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Encyclopedia > Pacific Ring of Fire
The Pacific Ring of Fire
The Pacific Ring of Fire

The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt. Ring of Fire can refer to: // Ring of Fire: The Best of Johnny Cash, an album by Johnny Cash which, despite its name, was not strictly a best of album as it featured the first ever recording of the famous song of the same name Ring of Fire (song), a... Download high resolution version (1046x776, 65 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Pacific Ring of Fire ... Download high resolution version (1046x776, 65 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Pacific Ring of Fire ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ... Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... Towering over the city of Naples, Vesuvius is dormant but certainly not extinct A dormant volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting, but is believed to still be capable of erupting in the future. ...


Ninety percent of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.[1][2] The Alpide belt extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ...


The Ring of Fire is a direct result and consequence of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates.[3] The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate. A portion of the Pacific Plate along with the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate. Along the northern portion the northwestward moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands arc. Further west the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs on south past Japan. The southern portion is more complex with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga, and New Zealand. Indonesia lies between the Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor. The famous and very active San Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United States and Mexico. The motion of the fault generates numerous small earthquakes, at multiple times a day, most of which are too small to be felt.[4][5] The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The Nacza plate, shown in light blue The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. ...  The Cocos plate, shown in gray-blue, off the Pacific coast of Central America The Cocos Plate (Chocos Plate) is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...  The South American plate, shown in purple The South American Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... A map of the Juan de Fuca Plate The Juan de Fuca Plate, named after the explorer, is a tectonic plate arising from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... “Kamchatka” redirects here. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... Bougainville and neighbouring islands Bougainville is part of Papua New Guinea and is the largest island of the Solomon Islands group. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... Timor is an island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara with the surface of 11,883 sq mi (30,777 km²). The name is a variant of timur... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... A transform fault is a geological fault that is a special case of strike-slip faulting which terminates abruptly, at both ends, at a major transverse geological feature. ... The East Pacific Rise is a long north-south welt of seafloor spreading under the eastern Pacific Ocean from near Antarctica in the south northward to its termination at the northern end of the Gulf of California in the Salton Sea basin in southern Pennsylvania California. ...


The December 2004 earthquake just off the coast of Sumatra was actually a part of the Alpide belt. [citation needed] The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The Alpide belt extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. ...

Contents

Cascadia subduction zone

Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone

The Cascadia subduction zone is a 680 mi (1,094 km) long fault, running 50 mi (80 km) off the west-coast of the Pacific Northwest from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The plates move at a relative rate of over 0.4 inches (10 mm) per year at a somewhat oblique angle to the subduction zone. USGS image of a subduction zone. ... USGS image of a subduction zone. ... Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone Area of the Cascadia subduction zone The Cascadia subduction zone is a very long sloping fault that stretches from northern Vancouver Island to northern California. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ...


The zone separates the Juan de Fuca, Explorer, Gorda and the North American Plates. Here, the oceanic crust of the Pacific Ocean is pushed toward and beneath the continent at a rate of 40 mm/yr. A map of the Juan de Fuca Plate The Juan de Fuca Plate, named after the explorer, is a tectonic plate arising from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate. ... The Explorer Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. ... The Gorda Plate is a small oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... Age of oceanic crust Oceanic crust is the part of Earths lithosphere which underlies the ocean basins. ...

Area of the Cascadia subduction zone, including the Cascade Volcanic Arc (red triangles)

Because of the very large fault area, the Cascadia subduction zone can produce very large earthquakes, magnitude 9.0 or greater, if rupture occurred over its whole area. When the "locked" zone stores up energy for an earthquake, the "transition" zone, although somewhat plastic, can rupture. Thermal and deformation studies indicate that the locked zone is fully locked for 60 kilometers (about 40 miles) downdip from the deformation front. Further downdip, there is a transition from fully locked to aseismic sliding. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 420 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (495 × 706 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/png) Cascadia subduction zone. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 420 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (495 × 706 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/png) Cascadia subduction zone. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In geology, aseismic creep is measurable surface displacement along a fault in the absence of notable earthquakes. ...


Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia. Instead, terranes and the accretionary wedge have been uplifted to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains. A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers (Fraser River, Columbia River, and Klamath River) which cross the Cascade Range contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench. However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is slowly being compressed, similar to a giant spring. When the stored energy is suddenly released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create very large earthquakes such as the magnitude 9 Cascadia earthquake of 1700. Geological evidence indicates that great earthquakes may have occurred at least seven times in the last 3,500 years, suggesting a return time of 400 to 600 years. There is also evidence of accompanying tsunamis with every earthquake, as the prime reason they know of these earthquakes is through "scars" the tsunami left on the coast, and through Japanese records (tsunami waves can travel across the pacific). The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Different definitions of Cascadia and related terms. ... A terrane in paleogeography is an accretion that has collided with a continental nucleus, or craton but can be recognized by the foreign origin of its rock strata. ... Fraser River watershed The Fraser River is the longest river in British Columbia, Canada, rising near Mount Robson in the Rocky Mountains and flowing for 1400 km (870 mi), into the Pacific Ocean at the city of Vancouver. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... The Klamath River, approximately 250 mi (400 km) long, is a major river of the Pacific coast in southern Oregon and northern California in the United States. ... Helical or coil springs designed for tension A spring is a flexible elastic object used to store mechanical energy. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... In science, a magnitude is the numerical size of something: see orders of magnitude. ... Cascadia subduction zone Cascadia earthquake sources The 1700 Cascadia Earthquake was a magnitude 8. ...


The subduction of the Juan de Fuca, Explorer, and Gorda plates have created a volcanic arc called the Cascade Volcanic Arc. It includes nearly 20 major volcanoes, among a total of over 4,000 separate volcanic vents including numerous stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and cinder cones, along with a few isolated examples of rarer volcanic forms such as tuyas. Volcanism in the arc began about 37 million years ago, however, most of the present-day Cascade volcanoes are less than 2,000,000 years old, and the highest peaks are less than 100,000 years old. Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ... One of the Mono Craters, an example of a rhyolite dome. ... Cinder Cone is a cinder cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. ... Herðubreið, Iceland The Table, British Columbia, Canada A tuya is a type of distinctive, flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet. ...


Canada

Mount Edziza, a massive shield volcano seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway
Mount Edziza, a massive shield volcano seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway
The Mount Meager volcanic complex as seen from the east near Pemberton, BC. Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager, and Plinth Peak.
The Mount Meager volcanic complex as seen from the east near Pemberton, BC. Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager, and Plinth Peak.
Mount Cayley as seen from its southeast slopes
Mount Cayley as seen from its southeast slopes

Although little-known to the general public, British Columbia and the Yukon Territory is home to a vast region of volcanoes and volcanic activity in the Pacific Ring of Fire.[6] Several mountains that many British Columbians look at every day are dormant volcanoes. Most of them have erupted during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Although none of Canada's volcanoes are currently erupting, several volcanoes, volcanic fields and volcanic centers are considered potentially active.[7] There are hot springs at some volcanoes while 10 volcanoes in British Columbia appear related to seismic activity since 1975, including: Mount Silverthrone, Mount Meager, Wells Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, Castle Rock, Lava Fork Valley, Mount Edziza, Hoodoo Mountain and Crow Lagoon.[8] The volcanoes are grouped into five volcanic belts with different tectonic settings. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stikine Volcanic Belt... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stikine Volcanic Belt... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ... British Columbia provincial highway 37, the Cassiar Highway, is the northwesternmost highway in the province, and it is very scenic, passing through some of the most isolated areas of B.C. The highway first gained its 37 designation in 1975, and at that time, its southern terminus was at the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 245 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 245 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Capricorn Mountain is one of the six named volcanic peaks of Mount Meager in British Columbia, Canada. ... Plinth Peak is a dormant volcano in British Columbia, Canada. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken in Squamish, BC on March 12th 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken in Squamish, BC on March 12th 2005. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... A squamish is a strong and often violent wind occurring in many of the fjord of British Columbia, akin to the Williwaw of the Alaska Panhandle. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... Towering over the city of Naples, Vesuvius is dormant but certainly not extinct A dormant volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting, but is believed to still be capable of erupting in the future. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... A volcanic field is a spot of the earths crust that is prone to localized volcanic activity. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Silverthrone is a deeply dissected caldera complex in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, located at the northern end of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt containing rhyolitic, dacitic and andesitic lava domes, lava flows and breccia. ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... The Wells Gray-Clearwater Volcanic Field is a field of volcanoes located in southeastern British Columbia. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... Castle Rock is a volcanic neck located 13 km west of Iskut and 8 km northwest of Tuktsayda Mountain in British Columbia, Canada. ... Lava Fork Valley is a valley in the Iskut volcanic field in northern British Columbia, Canada and is probably the youngest volcanic area in Canada. ... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Hoodoo Mountain is a flat-topped stratovolcano located in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. ... Crow Lagoon is a little-known volcanic center located north of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ...


