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Encyclopedia > Pacific Ocean Areas

Pacific Ocean Areas was a major %20%20In%20general%2C%20allies%20are%20people%20or%20groups%20that%20have%20joined%20an%20alliance%20and%20are%20working%20together%20to%20achieve%20some%20common%20purpose.%20... Allied military command during %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Mushroom%20cloud%20from%20the%20%20%20nuclear%20explosion%20over%20%20%20Nagasaki%20rising%2018%20km%20(60%2C000%20ft)%20into%20the%20air.%20%20%20... World War II. It was one of four major commands during the %20%20%20The%20Pacific%20War%20(1937%26%238211%3B1945)%20is%20not%20to%20be%20confused%20with%20the%20War%20of%20the%20Pacific%20(1879%26%238211%3B1884)%20in%20South%20America.%20%20%20%20%20%20... Pacific War, and one of two %20%20%20The%20United%20States%20of%20America%20%26%238212%3B%20also%20referred%20to%20as%20the%20United%20States%2C%20the%20U.... United States commands in the %20%20The%20Pacific%20Theater%20of%20Operations%20(PTO)%20is%20the%20term%20used%20in%20the%20United%20States%20for%20all%20military%20activity%20in%20the%20Pacific%20Ocean%20and%20the%20countries%20bordering%20it%2C%20in%20World%20War%20II.%20... Pacific theatre of operations. Admiral %20%20%20%20%20%20%20Chester%20Nimitz%20%20%20Chester%20William%20Nimitz%20(February%2024%2C%201885%20_%20February%2020%2C%201966)%20was%20the%20Commander%20in%20Chief%20of%20Pacific%20Forces%20for%20the%20United%20States%20and%20Allied%20forces%20during%20World%20War%20II.%20... Chester Nimitz of the %20%20%20The%20United%20States%20Navy%20(USN)%20is%20the%20branch%20of%20the%20United%20States%20armed%20forces%20responsible%20for%20naval%20operations.%20... US Navy headed the command throughout its existence.

Enlarge
Map of Pacific Theater

The vast majority of Allied forces in the theatre were from the %20%20%20The%20United%20States%20Navy%20(USN)%20is%20the%20branch%20of%20the%20United%20States%20armed%20forces%20responsible%20for%20naval%20operations.%20... US Navy and %20%20%20%20%20%20United%20States%20Marine%20Corps%20Emblem%20%20%20The%20United%20States%20Marine%20Corps%20(USMC)%20is%20the%20second%20smallest%20of%20the%20five%20branches%20of%20the%20United%20States%20armed%20forces%2C%20with%20170%2C000%20active%20and%2040%2C000%20reserve%20Marines%20as%20of%202002.%20... US Marine Corps. However units and/or personnel from %20%20%20%20For%20alternative%20meanings%2C%20see%20New%20Zealand%20(disambiguation).%20%20... New Zealand, the %20%20%20The%20United%20Kingdom%20of%20Great%20Britain%20and%20Northern%20Ireland%20is%20a%20%20%20country%20in%20%20%20western%20Europe%2C%20and%20a%20member%20of%20the%20%20%20British%20Commonwealth%20and%20%20%20European%20Union.%20... United Kingdom, %20%20%20Australia%2C%20officially%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Australia%2C%20is%20the%20sixth-largest%20country%20in%20the%20world%2C%20the%20only%20one%20to%20occupy%20an%20entire%20%20%20continent%2C%20and%20the%20largest%20in%20the%20region%20of%20%20%20Australasia%2F%20%20Oceania.%20... Australia, %20%20%20Canada%20is%20an%20independent%20%20%20sovereign%20state%20in%20northern%20%20%20North%20America%2C%20the%20northern-most%20country%20in%20the%20world%2C%20and%20the%20second%20largest%20in%20total%20area.%20... Canada, %20%20%20The%20Republic%20of%20the%20Fiji%20Islands%20occupies%20an%20archipelago%20in%20the%20South%20Pacific%20Ocean%2C%20east%20of%20Vanuatu%2C%20west%20of%20Tonga%20and%20south%20of%20Tuvalu.%20%20%20%20%20... Fiji and other countries also saw active service.


On %20%20%20March%2024%20is%20the%2083rd%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20Gregorian%20Calendar%20(84th%20in%20Leap%20years).%20... 24 March %20%20%201942%20was%20a%20%20%20common%20year%20starting%20on%20Thursday%20(link%20will%20take%20you%20to%20calendar).%20%20%20... 1942, the newly-formed British and US %20%20%20The%20Combined%20Chiefs%20of%20Staff%20was%20the%20supreme%20military%20command%20for%20the%20western%20Allies%20during%20World%20War%20II.%20... Combined Chiefs of Staff issued a directive designating the Pacific theater an area of American strategic responsibility. Six days later the US %20%20%20The%20Joint%20Chiefs%20of%20Staff%20is%20a%20panel%20comprising%20the%20highest-ranking%20members%20of%20each%20major%20branch%20of%20the%20armed%20services%20in%20any%20particular%20country.%20... Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) divided the Pacific theater into three areas: the Pacific Ocean Areas (POA), the %20%20%20This%20article%20deals%20with%20the%20military%20command%2Ftheatre%20known%20as%20the%20South%20West%20Pacific%20Area.%20... Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA), and the South East Pacific Area.


