet-Japanese Border Wars was a series of border conflicts between the Soviet Union and Japan between 1938 to 1945. ...

Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ...

Japanese conquest of Southeast Asia and Pacific

Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Imperial Ordinance issued on December 27, Meiji 28 (1895) Japan Standard Time (日本標準時 or 中央標準時) is the standard timezone in Japan that is 9 hours ahead of UTC; i. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders George J. McMillin Tomitaro Horii Strength 547 5,900 Casualties 19 killed 42 wounded 1 minesweeper n/a Japanese landings on Guam. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Force Z of the Royal Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † John Leach † William Tennant Niichi Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Empire of Japan United States Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Sadamichi Kajioka Shigematsu Sakaibara Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personnel, Others[2] Casualties 700-900 dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Netherlands remnant forces British Empire Commanders Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival (UK) Lieutenant-General Hein ter Poorten (KNIL) The Battle of Borneo was a successful campaign in the Japanese war for control of Southeast Asia, culminating in the subjugation of the island... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Hell Ship refers to any of the ships used by the Imperial Japanese Navy to transport prisoners of war out of the Philippines, Hong Kong and Singapore during World War II. The POWs would be taken to Japan, Taiwan, Manchuria, or Korea to be used as forced labor. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Tarakan took place in January 1942 and was the first stage in the Japanese conquest of the Netherlands East Indies. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Rabaul, around the main town of Rabaul on the island of New Britain, in early February 1942, represented a strategically-significant defeat of Allied forces by Japan, in the Pacific campaign of World War II. Following the capture of Rabaul, Japanese forces turned it into a major... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the naval and land battles of Balikpapan in 1942. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Ambon occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies, on January 30-February 3, 1942 during the Pacific campaign of World War II. During 1941, as the western Allies perceived the possibility of war with Japan, Ambon was seen to be a strategic location... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Makassar Strait was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. A fleet of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, under the command of Admiral Karel Doorman, was on its way to intercept a Japanese invasion convoy when it was attacked by 37 Japanese... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Britain Netherlands Australia New Zealand United States Empire of Japan Commanders Air Cdre H. J. F. Hunter (bombers) Air Cdre S. F. Vincent (fighters) Lt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties and losses 251 killed 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk one aircrew confirmed killed, several missing in action, six airmen taken prisoner; six Japanese aircraft confirmed destroyed, four probably destroyed. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Badung Strait Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 18 February 1942 – 19 February 1942 Place Badung Strait off Bali in the Dutch East Indies Result Japanese victory The Battle of Badung Strait was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Timor (1942–43) occurred on the island of Timor, in the Pacific theatre of World War II. It involved forces from the Empire of Japan, which invaded on February 20, 1942, on one side and Allied personnel, predominantly from Australia and the Netherlands, on the other. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Netherlands United States United Kingdom Australia Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Karel Doorman â€  Conrad Helfrich Takeo Takagi Strength 2 heavy cruisers 3 light cruisers 12 destroyers 2 heavy cruisers 2 light cruisers 14 destroyers 10 transports Casualties 5 cruisers sunk 5 destroyers sunk 2,300 sailors killed 4 loaded troop... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of the Java Sea Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date February 27, 1942 - March 1, 1942 Place Java Sea Result Decisive Japanese victory The Battle of the Java Sea was a major naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Allied ships suffered a disastrous defeat... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Netherlands United Kingdom Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Hein ter Poorten Hitoshi Imamura Strength Netherlands: 25,000; Britain: about 3,500; Australia: about 2,500; U.S. about 1,000 about 35,000 troops Casualties Netherlands: ?; Britain: ?; Australia: 36 Dead, 60 wounded; U.S.: ? 100+ killed The... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pacific War conquest plan set out by the Empire of Japan for the South Sea lands concluded on March 31, 1942 with the attack on and occupation of Christmas Island. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Note on correct pronunciation: Filipino (Tagalog) speakers pronounce Bataan as (phonetically) Bata-An. In English, the name is rendered Baaa-Tan or Bat-tan. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia, United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents United States Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 264 carrier aircraft,[1] 16 floatplanes Casualties and...