Stikine Volcanic Belt

The Stikine Volcanic Belt is the most active volcanic region in Canada. It formed due to extensional cracking, faulting and rifting of the North American Plate, as the Pacific Plate grinds and slides past the Queen Charlotte Fault, unlike subduction that produces the volcanoes in Japan, Philippines and Indonesia. The region has Canada's largest volcanoes,[6] much larger than the minor stratovolcanoes found in the Canadian portion of the Cascade Volcanic Arc.[6] Several eruptions are known to have occurred within the last 400 years. Mount Edziza is a huge volcanic complex that erupted several times in the past several thousand of years, which has formed several cinder cones and lava flows. Hoodoo Mountain is a tuya in northwestern British Columbia, which has had several periods of subglacial eruptions. The oldest eruptions occurred about 100,000 years ago and the most recent being about 7000 years ago. Hoodoo Mountain is also considered active and could erupt in the future. The nearby Tseax River Cones and Lava Fork Valley produced some of Canada's youngest lava flows, that are about 150 years old. The Stikine Volcanic Belt (also called the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province) lies in northern British Columbia and continues to the Alaskian border and is Canadas most active volcanic region and has more than 100 volcanoes. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ... The Queen Charlotte Fault is a transform fault, located between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is a north-south range of volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia. ... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Cinder Cone is a cinder cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. ... In computer programming jargon, lava flow is a problem in which computer code, usually written under less than optimal conditions, is put into production and then built on when still in a developmental state. ... Hoodoo Mountain is a flat-topped stratovolcano located in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. ... Herðubreið, Iceland The Table, British Columbia, Canada A tuya is a type of distinctive, flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet. ... A subglacial eruption is a volcanic eruption that has occured under ice, or under a glacier. ... Active volcanoes are volcanoes constantly erupting, including Pompeii and Krakatoa. ... The Tseax River Cones are a set of pyroclastic cones and adjacent lava flows located 60km north of Terrace, British Columbia, in the Pacific Northwest region of Canada. ... Lava Fork Valley is a valley in the Iskut volcanic field in northern British Columbia, Canada and is probably the youngest volcanic area in Canada. ...


Canada's worst known geophyical disaster came from the Tseax River Cones in 1775 at the southernmost end of the volcanic belt. The eruption produced a 22.5 km long lava flow, destroying the Nisga'a villages and the death of at least 2000 Nisga'a people by volcanic gases and poisonous smoke. The Nass River valley was inundated by the lava flows and contain abundant tree molds and lava tubes. The event happened at the same time with the arrival of the first European explorers to penetrate the uncharted coastal waters of northern British Columbia. Today, the basaltic lava deposits are a draw to tourists and are part of the Nisga'a Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park. The Tseax River Cones are a set of pyroclastic cones and adjacent lava flows located 60km north of Terrace, British Columbia, in the Pacific Northwest region of Canada. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... Nisgaa flag Mask with open eyes, worn during winter halait ceremonies, 18th–early 19th century The Nisaa (pronounced Nis-gah) are of the First Nations of Canada. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Volcanic gases include a variety of substances given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanos. ... The Nass River is a river in northern British Columbia, Canada. ... Thurston Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Nisgaa Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada. ...


