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Encyclopedia > Pacific Ocean
Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)

The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. Its name is derived from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, "peaceful sea", bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. It extends from the Arctic in the north to Antarctica in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia on the west and the Americas on the east. At 169.2 million square kilometers (65.3 million square miles) in area, this largest division of the World Ocean – and, in turn, the hydrosphere – covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about 32% of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined.[1] The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the Pacific and the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,798 ft).[2] ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical feature. ...

Contents

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Overview

Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the International Space Station. Anvil tops of thunderclouds are also visible.
Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the International Space Station. Anvil tops of thunderclouds are also visible.

The ocean encompasses almost a third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 179.7 million square kilometres (69.4 million sq mi and 161 million cubic mi) —significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass, with room for another Africa to spare. Extending approximately 15,500 kilometres (9,600  mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the icy margins of Antarctica's Ross Sea in the south (although the Antarctic regions of the Pacific are sometimes described as part of the circumpolar Southern Ocean), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 kilometres (12,300 mi) from Indonesia to the coast of Colombia and Peru - halfway across the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon. The western limit of the ocean is often placed at the Strait of Malacca. The lowest point on earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 meters (35,797 ft) below sea level. Its average depth is 4,280 metres (14,000 ft)[1]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (3032 × 2064 pixel, file size: 759 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // This view of Earths horizon as the sun sets over the Pacific Ocean was taken by an Expedition 7 crew member onboard the International Space... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (3032 × 2064 pixel, file size: 759 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) // This view of Earths horizon as the sun sets over the Pacific Ocean was taken by an Expedition 7 crew member onboard the International Space... ISS redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This article is about the geographical feature. ...


The Pacific contains about 25,000 islands (more than the total number in the rest of the world's oceans combined), the majority of which are found south of the equator. Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined). ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ...


The Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking from plate tectonics, while the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea. The Strait of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian Oceans on the west, and the Strait of Magellan links the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. To the north, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean. Celebes Sea The Celebes Sea (or the Sulawesi Sea (Indonesian: Laut Sulawesi) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi, and on... Map of the Coral Sea Islands A political map of the South Pacific. ... For other uses, see East Sea (Chinese mythology). ... The Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east of Philippines. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... The Sulu Sea is a large sea in the southwestern area of the Philippines. ... fuck you Map of the Tasman Sea Satellite photo of the Tasman Sea The Tasman Sea is the large body of water between Australia and New Zealand, some 2000 kilometres (1250 miles) across. ... ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05...


As the Pacific straddles the ± 180° meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is actually in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is actually in the Western Hemisphere. The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...

Storm in Pacifica, California
Storm in Pacifica, California

For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful. However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many tropical cyclones (typhoons, the equivalent of Atlantic hurricanes), batter the islands of the Pacific. The lands around the Pacific rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes. Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and destroyed entire towns. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,500 × 1,667 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,500 × 1,667 pixels, file size: 2. ... -1... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...


Water characteristics

Water temperatures in the Pacific vary from freezing in the poleward areas to about 30 °C (86 °F) near the equator. Salinity also varies latitudinally. The water near the equator is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. Poleward of the temperate latitudes salinity is also low, because little evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas. The Atlantic Ocean is generally about 16 degrees F( 9 degrees C)warmer than the Pacific ocean for any given latitude.[citation needed] Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


The surface circulation of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (the North Pacific Gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current. Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... The currents of the North Pacific Gyre The North Pacific Gyre (also known as North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) is a clockwise-swirling vortex of ocean currents comprising most of the northern Pacific Ocean. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... The North Equatorial Current is a significant Pacific and Atlantic Ocean current that flows east-to-west between the equator and 10° north. ... Image:Atmospheric circulatlion. ... The Kuroshio Current is an ocean current found in the western Pacific Ocean off the east coast of Taiwan and flowing northeastward past Japan, where it merges with the easterly drift of the North Pacific Current. ...


Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some waters move northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turn southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current. The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea. Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California Current. Aleutian current - also called subarctic current. ...


The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current. The South Equatorial Current is a significant Pacific Ocean current that flows east-to-west between the equator and 10 degrees south. ... The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... ...


Geology

The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches
The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches

The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. It separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsic igneous rock on its margins. The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island. The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand—all eastward extensions of the continental blocks of Asia, Australia and Zealandia—lie outside the Andesite Line. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x2370, 899 KB) Summary Elevation of the Pacific ocean Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x2370, 899 KB) Summary Elevation of the Pacific ocean Source: http://www. ... Oceanic crust is formed at an oceanic ridge, while the lithosphere is subducted back into the asthenosphere at trenches. ... The Andesite Line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. ... In geology, mafic minerals and rocks are silicate minerals, magmas, and volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks that have relatively high concentrations of the heavier elements. ... Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Felsic is a term used in geology to refer to silicate minerals, magmas, and rocks which are enriched in the lighter elements such as silica, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... “Kamchatka” redirects here. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Topography of Zealandia. ...


Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin. Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. Outside the Andesite Line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism. The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones. Pacific redirects here. ... “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ...


The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones. Only the Antarctic and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones.


Landmasses

The shore of the Pacific Ocean in San Francisco, California.
The shore of the Pacific Ocean in San Francisco, California.

The largest landmass entirely within the Pacific Ocean is the island of New Guinea— the second largest island in the world. Almost all of the smaller islands of the Pacific lie between 30°N and 30°S, extending from Southeast Asia to Easter Island; the rest of the Pacific Basin is almost entirely submerged. San Francisco redirects here. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


The great triangle of Polynesia, connecting Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand, encompasses the island arcs and clusters of the Cook Islands, Marquesas, Samoa, Society, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tuvalu and the Wallis and Futuna islands. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ... The Marquesas Islands is a group of islands in French Polynesia. ... Map of Society Islands One of the islands. ... Categories: Stub | Polynesia ...


North of the equator and west of the International Date Line are the numerous small islands of Micronesia, including the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands. Sunset at Colonia on Yap The Caroline Islands form a large archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels...

In the southwestern corner of the Pacific lie the islands of Melanesia, dominated by New Guinea. Other important island groups of Melanesia include the Bismarck Archipelago, Fiji, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Image File history File links Palmbeach. ... Image File history File links Palmbeach. ... The shoreline at Palm Beach Palm Beach[2] is one of the northernmost beachside suburbs of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, located at the end of the Barrenjoey between the Pittwater and Broken Bay. ... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ...


Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the Andesite Line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. These islands are structurally associated with nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands. The Andesite Line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. ... Bougainville and neighbouring islands For other uses of Bougainville, see Bougainville. ...


The third and fourth types of islands are both the result of coralline island building. Coral reefs are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of French Polynesia. The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ... Satellite imagery of Banaba Island from Google Earth. ... Makatea Satellite Image Makatea is a uplifted coral island in the northwestern part of the Tuamotus. ...


History and economy

Further information: Oceania
Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). Probably the first printed map that shows the Pacific Ocean.
Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). Probably the first printed map that shows the Pacific Ocean.
Bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Marianas Trench, 23 January 1960.
Bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Marianas Trench, 23 January 1960.

Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times, most notably those of the Polynesians from the Asian edge of the ocean to Tahiti and then to Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixels Full resolution (4001 × 2771 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixels Full resolution (4001 × 2771 pixel, file size: 3. ... Abraham Ortelius. ... Download high resolution version (740x615, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (740x615, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The bathyscaphe Trieste Trieste was a Swiss-designed deep-diving research bathyscaphe (deep boat) with a crew of two people, which reached a record-breaking depth of about 10,900 m (about 35,760 ft), in the deepest part of any ocean on earth, the Challenger Deep in the Mariana... The Mariana Trench is the deepest known submarine trench, and the deepest location in the Earth itself. ... Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of the French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


The ocean was first sighted by Europeans early in the 16th century, first by the Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa who crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513, and then by Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522. In 1564, conquistadors crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi who sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Spain to the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Vasco Núñez De Balboa (1475–January 15, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Miguel López de Legazpi (1502 - August 20, 1572, Manila), also known as El Adelantado (The Governor) and El Viejo (The Elder), was a Spanish conquistador who established the first colony in the Philippine Islands in 1565. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels...


During the 17th century, the Dutch, sailing around southern Africa, dominated discovery and trade; Abel Janszoon Tasman discovered Tasmania and New Zealand in 1642. The 18th century marked a burst of exploration by the Russians in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, the French in Polynesia, and the British in the three voyages of James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Portrait of Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - October 10, 1659), was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ...


Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by European powers, and later, the United States and Japan. Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMS Beagle in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard; HMS Challenger during the 1870s; the USS Tuscarora (1873-76); and the German Gazelle (1874-76). Although the United States gained control of the Philippines from Spain in 1898, Japan controlled most of the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during World War II. However, by the end of that war, Japan was defeated and the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean. Since the end of World War II, many former colonies in the Pacific have become independent states. For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Eight ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Challenger, most famously the survey vessel Challenger that carried the Challenger expedition from 1872 to 1876. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USN redirects here. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


The exploitation of the Pacific's mineral wealth is hampered by the ocean's great depths. In shallow waters of the continental shelves off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, petroleum and natural gas are extracted, and pearls are harvested along the coasts of Australia, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Philippines, although in sharply declining volume in some cases. The Pacific's greatest asset is its fish. The shoreline waters of the continents and the more temperate islands yield herring, salmon, sardines, snapper, swordfish, and tuna, as well as shellfish. Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... For other things called pearl, see pearl (disambiguation). ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small, oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Sardines in the Pacific An open Sardines can Sardines on a plate grilled Sardines For the hide and seek-like game, see Hide and seek. ... Genera Aphareus Aprion Apsilus Etelis Hemilutjanus Hoplopagrus Lipocheilus Lutjanus Macolor Ocyurus Paracaesio Pinjalo Pristipomoides Randallichthys Rhomboplites Symphorus Snapper can also refer to the Snapping turtle. ... This article is about a type of fish. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ...