Allied offensives

See Atlas of Battle Fronts from July 1943 to August 1945 at Half-Month intervals

South East Asian campaigns: 1941-12-081945-08-15 The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the day of the year. ...

New Guinea campaign Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links British_Raj_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom Empire of Japan Commanders Arthur John Power Manley Laurence Power Shigeru Fukudome Shintaro Hashimoto† Kaju Sugiura† Strength 5 destroyers 1 cruiser 1 destroyer Casualties 1 destroyer damaged, 2 killed[1] 1 cruiser sunk, 1 destroyer damaged, 927 killed[2] The Battle of the Malacca Strait, sometimes called... The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese...

Aleutian Islands campaign Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Rabaul, around the main town of Rabaul on the island of New Britain, in early February 1942, represented a strategically-significant defeat of Allied forces by Japan, in the Pacific campaign of World War II. Following the capture of Rabaul, Japanese forces turned it into a major... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia, United States Japan Commanders George Vasey (Australia); Edwin F. Harding/ Robert L. Eichelberger (United States) Ken Yamagata Strength 20,000+ 7,400+ Casualties 3,500 (not counting tropical diseases); 1,300 Australian and 1,000 US personnel killed in action. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Australian soldiers unloading transport planes at an airfield near Wau, in mid-1943. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States, Australia Empire of Japan Commanders George C. Kenney Masatomi Kimura Strength 39 heavy bombers; 41 medium bombers; 34 light bombers; 54 fighters 8 destroyers, 8 troop transports, 100 aircraft Casualties 2 bombers, 3 fighters destroyed 8 transports, 4 destroyers sunk 20 fighters destroyed, 5,000 troops killed... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Lae was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Australian and United States forces assaulted a major Japanese base, in the town of Lae. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Finisterre Range campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Australian and United States forces assaulted Japanese positions in the Finisterre Range of New Guinea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Huon Peninsula campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Australian forces assaulted a Japanese bases on the Huon Peninsula. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States; Australia; New Zealand Japan Commanders George Kenney (air force) Frederick Sherman (navy) Mineichi Koga Strength 2 carriers, 97 carrier planes, 100+ land-based planes 10 cruisers, 11 destroyers, 100+ planes Casualties 10 carrier planes destroyed, 50+ land based planes destroyed 8 cruisers damaged, 3 destroyers damaged, 100... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Australian soldiers in New Britain in 1945 (AWM 092342) The New Britain Campaign was a World War II campaign fought by the Allies between December 1943 and the end of the war to secure and protect air bases on the island of New Britain. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Admiralty Islands campaign, also known as Operation Brewer, was a series of battles in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. The United States 1st Cavalry Division assaulted Japanese bases on the Admiralty Islands. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the day of the year. ... The Western New Guinea campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. United States and Australian forces assaulted Japanese bases and positions in the north-west coastal areas of Netherlands New Guinea and adjoining parts of the Australian Territory of New Guinea. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900...

Guadalcanal campaign Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Combatants United States Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), William Kirby Kiichiro Higuchi, Monzo Akiyama, Takeji Ono Strength 7,300 5,183 (before pullout) Casualties 313 dead, 2,500 wounded, sick, or frostbitten 0 (4 submarines were sunk in pullout operation) The Battle of Kiska was a... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Charles McMorris Boshiro Hosogaya Strength 2 cruisers, 4 destroyers 4 cruisers, 4 destroyers Casualties 1 cruiser damaged, 1 destroyer damaged 1 cruiser damaged The Battle of the Komandorski Islands was one of the most unusual engagements of World War II. It took place on 26... This article is about the island in the Pacific Ocean. ...