Garibaldi Volcanic Belt

The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States (which includes Mount Baker and Mount St. Helens) and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada.[9] It formed as a result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate (a remnant of the much larger Farallon Plate) under the North American Plate along the Cascadia subduction zone.[9] The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt includes the Bridge River Cones, Mount Cayley, Mount Fee, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Price, Mount Meager, the Squamish Volcanic Field and much more smaller volcanoes. The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite. Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes and small isolated lava masses. Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition, topography, and changing ice configurations. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is a north-south range of volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Mount Baker (elevation 10,778 feet, 3,285 m) is a glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascades of Washington State in the United States about 30 miles (50km) due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County. ... For the mountain in California, see Mount Saint Helena. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... A map of the Juan de Fuca Plate The Juan de Fuca Plate, named after the explorer, is a tectonic plate arising from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate. ... The Farallon Plate is an ancient tectonic plate which began subducting as Pangaea broke apart during the Jurassic period. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone Area of the Cascadia subduction zone The Cascadia subduction zone is a very long sloping fault that stretches from northern Vancouver Island to northern California. ... The Bridge River Cones is a volcanic field with a small group of trachybasaltic and basaltic eruptive centers at the northern end of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia. ... Mount Cayley is a eroded stratovolcano in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, which last erupted during the Pleistocene. ... Mount Fee is a volcanic neck located in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... Mount Price is a dormant stratovolcano located on the western shore of Garibaldi Lake in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, British Columbia, Canada. ... Mount Meager is a dormant stratovolcano with at least 8 vents, located 150 km north of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Effusive eruptions are a volcanic phenomenom; in some ways the opposite of explosive eruptions. ... An explosive eruption is a volcanic term to describe a violent, explosive type of eruption. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Rhyolite This page is about a volcanic rock. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Cinder Cone is a cinder cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ...


The most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was the 2350 BP eruption of Mount Meager as well as Canada. It was similar the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens,[9] sending an ash column approximately 20 km high into the stratosphere.[10] The 2350 BP eruption of Mount Meager was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption in southwestern British Columbia, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating of 5. ... The 1980 eruption of Mount St. ... Eruption column over Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines An eruption column consists of hot volcanic ash emitted during an explosive volcanic eruption. ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ...


Chilcotin Plateau Basalts

The Chilcotin Plateau Basalts are a north-south range of volcanoes in southern British Columbia running parallel to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. The majority of the eruptions in this belt happened either 6–10 million years ago (Miocene) or 2–3 million years ago (Pliocene), although there have been some slightly more recent eruptions (in the Pleistocene).[11] It is thought to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone.[11] Volcanoes in this belt include Mount Noel, the Clisbako Caldera Complex, Lightning Peak, Black Dome Mountain and many lava flows. The Chilcotin Plateau Basalts are a north-south range of volcanoes in southern British Columbia running parallel to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is a north-south range of volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Back-arc basins (or retro-arc basins) are geologic features, submarine basins associated with island arcs and subduction zones. ... Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone Area of the Cascadia subduction zone The Cascadia subduction zone is a very long sloping fault that stretches from northern Vancouver Island to northern California. ... Mount Noel is a Miocene volcanic complex in the Chilcotin Plateau Basalts in British Columbia, Canada, located 7 km southwest of Bralorne and north of a tributary of Noel Creek. ... The Clisbako Caldera Complex is a large dissected Eocene caldera complex in the Chilcotin Plateau Basalts in southern British Columbia, Canada. ... Lightming Peak is an eroded volcanic outcrop in the Chilcotin Plateau Basalts, British Columbia, Canada, located 31 km west of Needles. ... Black Dome Mountain is an ancient butte-like volcano located in the formation known as the Chilcotin Plateau Basalts, which lie between the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains and the mid-Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada. ...


Anahim Volcanic Belt

The Anahim Volcanic Belt is a line of volcanoes stretching from just north of Vancouver Island to near Quesnel, British Columbia, Canada. These volcanoes were formed 8-1 million years ago and the Nazko Cone which last erupted only 7,200 years ago.[12] The volcanoes generally get younger as you go from the coast to the interior. These volcanoes are thought to have formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over a small hotspot, called the Anahim hotspot.[12] The hotspot is considered similar to the one feeding the Hawaiian Islands[12] The belt is defined by three large shield volcanoes (Rainbow, Ilgachuz and the Itcha Ranges) and 37 Quaternary basalt centers. The Anahim Volcanic Belt is a range of volcanoes in British Columbia, stretching from just north of Vancouver Island to near Quesnel, British Columbia. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... Quesnel is a city in the Cariboo District of British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Nazko Cone is the easternmost cinder cone in the Anahim Volcanic Belt in central British Columbia. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... The Anahim hotspot is a hotspot which is partly responsible for the volcanic activity which forms the volcanoes in central British Columbia, Canada. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ... The Rainbow Range is on the western edge of the Chilcotin Plateau, adjoining the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the south, and the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the north. ... The Ilgachuz Range is one of the three eroded, major shield volcanoes in the Anahim Volcanic Belt in British Columbia, Canada, located 20 miles (30 km) north of Anahim Lake. ... The Itcha Range is one of the several eroded, major shield volcanoes that form the Anahim Volcanic Belt in the Chilcotin District of the West-Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ...