Environmental Issues

Marine debris on the Hawaiian coast
Marine debris on the Hawaiian coast
Main article: Marine pollution

Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles. The biggest culprit are rivers that empty into the Ocean, and with it the many chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture as well as waste from livestock and humans. The excess of oxygen depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone (ecology).[3] A turtle is trapped in a ghost net, an abandoned fishing net Marine debris usually applies to floating waste such as bottles, cans, styrofoam, cruise ship waste, offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities pollution, and fishing paraphanalia from professional and recreational boaters. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the worlds oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. ...


Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is a term used to describe human-created waste that has found itself floating in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter. A turtle is trapped in a ghost net, an abandoned fishing net Marine debris usually applies to floating waste such as bottles, cans, styrofoam, cruise ship waste, offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities pollution, and fishing paraphanalia from professional and recreational boaters. ...

See also: Great Pacific Garbage Patch
See also: Ship pollution

The North Pacific Gyre is one of five major oceanic gyres The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is an area of marine debris in the North Pacific Gyre, and is also known as the Plastic soup, the Eastern Garbage Patch, and the Pacific Trash Vortex. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ...

Major ports and harbours

For other uses, see Acapulco (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... For the copper-mining company named after the region, see Antofagasta plc. ... Arica, Chile 2005 Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Batangas Region: CALABARZON (Region IV-A) Capital: Batangas City Founded: March 10, 1917 Population: 2000 census—1,905,348 (9th largest) Density—602 per km² (7th highest) Area: 3,165. ... Bluff is a town and seaport in the Southland region, on the southern coast of the South Island of New Zealand. ... This article is about the Australian city. ... Seaside park near the main tourist jetty. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... Cabo is well known for its pristine beaches. ... Callao (Spanish: El Callao) is the largest and most important port in Peru. ... Nickname: Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City Coordinates: 10°17 N 123°54 E Country Region Province Cebu (capital) Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City Barangays 80 Incorporated (town) 1565 Incorporated (city) February 24, 1937 Government  - Mayor Tomas D.R. Osmeña (BO-PK/Lakas... Chŏngjin (Chŏngjin-si), North Koreas third largest city. ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Japanese: Dairen; Russian: Далянь, Dalian or Дальний, Dalny) is the governing sub-provincial city in the eastern Liaoning Province of Northeast China. ... The port of Ensenada Ensenada is a city in the state of Baja California, Mexico. ... Esmeraldas is a city in Ecuador. ... This article is about the city of Guayaquil. ... For the city and county of Honolulu, see City & County of Honolulu. ... This article is about the city. ... Walk Baquedano Iquique (IPA /ikike/) is a city in northern Chile, capital of Tarapacá Region, on the Pacific coast, just west of the Atacama Desert. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Lingya District (苓雅區) Government  - Mayor Chen Chu (陳菊) Area  - Total 154 km² (59. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The District of Kitimat is a small town in northwestern British Columbia. ... Keelung City (Traditional Chinese: 基隆; Hanyu Pinyin: JÄ«lóng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jilóng; Wade-Giles: Chi-lung; POJ: Ke-lâng) is a provincial city of Taiwan, Republic of China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... This article is about the royal town of Klang in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... We dont have an article called Laem Chabang Start this article Search for Laem Chabang in. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Manta is a mid size city of Ecuador, in the Manabí Province. ... Manzanillo could refer to Manzanillo, Cuba Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico Manzanillo, Panama This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mazatlán is a city (population 340,000 as of 2000) located on the Pacific coast of Mexico, just across from the southernmost tip of Baja California. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... Nampo (North Korean official spelling: Nampho) is a city and seaport in South Pyŏngan Province, North Korea. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Oakland redirects here. ... This is about the capital of Panama. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ... Portoviejo is a city of Ecuador, and the capital the Province of Manabí, situated a few kilometers from the Pacific coast. ... Orthographic projection centred over Prince Rupert BC Coast, showing Prince Rupert and Vancouver Prince Rupert is a city in the province of British Columbia, Canada. ... Puerto Montt Puerto Montt is a port city in southern Chile, located by the Reloncaví Sound, and is the capital of the Llanquihue Province and the Los Lagos Region, at . ... Puerto Vallarta is a Mexican resort city situated on the Pacific Oceans Bahía de Banderas. ... Tsingtao redirects here. ... San Antonio is a commune and city in central Chile administered by the Municipality of San Antonio. ... San Diego redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Seattle redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... Songkhla is both a city and a province in Thailand. ... This is about the city of Sydney in Australia. ... Nickname: Location of Tacoma in Pierce County and Washington State Coordinates: , Country State County Pierce Government  - Mayor Bill Baarsma (D) Area  - City  62. ... This article is about the city. ... Talcahuano is a port city of Chile, lying near Concepción. ... Tauranga (population 109,100 — 2006 census) is the largest city of the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... Tijuana (Spanish [], English usually []), is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of Tijuana. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Valparaiso is the name of at least three cities and a village: Valparaíso, Chile Valparaiso, Florida Valparaiso, Indiana Valparaiso, Nebraska This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... This article is about the city of Victoria. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Yantai (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ...