Solomon Islands campaign Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Watchtower On August 7, 1942, the 1st Marine Division performed an amphibious landing east of the Tenaru River. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia United Kingdom Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner, Victor Crutchley Isoroku Yamamoto, Gunichi Mikawa Strength 8 cruisers, 15 destroyers[2] 7 cruisers, 1 destroyer[3] Casualties 4 cruisers sunk, 1 cruiser, 2 destroyers damaged, 1,077 killed[4] 3 cruisers moderately damaged... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of the Eastern Solomons Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 24, 1942 – August 25, 1942 Place North of Santa Isabel, United States Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Norman Scott Aritomo Goto† Strength 4 cruisers 5 destroyers 3 cruisers 2 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer heavily damaged, 163 killed[1] 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser heavily damaged, 454 killed, 111 captured[2... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied forces including:  United States  Australia  Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Daniel J. Callaghan† Willis A. Lee Isoroku Yamamoto Nobutake Kondo Hiroaki Abe Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 36 aircraft destroyed... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Tassafaronga was a naval battle fought between United States and Japanese forces on 30 November 1942. ... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ...

Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Blackett Strait Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 6 March 1943 Place Blackett Strait, Solomon Islands Result American victory The Battle of Blackett Strait was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on 6 March 1943 in the Blackett Strait, between Kolombangara... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The battle of New Georgia was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. It was part of Operation Cartwheel, and was fought in the New Georgia group of islands in the central Solomon Islands from 10 June 1943 to August 25, 1943 between forces of Japan and... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Kula Gulf was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought in the early hours of 6 July 1943, between United States and Japanese ships off the coast of Kolombangara in the Solomon Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States New Zealand Japan Commanders Walden L. Ainsworth Shunji Izaki † Strength 3 light cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 light cruiser, 5 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk, 3 light cruisers heavily damaged, 89 killed[1] 1 light cruiser sunk, 482 killed[2] The Battle of Kolombangara (Japanese: コロンバンガラ島沖海戦) was a naval... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Frederick Moosbrugger Kaju Sugiura Strength 6 destroyers 4 destroyers Casualties None 3 destroyers sunk, 1,210 killed[1] The Battle of Vella Gulf (Japanese: ベラ湾夜戦) was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought on the night of August 6, 1943 – August... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle off Horaniu Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 17, 1943 – August 18, 1943 Place Near Vella Lavella in the Solomon Islands Result Japanese strategic victory The Battle off Horaniu was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought on the night of August... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Zealand soldiers land at Baka Baka, Vella Lavella to relieve the U.S. 35th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division, on September 17, 1943. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Category: Possible copyright violations ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay was a land and naval battle in the Pacific campaign of World War II fought on the night of 1-2 November, 1943 on Bougainville, an island in the Solomon Islands group, but part of the Territory of New Guinea. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Cape St. ... In the Pacific Theater of World War II, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaigns, from November 1943 through February 1944, were the first offensive operations of the United States Navy and Marine Corps in the Central Pacific. ...

Bombing of South East Asia, 1944-45 Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibazaki  â€  Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 990 killed 2,296 injured 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured Map of Tarawa Atoll Map of Betio, Tarawa Atoll... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Ralph C. Smith Seizo Ishikawa Strength 6, 470 400 troops, 400 labourers Casualties 66 killed, 185 wounded 700 killed, 3 Japanese captured, 101 Korean labourers captured The Battle of Makin was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner, Holland M. Smith Monzo Akiyama Strength 2 divisions (about 42,000 soldiers) About 8,100 Casualties 372 killed, 1,592 wounded 7,870 Japanese dead, 105 captured, 125 Korean laborers captured The Battle of Kwajalein was a battle of the... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Attack on Truk Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 17 February 1944 – 18 February 1944 Place Truk, Caroline Islands Result Decisive American victory In World War II, Operation Hailstone was a massive naval air attack launched on 17 February and 18 February 1944 against the Japanese naval and air... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Eniwetok Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 17 February 1944 – 23 February 1944 Place Eniwetok Atoll, United States Japan Commanders Harry W. Hill Yoshimi Nishida Strength 2 regiments 2,000+ Casualties 339 killed or missing, 757 wounded 2,000+ dead, 16 captured The Battle of Eniwetok was... Allied aircraft bombed Japanese forces in South-East Asia during 1944-45. ...