Indonesia

The volcanoes in Indonesia are among the most active of the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 BP which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x527, 405 KB) Summary Photo of Statovolcano Merapi in central Java, Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x527, 405 KB) Summary Photo of Statovolcano Merapi in central Java, Indonesia. ... This article is about Mount Merapi in Central Java. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... An early 19th century image of Krakatoa. ... Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a lake, 100 km long and 30 km wide, and 505 m. ... A supervolcano refers to a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... A volcanic winter is the reduction in temperature caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun, usually after a volcanic eruption. ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...


The most active volcanoes are Kelut and Merapi on Java island which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region. Since AD 1000, Kelut has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, while Merapi has erupted more than 80 times. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior has named Merapi as a Decade Volcano since 1995 because of its high volcanic activity. Kelut is a volcano located on the island of Java in Indonesia. ... Mount Merapi is a conical volcano in Central Java, Indonesia. ... This article is about the Java island. ... VEI and ejecta volume correlation The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was devised by Chris Newhall of the U.S. Geological Survey and Steve Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982 to provide a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. ... The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earths Interior, or IAVCEI, is an association that represents the primary international focus for research in volcanology, efforts to mitigate volcanic disasters, and research into closely related disciplines, such as igneous geochemistry and petrology, geochronology, volcanogenic mineral deposits, and the... A map showing locations of the 16 Decade Volcanoes The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earths Interior (IAVCEI) as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Japan

Ten percent of the world's active volcanoes are found in Japan, which lies in a zone of extreme crustal instability. They are formed by subduction of the Pacific and Philippine plates. As many as 1,500 earthquakes are recorded yearly, and magnitudes of four to six on the Richter scale are not uncommon. Minor tremors occur almost daily in one part of the country or another, causing slight shaking of buildings. Major earthquakes occur infrequently; the most famous in the twentieth century was the great Kantō earthquake of 1923, in which 130,000 people died. Undersea earthquakes also expose the Japanese coastline to danger from tsunamis. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... Great Kanto Earthquake The Great Kanto Earthquake (関東大震災 Kantō daishinsai) struck the Kanto plain on the Japanese main island of Honshu at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...


Mount Bandai is one of Japan's most noted volcanoes, rises above the north shore of Lake Inawashiro. Mount Bandai is formed of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, the largest of which is O-Bandai forming a complex volcano. O-Bandai volcano was constructed within a horseshoe-shaped caldera that formed about 40,000 years when an earlier volcano collapsed, forming the Okinajima debris avalanche, which traveled to the southwest and was accompanied by a plinian eruption. Four major phreatic eruptions have occurred during the past 5,000 years, two of them in historical time, in 806 and 1888. Seen from the south, Bandai presents a conical profile, but much of the north side of the volcano is missing as a result of the collapse of Ko-Bandai volcano during the 1888 eruption, in which a debris avalanche buried several villages and formed several large lakes. Mount Bandai at sunrise Mount Bandai ) is a volcano in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. ... Lake Inawashiro is the fourth-largest lake in Japan, located in the middle of Fukushima Prefecture, close to Mount Bandai. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... Homa Mountain, Kenya in 1994 Mount Edziza, British Columbia, Canada as seen from Stewart-Cassiar Highway An eruption of Pacaya, Guatemala in 1976 Mt. ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... Phreatic eruption at the summit of Mount St. ... Events April 12 - Nicephorus elected patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Tarasius. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ...


Nearly a century ago, the north flank of Mount Bandai collapsed during an eruption quite similar to the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. After a week of seismic activity, a large earthquake on July 15, 1888, was followed by a tremendous noise and a large explosion. Eyewitnesses hear about 15 to 20 additional explosions and observed that the last one was projected almost horizontally to the north. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1980 eruption of Mount St. ...