See also

Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For the conflict between Japan and the Allied powers in Asia and the Pacific Ocean from 1937 to 1945, which included World War II campaigns, see Pacific War. ... APEC redirects here. ... The Pacific-Antarctic Ridge is the southern extension of the East Pacific Rise The Pacific-Antarctic Ridge is an oceanic ridge at the boundary between the Pacific and Antarctic Plates. ... The Pacific Coast is any coast fronting the Pacific Ocean. ... A Pacific hurricane is a tropical cyclone that develops in the northeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. ... Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined). ... The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ...  PST or UTC-8 The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-8). ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ a b "Pacific Ocean". Britannica Concise. 2006. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  2. ^ Japan Atlas: Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  3. ^ Gerlach: Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin (1975)

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Based on public domain text from US Naval Oceanographer
  • Barkley, Richard A. (1968). Oceanographic Atlas of the Pacific Ocean. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • (1985) Blue Horizons: Paradise Isles of the Pacific. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-544-8. 
  • Cameron, Ian (1987). Lost Paradise: The Exploration of the Pacific. Topsfield, Mass.: Salem House. ISBN 0-88162-275-3. 
  • Couper, A. D. (ed.) (1989). Development and Social Change in the Pacific Islands. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00917-0. 
  • Gilbert, John (1971). Charting the Vast Pacific. London: Aldus. ISBN 0-490-00226-9. 
  • Lower, J. Arthur (1978). Ocean of Destiny: A Concise History of the North Pacific, 1500-1978. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0101-8. 
  • Napier, W.; Gilbert, J., and Holland, J. (1973). Pacific Voyages. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-04335-X. 
  • Oliver, Douglas L. (1989). The Pacific Islands, 3rd ed., Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1233-6. 
  • Ridgell, Reilly (1988). Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia, 2nd ed., Honolulu: Bess Press. ISBN 0-935848-50-9. 
  • Soule, Gardner (1970). The Greatest Depths: Probing the Seas to 20,000 feet (6,100 m) and Below. Philadelphia: Macrae Smith. ISBN 0-8255-8350-0. 
  • Spate, O. H. K. (1988). Paradise Found and Lost. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1715-5. 
  • Terrell, John (1986). Prehistory in the Pacific Islands: A Study of Variation in Language, Customs, and Human Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30604-3. 

External links

Look up Pacific Ocean in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pacific Ocean
  • LA Times special Altered Oceans
  • EPIC Pacific Ocean Data Collection Viewable on-line collection of observational data
  • NOAA In-situ Ocean Data Viewer Plot and download ocean observations
  • NOAA Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Realtime (OSCAR) Near-realtime Pacific Ocean Surface Currents derived from satellite altimeter and scatterometer data
  • NOAA PMEL Argo profiling floats Realtime Pacific Ocean data
  • NOAA TAO El Niño data Realtime Pacific Ocean El Niño buoy data

Coordinates: 0° N 160° W Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Pacific Ocean - MSN Encarta (739 words)
The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, "peaceful sea", bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earth 's oceanic...
The Pacific Ocean is bounded on the east by the North and South American continents; on the north by the Bering Strait; on the west by Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia; and on the south by the Southern Ocean.
In the southeast it is arbitrarily divided from the Atlantic Ocean by the Drake Passage along 68° west longitude; in the southwest, its separation from the Indian Ocean is not officially designated.
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Pacific Ocean (1885 words)
The largest landmass in the Pacific Ocean is the continent of Australia, which is approximately equal in size to the 48 contiguous U.S. states.
Almost all of the smaller islands of the Pacific lie between 30 deg north and 30 deg south latitude, extending from Southeast Asia to Easter Island; the rest of the Pacific Basin is almost devoid of land.
In the southwestern corner of the Pacific lie the islands of Melanesia, dominated by New Guinea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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