Mariana and Palau Islands campaign Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... During the last year of World War II, Operation Cockpit was a raid by a British naval force of twenty-two warships, including two aircraft carriers, on Japanese port and oil facilities on Sabang Island (off the northern tip of Sumatra) on 25 July, 1945. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... During World War II, Operation Transom was a naval air attack on Japanese targets on Java by American and British carrier planes. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Operation Matterhorn was organised by U.S. XX Bomber Command during World War II to place USAAF B29 Bombers in China for use against Japan. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... During World War II, Operation Meridian was a series of British air attacks conducted on 24 and 29 January, 1945 (Meridian One and Meridian Two on Japanese-held oil refineries at Palembang, on Sumatra. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Pacific theater of World War II, the American Marianas Campaign, known as Operation Forager, pushed westward from the Marshall Islands in the summer of 1944 to capture the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. ...

Philippines campaign Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner Holland Smith Yoshitsugu Saito â€  Chuichi Nagumo â€  Strength 71,000 31,000 Casualties 3,426 killed; 13,160 wounded 24,000 KIA and 5,000 suicides; 921 prisoners The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Roy S. Geiger Takeshi Takashima â€  Hideyoshi Obata â€  Strength 36,000 18,500 Casualties 3,000 killed, 7,122 wounded 18,000+ killed, 485 POWs Mariana and Palau Islands campaign Saipan – Philippine Sea – Guam – Tinian – Peleliu – Angaur The Guam Campaign The Battle of Guam... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The battle of Tinian was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Tinian in the Mariana Islands from 24 July 1944 to 1 August 1944. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders William H. Rupertus, USMC Kunio Nakagawa Strength 2 divisions (1st Marine Division and the USA 81st Infantry Division) Approximately 11,000 men Casualties 2,336 killed and 8,450 wounded 10,695 killed, 202 captured The Battle of Peleliu, like the bloody World... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Angaur Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 17 September 1944 – 30 September 1944 Place Angaur, Palau Islands Result American victory The battle of Angaur was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Angaur in the Palau Islands from 17... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents United States, Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties and losses 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer escorts... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Ormoc Bay was a series of air-sea battles between Imperial Japan and the United States in the Camotes Sea in the Philippines between 11 November 1944 and 21 December 1944, part of the Battle of Leyte in the Pacific campaign of World War II. The battles... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Philippines Mexico Japan Commanders Douglas Macarthur Sergio Osmeña Basilio S. Valdes Rafael Jalandoni Alfredo M. Santos Luis Taruc Tomoyuki Yamashita The Battle of Luzon, on the island of Luzon, home to the Filipino capital Manila, saw the showdown between Japanese commander Tomoyuki Yamashita and General Douglas... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Walter Krueger Tadamichi Kuribayashi Strength 68,000 unknown Casualties none none The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf was an American amphibious operation of WWII carried out in the Phillipines. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Australia Commonwealth of the Philippines Mexico[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Tomoyuki Yamashita Casualties 14,000 killed, 48,000 wounded 336,000 killed, 12,000 prisoners The Philippines campaign of 1944–45 was the Allied campaign to defeat Japanese forces occupying The Philippines, during World... The Volcano and RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands campaign was a series of battles and engagements between Allied forces and Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific campaign of World War II from around January, 1945 until June, 1945. ...

Borneo campaign Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties and losses 6,821 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 26,504 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The Battle of Iwo Jima took place between... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Australia  New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner â€  Joseph W. Stilwell Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima â€  Isamu Cho â€  Strength 548,000 soldiers, 1,300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Marc A. Mitscher Seiichi Ito â€  Strength 11 aircraft carriers 386 aircraft 1 battleship 1 light cruiser 8 destroyers Casualties 10 aircraft destroyed 12 dead 1 battleship sunk 1 light cruiser sunk 4 destroyers sunk 3,700 dead Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign Iwo... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ...