The JCS designated Admiral Chester W. Nimitz as Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CINCPOA), with operational control over all units (air, land, and sea) in that area. Mainland %20%20%20%20%20%20%20World%20map%20showing%20location%20of%20Asia%20%20%20%20%20%20%20A%20satellite%20composite%20image%20of%20Asia%20%20%20Asia%20is%20the%20central%20and%20eastern%20part%20of%20the%20%20%20continent%20of%20%20%20Eurasia%2C%20defined%20by%20subtracting%20the%20%20%20European%20peninsula%20from%20Eurasia.%20%20%20... Asia was excluded from the POA, as were the %20%20%20The%20Republic%20of%20the%20Philippines%20is%20an%20island%20nation%20consisting%20of%20an%20archipelago%20of%207%2C107%20islands%2C%20lying%20in%20the%20tropical%20western%20Pacific%20Ocean%20about%20100%20kilometers%20southeast%20of%20mainland%20Asia.%20... Philippines, the %20%20The%20Dutch%20East%20Indies%2C%20or%20Netherlands%20East%20Indies%2C%20(Dutch%3A%20Nederlands%20Indi%5CxEB)%20was%20the%20name%20of%20the%20colonies%20colonised%20by%20the%20Dutch%20East%20India%20Company%20which%20came%20under%20administration%20of%20the%20Netherlands%20during%20the%20ninteenth%20century%20(see%20Indonesia).%20... Netherlands East Indies, the Territory of %20%20%20%20New%20Guinea%2C%20located%20just%20north%20of%20Australia%2C%20is%20the%20world%5Cs%20second%20largest%20island%20having%20become%20separated%20from%20the%20Australian%20mainland%20when%20the%20area%20now%20known%20as%20the%20Torres%20Strait%20flooded%20around%205000%20BC.%20... New Guinea (including the %20%20%20The%20Bismarck%20Archipelago%20is%20a%20group%20of%20islands%20off%20the%20coast%20of%20New%20Guinea%20in%20the%20southwestern%20Pacific%20Ocean%2C%20named%20in%20honour%20of%20the%20German%20chancellor%20Otto%20von%20Bismarck%20and%20belonging%20to%20Papua%20New%20Guinea.%20... Bismarck Archipelago) and the western part of the %20%20The%20Solomon%20Islands%20is%20a%20nation%20in%20the%20South%20Pacific%20Ocean%2C%20east%20of%20Papua%20New%20Guinea%20and%20is%20part%20of%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Nations.%20... Solomon Islands. US strategic bomber forces in the theatre were under the direct control of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff. All land forces in %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20State%20nickname%3A%20The%20Last%20Frontier%2C%20The%20Land%20of%20the%20Midnight%20Sun%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Other%20U.... Alaska and %20%20%20Canada%20is%20an%20independent%20%20%20sovereign%20state%20in%20northern%20%20%20North%20America%2C%20the%20northern-most%20country%20in%20the%20world%2C%20and%20the%20second%20largest%20in%20total%20area.%20... Canada remained under the control of the %20%20%20The%20Army%20is%20the%20branch%20of%20the%20%20%20United%20States%20armed%20forces%20which%20has%20primary%20responsibility%20for%20land-based%20military%20operations.%20... US Army's Western Defense Command.


The Joint Chiefs further divided the Pacific Ocean Areas into the North, Central, and South Pacific Areas. Nimitz designated subordinate commanders for the North and South Pacific Areas (NORPAC and SOPAC) but retained the Central Pacific Area (CENPAC), including the Hawaiian Department, under his direct command.


In the separate South West Pacific Area, General %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20MacArthur%20landing%20at%20Leyte%20Beach%20in%201944.%20%20%20... Douglas MacArthur assumed command. The effective result of this organizational scheme was the creation of two separate commands in the Pacific: POA and SWPA, each reporting separately to the Joint Chiefs, each competing for scarce resources in an economy-of-force theater, and each headed by a commander in chief (CINC) from a different service. In particular, the division of the Solomons caused problems, since the battles of the Solomon Islands campaign in 1942–1943 ranged over the whole region, with the main %20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20Official%20language%20%20%20Japanese%20%20%20%20%20Capital%20%20%20Tokyo%20%20%20Largest%20City%20%20%20Tokyo%20%20%20%20%20Emperor%20%20%20Akihito%20%20%20%20%20Prime%20Minister%20%20%20Junichiro%20Koizumi%20%20%20%20%20Area%20%26%23160%3B-%20Total%20%26%23160%3B-%20%25%20water%20%20%20Ranked%2060th%20377%2C835%20km%26%23178%3B%200.... Japanese bases in SWPA and the main Allied bases in SOPAC.