Mount Fuji is Japan's highest and most noted volcano. The modern postglacial stratovolcano is constructed above a group of overlapping volcanoes, remnants of which form irregularities on Fuji's profile. Growth of the younger Mount Fuji began with a period of voluminous lava flows from 11,000 to 8,000 years ago, accounting for four-fifths of the volume of the younger Mount Fuji. Minor explosive eruptions dominated activity from 8,000 to 4,500 years ago, with another period of major lava flows occurring from 4,500 to 3,000 years ago. Subsequently, intermittent major explosive eruptions occurred, with subordinate lava flows and small pyroclastic flows. Summit eruptions dominated from 3,000 to 2,000 years ago, after which flank vents were active. The extensive basaltic lava flows from the summit and some of the more than 100 flank cones and vents blocked drainages against the Tertiary Misaka Mountains on the north side of the volcano, forming the Fuji Five Lakes. The last eruption of this dominantly basaltic volcano in 1707 ejected andesitic pumice and formed a large new crater on the east flank. Scientists are saying that there may be some minor volcanic activity in the next few years. heyyah emily lv ya ldz huni xxx Mount Fuji Mount Fuji , IPA: )  , is the highest mountain in Japan. ... An explosive eruption is a volcanic term to describe a violent, explosive type of eruption. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... View of Mt. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... // Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Philippines

Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines.

The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo is the world's second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Successful predictions of the onset of the climactic eruption led to the evacuation of tens of thousands of people from the surrounding areas, saving many lives, but as the surrounding areas were severely damaged by pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and later, lahars caused by rainwater remobilising earlier volcanic deposits, thousands of houses were destroyed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (351x752, 23 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geography of the Philippines Mayon Volcano Mount Pinatubo Taal Volcano Kanlaon Ragang ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (351x752, 23 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geography of the Philippines Mayon Volcano Mount Pinatubo Taal Volcano Kanlaon Ragang ... Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, at the intersection of the borders of the provinces of Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ...


Mayon Volcano is Philippines most active volcano. The volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35–40 degrees and is capped by a small summit crater. The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian eruptions. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon Volcano is an active volcano in the Philippines on the island of Luzon, in the province of Albay in the Bicol Region. ... Craters on Mount Cameroon Perhaps the most conspicuous part of a volcano is the crater, a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... Strombolian eruptions are relatively low-level volcanic eruptions, named after Stromboli, where such eruptions consist of rhytmical ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli and lava bombs to altitudes of tens to hundreds of meters. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... A mudflow or mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h) and fluid type of downhill mass wasting. ...


Taal Volcano has had 33 recorded eruptions since 1572. A devastating eruption occurred in 1911, which claimed more than a thousand lives. The deposits of that eruption consisted of a yellowish, fairly decomposed (non-juvenile) tephra with a high sulfur content. The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977, and was characterized by the interaction of magma with the lake water, which produced violent phreatic explosions. Although the volcano has been dormant since 1977, it has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud geysers on parts of the island. Taal Volcano is an active volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Phreatic eruption at the summit of Mount St. ...


Kanlaon is the most active volcano in central Philippines and has erupted 25 times since 1866. Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano. On August 10, 1996, Kanlaon erupted without warning, killing British student Julian Green and Filipinos Noel Tragico and Neil Perez, who were among 24 mountainclimbers who were trapped near the summit. Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Kamchatka Peninsula

The Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, is one of the most various and active volcanic areas in the world,[13] with an area of 472,300 km². It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Okhotsk Sea to the west. Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500 meter deep Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. This is where rapid subduction of the Pacific Plate fuels the intense volcanism. Almost all types of volcanic activity are present, from stratovolcanoes and shield volcanoes to Hawaiian-style fissure eruptions.[13] “Kamchatka” redirects here. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... The Sea of Okhotsk (from the Russian Okhotskoe more) is a part of the western Pacific Ocean, lying between the Kamchatka Peninsula and the disputed Russo-Japanese Kurile Islands on the east, the Japanese island of Hokkaido to the south and the island of Sakhalin, the Amur province of Siberia... The Kuril-Kamchatka Trench or Kuril Trench is an oceanic trench with a maximum depth of 10500 m (34000 ft). ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ... Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ...