Japan campaign Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Tarakan occured May 1945. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders George Wootten Operation Oboe Six was the codename for the campaign by Australian forces to retake Brunei and Labuan island, from Japanese forces, between June 10, 1945 and the end of World War II. The operation commenced with amphibious landings by the... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders George Wootten Operation Oboe Six was the codename for the campaign by Australian forces to retake Brunei and Labuan island, from Japanese forces, between June 10, 1945 and the end of World War II. The operation commenced with amphibious landings by the... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the day of the year. ... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Australia, United States Japan For other uses of this term, see Battle of Balikpapan. ... The Japan campaign was a series of battles and engagements in and around the Japanese Home Islands, between Allied forces and Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific campaign of World War II from around June, 1944 until September, 1945. ...

Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Tokyo Bay Conflict World War II Date July 22-July 23, 1945 Place Tokyo Bay Result Decisive American victory {{Campaignbox Pacific Campaign }} The Battle of Tokyo Bay was a World War II anti-shipping raid in Tokyo Harbor on the night of July 22, 1945. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...

See also

Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... A map of the Pacific Theater. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Allied war crimes were violations of the laws of war committed by the Allies of World War II against civilian populations or military personnel of the Axis Armed Forces. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... Japanese holdouts were Japanese soldiers who, after the official surrender of Japan after World War II, either refused to believe the veracity of the formal surrender due to strong, dogmatic, militaristic principles, or were not aware of it due to the cut-off communications that resulted from the United States...

Notes

  1. ^ Russia and USSR in Wars of XX century http://www.soldat.ru/doc/casualties/book/chapter5_10_1.html#5_10_51
  2. ^ The National World War II Museum, New Orleans
  3. ^ [1] Map of the Pacific Theatre
  4. ^ World War II Database: China. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  5. ^ World War II: 1930–1937. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  6. ^ The Emperor was using the Army to keep the Diet off-balance and shore up Imperial prestige, so he did not use his authority to rein in "cowboy generals" in China, even as the China war dragged on. Bix, Hirohito.
  7. ^ Georgi Dimitrov and the United National Front in China 1936-1944 (See: No. 22 New Soviet Aid for Chinese). Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  8. ^ Kokushi Daijiten ("Historical Dictionary"), 1980: "It was not an official term, but a term of incitement used by the Japanese media, under the guidance of the military, in order to stir up the Japanese people's sense of crisis..." (Cited by Christopher Barnard, 2003, Language, Ideology and Japanese History Textbooks, London & New York, Routledge Curzon, p.85.)
  9. ^ Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
  10. ^ Pearl Harbor to Midway. http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/ Military History Online. Retrieved on May 27, 2007.
  11. ^ Peattie, Mark R., & Evans, David C. Kaigun (United States Naval Institute Press, 1997); Parillo, Mark P. Japanese Merchant Marine in World War II. (United States Naval Institute Press, 1993).
  12. ^ H. Bix, "The Shōwa Emperor's Monologue and the Problem of War Responsibility", Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1992, p. 344.
  13. ^ Remembering 1942, The fall of Singapore, 15 February 1942
  14. ^ Hoyt, Edwin P. (1986). Japan's War. Da Capo, 262–263. ISBN 0-306-80348-8. 
  15. ^ Blair, Silent Victory
  16. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1942/420428a.html
  17. ^ Parillo, Japanese Merchant Marine; Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
  18. ^ Thanks in part to terrible aircraft torpedoes.
  19. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  20. ^ By John Murpy in Tambor. Blair, Silent Victory, p.246.
  21. ^ Willmott, op. cit.
  22. ^ Blair, Silent Victory; Parillo, Japanese Merchant Marine
  23. ^ Clay Blair, Silent Victory: The U. S. Submarine War Against Japan (Lippincott, 1975) and Theodore Roscoe, United States Submarine Operations in World War II (US Naval Institute Press, 1949).
  24. ^ Prange et al. Pearl Harbor Papers
  25. ^ Roscoe, Theodore. Pig Boats Bantam Books, 1958.
  26. ^ Roscoe, Theodore. Pig Boats Bantam Books, 1958.
  27. ^ Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis, U.S. Submarines in World War II
  28. ^ The US thereby reversed its opposition to unrestricted submarine warfare. After the war, when moralistic doubts about Hiroshima and other raids on civilian targets were loudly voiced, no-one criticized Roosevelt's submarine policy. (Two German admirals, Erich Raeder and Karl Dönitz, were charged at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials with violating international law through unrestricted submarine warfare; they were acquitted after proving Allied merchant ships were legitimate military targets, under the rules in force at the time.
  29. ^ David Stevens. Japanese submarine operations against Australia 1942-1944. Accessed 18 June 2007.
  30. ^ Carl Boyd, "The Japanese Submarine Gay Force and the Legacy of Strategic and Operational Doctrine Developed Between the World Wars," in Larry Addington ed. Selected Papers from the Citadel Conference on War and Diplomacy: 1978 (Charleston, 1979) 27–40; Clark G. Reynolds, Command of the Sea: The History and Strategy of Maritime Empires (1974) 512.
  31. ^ Farago, Ladislas. Broken Seal.
  32. ^ Chihaya Masataka, in Pearl Harbor Papers, p.323. Chihaya went on to note, when IJN belatedly improved its ASW methods, the US submarine force responded by increasing Japanese losses.
  33. ^ Blair, Silent Victory, pp.359-60, 551-2, & 816.
  34. ^ Roscoe, op. cit.
  35. ^ Blair, p.877.
  36. ^ Uboat.net The Monsun boats. Accessed 18 June 2007.
  37. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1999). A Military History of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521644836. . Pages 184-186.
  38. ^ Skates, James. Invasion of Japan.
  39. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/nuclear_02.shtml Professor Duncan Anderson, 2005, "Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan"] (World War Two, BBC History website) Access date: September 11, 2007.
  40. ^ See, for example, Alperowitz, G., The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb (1995; New York, Knopf; ISBN 0-6794-4331-2) for this argument.
  41. ^ See, for example, Professor Duncan Anderson, "Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan" (World War Two, BBC History website) Access date: September 11, 2007.
  42. ^ Chronology of Japanese Holdouts