Commanders, South Pacific Area

  • Vice Admiral %20%20%20Robert%20Lee%20Ghormley%20(15%20October%201883%20%26%238211%3B%2021%20June%201958)%20was%20an%20admiral%20of%20the%20United%20States%20Navy%20during%20World%20War%20II.%20%20%20%20%20... Robert L. Ghormley (%20%20%20June%2019%20is%20the%20170th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20(171st%20in%20leap%20years)%20in%20the%20Gregorian%20Calendar%2C%20with%20195%20days%20remaining.%20%20%20%20... 19 June%20%20%20October%2018%20is%20the%20291st%20day%20of%20the%20year%20(292nd%20in%20Leap%20years).%20... 18 October %20%20%201942%20was%20a%20%20%20common%20year%20starting%20on%20Thursday%20(link%20will%20take%20you%20to%20calendar).%20%20%20... 1942)
  • Vice Adm./Adm. %20%20%20%20%20%20William%20%5CBull%5C%20Halsey%20%20%20William%20Frederick%20%5CBull%5C%20Halsey%2C%20Jr.%20(... William F. Halsey (%20%20%20October%2018%20is%20the%20291st%20day%20of%20the%20year%20(292nd%20in%20Leap%20years).%20... 18 October %20%20%201942%20was%20a%20%20%20common%20year%20starting%20on%20Thursday%20(link%20will%20take%20you%20to%20calendar).%20%20%20... 1942%20%20%20June%2015%20is%20the%20166th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20Gregorian%20calendar%20(167th%20in%20leap%20years)%2C%20with%20199%20days%20remaining.%20%20%20%20... 15 June %20%20%201944%20was%20a%20%20%20leap%20year%20starting%20on%20Saturday%20(link%20will%20take%20you%20to%20calendar).%20%20%20... 1944)
  • Vice Adm. John H. Newton (%20%20%20June%2015%20is%20the%20166th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20Gregorian%20calendar%20(167th%20in%20leap%20years)%2C%20with%20199%20days%20remaining.%20%20%20%20... 15 June %20%20%201944%20was%20a%20%20%20leap%20year%20starting%20on%20Saturday%20(link%20will%20take%20you%20to%20calendar).%20%20%20... 1944%20%20%20March%2013%20is%20the%2072nd%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20%20%20Gregorian%20calendar%20(73rd%20in%20%20%20leap%20years).%20... 13 March %20%20%20%201945%20was%20a%20%20%20common%20year%20starting%20on%20Monday%20(link%20will%20take%20you%20to%20calendar).%20%20%20... 1945)
  • Vice Adm. William L. Calhoun (%20%20%20March%2013%20is%20the%2072nd%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20%20%20Gregorian%20calendar%20(73rd%20in%20%20%20leap%20years).%20... 13 March%20%20%20September%202%20is%20the%20245th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20(246th%20in%20%20%20leap%20years).%20... 2 September 1945)

Commanders, North Pacific Area

  • Rear Adm. Robert A. Theobald (%20%20%20May%2017%20is%20the%20137th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20Gregorian%20Calendar%20(138th%20in%20leap%20years).%20... 17 May %20%20%201942%20was%20a%20%20%20common%20year%20starting%20on%20Thursday%20(link%20will%20take%20you%20to%20calendar).%20%20%20... 1942%20%20%20January%204%20is%20the%204th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20Gregorian%20Calendar.%20... 4 January 1943)
  • Rear Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid (%20%20%20January%204%20is%20the%204th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20in%20the%20Gregorian%20Calendar.%20... 4 January%20%20%20October%2011%20is%20the%20284th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20(285th%20in%20Leap%20years).%20... 11 October 1943)
  • Vice Adm. %20%20%20%20%20%20Vice%20Admiral%20Frank%20Jack%20Fletcher%2C%20USN%20Photographed%20on%20board%20ship%2C%2017%20September%201942.%20... Frank J. Fletcher (%20%20%20October%2011%20is%20the%20284th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20(285th%20in%20Leap%20years).%20... 11 October %20%20%201943%20is%20a%20%20%20common%20year%20starting%20on%20Friday.%20%20%20%20... 1943%20%20%20September%202%20is%20the%20245th%20day%20of%20the%20year%20(246th%20in%20%20%20leap%20years).%20... 2 September 1945)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Pacific Ocean Areas (12243 words)
The strategic Pacific areas that were to prevail throughout most of the war were established in March 1942.
One noteworthy feature of the South Pacific Malaria and Insect Control Organization was that from its inception its head, a Navy doctor, was placed at the highest level of command in the South Pacific Area; a similar position for the island or base malariologist was early established.
Most observers found that the organization in the South Pacific worked more smoothly than that in the Southwest Pacific Area, where the question of the proper structure and placement of the malaria control organization was bandied about for some time and where control over the effective employment of units was lost through their assignment.
Pacific Ocean Areas Information (498 words)
It was one of four major commands during the Pacific War, and one of two United States commands in the Pacific theatre of operations.
Mainland Asia was excluded from the POA, as were the Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies, the Territory of New Guinea (including the Bismarck Archipelago) and the western part of the Solomon Islands.
The effective result of this organizational scheme was the creation of two separate commands in the Pacific: POA and SWPA, each reporting separately to the Joint Chiefs, each competing for scarce resources in an economy-of-force theater, and each headed by a commander in chief (CINC) from a different service.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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