There are over 30 active volcanoes and hundreds of dormant and extinct volcanoes in two major volcanic belts. The most recent activity takes place in the eastern belt,[13] starting in the north at the Shiveluch volcanic complex, which lies at the junction of the Aleutian and Kamchatka volcanic arcs. Just to the south is the famous Klyuchi volcanic group, comprising the twin volcanic cones of Kliuchevskoi and Kamen, the huge volcanic complexes of Tolbachik and Ushkovsky, and a number of other large stratovolcanoes. The only active volcano in the central belt is found west of here, the huge remote Ichinsky. Farther south, the eastern belt continues to the southern slope of Kamchatka, topped by loads of stratovolcanoes. Towering over the city of Naples, Vesuvius is dormant but certainly not extinct A dormant volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting, but is believed to still be capable of erupting in the future. ... An Extinct volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting and which is not considered likely to erupt in the future. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... Shiveluch (Russian: ) is the northernmost active volcano in Kamchatka, Russia, located at . ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... Klyuchi may refer to: Klyuchi, Kamchatka Krai, a former town in Kamchatka Oblast, Russia; since 2004—a settlement; since 2007—in Kamchatka Krai Klyuchi, Klyuchevsky District, Altai Krai, a village (selo) in Klyuchevsky District of Altai Krai, Russia Klyuchi, Topchikhinsky District, Altai Krai, a settlement in Topchikhinsky District of Altai... Puu Ōō, a cinder-and-spatter cone on Kīlauea, Hawaii Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcano formations in the world. ... Klyuchevskaya Sopka is the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and the highest volcano in Kamchatka. ... Kamen is a volcano located in the southern part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, flanked by Bezymianny and Kluchevskaya. ... Tolbachik is a volcanic complex on the Kamchatka peninsula in the far east of Russia. ... Ushkovsky (formerly known as Plosky) is a large volcanic massif located in the central part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. ... Ichinsky is a volcano located in the central part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount Damavand, a stratovolcano in Māzandarān, Iran Mount St. ...


Antarctica

The southernmost end of the Pacific Ring of Fire is the continent Antarctica,[14] which includes many large volcanoes. The makeup and structure of the volcanoes in Antarctica change largely from the other places around the ring. In contrast, the Antarctic Plate is almost completely surrounded by extensional zones, with several mid-ocean ridges which encircle it, and there is only a small subduction zone at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, reaching eastward to the remote South Sandwich Islands.[14] The most well known volcano in Antarctica is Mount Erebus, which is also the world's southernmost active volcano.[14] Image File history File links Mount Erebus, Antarctica Photo by Richard Waitt, 1972 (U.S. Geological Survey). ... Image File history File links Mount Erebus, Antarctica Photo by Richard Waitt, 1972 (U.S. Geological Survey). ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Antarctic plate is shown in blue on this map The Antarctic Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans. ... A mid-ocean ridge or mid-oceanic ridge is an underwater mountain range, formed by plate tectonics. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ...


Victoria Land and Ross Island

The volcanoes of the Victoria Land area are the most well-known in Antarctica,[14] most likely because they are the most accessible. Much of Victoria Land is mountainous, developing the eastern section of the Transantarctic Mountains, and there are several scattered volcanoes including Mount Overlord and Mount Melbourne in the northern part.[14] Farther south are two more well-known volcanoes, Mount Discovery and Mount Morning, which are on the coast across from Mount Erebus and Mount Terror on Ross Island. The volcanism in this area is caused by rifting along a number of rift zones increasing mainly north-south similar to the coast.[14] Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ... The Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... Topographic map of Mount Overlord (1:250,000 scale) Sources Amar Andalkar (2005-). Amar Andalkars Ski Mountaineering and Climbing Site. ... Mount Melbourne is a massive volcanic cone of great beauty, surmounting the projection of the coast between Wood Bay and Terra Nova Bay, in Victoria Land of Antarctica. ... Topographic map of the Mount Discovery (1:250,000 scale) from USGS Mount Discovery Sources Amar Andalkar (2005-). Amar Andalkars Ski Mountaineering and Climbing Site. ... Topographic map of Mounts Morning and Discovery (1:250,000 scale) from USGS Mount Discovery Sources Amar Andalkar (2005-). Amar Andalkars Ski Mountaineering and Climbing Site. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Mount Terror can refer to: Mount Terror in Antarctica Mount Terror in Washington, USA This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Marie Byrd Land