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... USS Tambor (SS-198), the lead ship of her class, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the tambor, the red rock fish of the Pacific coast. ... Grossadmiral Erich Raeder Erich Johann Albert Raeder (April 24, 1876 - November 6, 1960) was a naval leader in Germany before and during World War II. Raeder attained the highest possible naval rank – that of Großadmiral (Grand Admiral) – in 1939, becoming the first person to hold that rank since Alfred... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...

References

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  • ——, et al. Miracle at Midway. Penguin, 1982.
  • ——, et al. Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History.
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  • H. P. Willmott. Empires in the Balance. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute Press, 1982.
  • ——. The Barrier and the Javelin. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute Press, 1983.
  • Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44317-2. (2005).
  • William Y'Blood, Red Sun Setting: The Battle of the Philippine Sea. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1980.
  • Harries, Meirion; Susie Harries (1994). Soldiers of the Sun : The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. 
  • Hayashi, Saburo; Alvin D. Cox (1959). Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Quantico, VA: The Marine Corps Association. 

With The Old Breed is a classic memoir from the Second World War, detailing the experiences of former US Marine, Eugene B. Sledge. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pacific War - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (3469 words)
The Pacific War occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia.
The Pacific War Council was formed in Washington on April 1, 1942, with a membership consisting of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, his key advisor Harry Hopkins, and representatives from Britain, China, Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Canada.
Midway was the turning-point of the naval war in the Pacific theatre.
War of the Pacific - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4744 words)
The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause, was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru, from 1879 to 1884.
The War of the Pacific grew out of a dispute between Chile and Bolivia over control of a part of the Atacama desert that lies between the 23rd and 26th parallels on the Pacific coast.
The war theatre between 1879 and 1881 was a large expanse of desert, sparsely populated and far removed from major cities or resource centers; it is, however, close to the Pacific Ocean.
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