Marie Byrd Land contains the largest volcanic region in Antarctica, covering a length of almost 600 miles (960 km) along the Pacific coast.[14] The volcanism is the result of rifting along the vast West Antarctic Rift, which extends from the base of the Antarctic Peninsula to the surrounding area of Ross Island, and the volcanoes are found along the northern edge of the rift.[14] Protruding up through the ice are a large number of major shield volcanoes, including Mount Sidley, which is the highest volcano in Antarctica.[14] Although a number of the volcanoes are relatively young and are potentially active (Mount Berlin, Mount Takahe, Mount Waesche, and Mount Siple), others such as Mount Andrus and Mount Hampton are over 10 million years old, yet maintain uneroded constructional forms.[14] The desert-like surroundings of the Antarctic interior, along with a very thick and stable ice sheet which encloses and protects the bases of the volcanoes, which decreases the speed of erosion by an issue of perhaps a thousand relative to volcanoes in moist temperate or tropical climates. Map of Antarctica Marie Byrd Land is the portion of Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. ... The West Antarctic Rift is a major, active rift valley lying between East and West Antarctica. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ... Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallowly-sloping sides. ... Topographic map of Mounts Sidley and Waesche (1:250,000 scale) Sources Amar Andalkar (2005-). Amar Andalkars Ski Mountaineering and Climbing Site. ... Topographic map of Mounts Moulton and Berlin (1:250,000 scale) Sources Siebert L, Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. ... Mount Takahe is a large, snow covered shield volcano standing 64 km SE of Toney Mountain in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. ... Topographic map of Mounts Sidley and Waesche (1:250,000 scale) Sources Amar Andalkar (2005-). Amar Andalkars Ski Mountaineering and Climbing Site. ... Mount Siple (73°15′ S 126°6′ W) is a massive, conical, snow-covered mountain, rising to 3,110 m and dominating the northwest part of Siple Island, which is separated from Bakutis Coast, Marie Byrd Land, by the Getz Ice Shelf. ... Topographic map of the Ames Range (1:250,000 scale) from USGS Mount Kosciusko Sources Siebert L, Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. ... Mount Hampton is an impressive mountain with a ciCan i have a tissue please because i am done with mi buisness and i am very wet with desire are you well not really bisnitch. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...


See also

The Andesite Line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. ... The Pacific Northwest region of the United States is still geologically active. ...

References

  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes FAQ.
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes Visual Glossary.
  3. ^ Moving slabs [This Dynamic Earth, USGS].
  4. ^ Latest Earthquakes in the USA - Past 7 days, USGS.
  5. ^ Schulz, Sandra S., and Robert E. Wallace, "The San Andreas Fault", USGS.
  6. ^ a b c Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire and Beyond: Alaska and Northwest Canada Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  7. ^ CAT.INIST: Canadian volcanoes Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  8. ^ Volcanoes of Canada Retrieved on 2007-06-24
  9. ^ a b c Calalogue of Canadian volcanoes - Garibaldi Volcanic Belt Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  10. ^ Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes: Mount Meager Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  11. ^ a b Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes - Chilcotin Plateau basalts Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  12. ^ a b c Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes - Anahim Volcanic Belt Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  13. ^ a b c Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire and Beyond: Kamchatka & Kuril Islands Retrieved on 2007-08-01
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire and Beyong: Antarctica Retrieved 2007-07-31

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Pacific Ring of Fire - Crystalinks (580 words)
The Ring of Fire is a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that encircles the basin of the Pacific Ocean.
The Ring of Fire is a direct consequence of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates.
The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate.
NOAA Ocean Explorer: Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 (839 words)
The 4 previous Submarine Ring of Fire expeditions are indicated at Explorer Ridge, Kermadec Arc and the Mariana Arc.
The 2006 Submarine Ring of Fire expedition is the third in a series of explorations of the submarine volcanoes lying along the Mariana Arc, extending from south of the island of Guam northward more than 800 nautical miles (1450 km).
Submarine Ring of Fire 2004 - Mariana Arc
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