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Encyclopedia > Pacific Northwest
The Pacific Northwest from space

The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. There are several partially overlapping definitions but the term Pacific Northwest should not be confused with the Northwest Territory (aka the Great Northwest) or the Northwest Territories. The term Northwest Coast is often used when referring only to the coastal regions. The term Northwest Plateau has been used to describe the inland regions, although they are commonly referred to as "the interior" (which in British Columbia is by convention capitalized and is used as a proper name). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (442x739, 58 KB) Cropped from Image:North_America_satellite_orthographic. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (442x739, 58 KB) Cropped from Image:North_America_satellite_orthographic. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ...


The region's biggest cities are Vancouver, BC, Seattle, Portland, Spokane, Tacoma, Boise and Vancouver, WA. This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... Seattle redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ... Nickname: Location of Spokane in Spokane County and Washington Coordinates: , Country United States State Washington County Spokane Government  - Mayor Dennis P. Hession Area  - City  58. ... Nickname: Location of Tacoma in Pierce County and Washington State Coordinates: , Country State County Pierce Government  - Mayor Bill Baarsma (D) Area  - City  62. ... Boise redirects here. ... Vancouver, Washington should not be confused with Vancouver, British Columbia, a city in Canada. ...


The area's biomes and ecoregions are distinct from the surrounding areas. The Georgia Strait-Puget Sound basin is shared between British Columbia and Washington, and the Pacific temperate rain forests, comprising the world's largest temperate rain forest zone, stretch along the coast from Alaska to California. The dryland area inland from the Cascade Range and Coast Mountains is very different from the terrain and climate of the Coast, and is comprised of the Columbia and Fraser Plateaus and mountain ranges contained within them. The interior regions' climates are a northward extension of the Great Western Desert which spans the Great Basin farther south, although by their northern reaches dryland and desert areas verge with boreal forest and various alpine flora regimes. A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... The Strait of Georgia (also known as Georgia Strait and the Gulf of Georgia) is a 240 km (150 mi)-long strait between Vancouver Island (as well as its nearby Gulf Islands) and the mainland Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... Temperate rain forests often grow right up to the shoreline The Pacific temperate rain forests of North America are the largest temperate rain forest zone on the planet. ... A map showing the areas where temperate rain forest can be found Temperate rain forest in the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, United States. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ...

Contents

Definitions and related terms

Different definitions of Pacific Northwest and related terms. Click image for legend.
Different definitions of Pacific Northwest and related terms. Click image for legend.

The Pacific Northwest, broadly defined, extends from the ocean to the continental divide and includes all of Washington and Oregon, and most of Idaho and British Columbia, and adjoining parts of Alaska, Yukon Territory and California.[1] Both the name "Pacific Northwest" and the name "Cascadia", which is derived from the Cascade Range, are commonly used without a definition, although the term "Pacific Northwest" is considerably older, having its origins in the early 19th century. Image File history File links PacNWComparison. ... Image File history File links PacNWComparison. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Different definitions of Cascadia and related terms. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ...


"Cascadia" is of recent coinage (1980s) and is sometimes used in geology, ecology and climatology and increasingly by community members and small businesses and organizations with a regional-marketing identity. It is also the name of a two-year college in Bothell, Washington. Of the two terms, only "Pacific Northwest" is in general use throughout the region, and also encompasses more area than the Cascadia concept, which tends to be more coastal and limited to the Evergreen Triangle area of Washington and Oregon. As a bioregion, Cascadia has been defined as "the watersheds of rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean through North America's temperate rainforest zone". This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see Climate (disambiguation). ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ...


In the United States, the term "Pacific Northwest" is also used for most of the official region of the Northwestern United States, which includes the American states of the Pacific Northwest but excludes areas of it in Canada. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


History

Initial European Exploration

Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell.

British Captain and erstwhile privateer Francis Drake sailed off the Oregon coast in 1579. Juan de Fuca, Greek captain in the employ of Spain, might have found the Strait of Juan de Fuca around 1592. The strait was named for him, but whether he discovered it or not has long been questioned. During the early 1740s, Imperial Russia sent the Dane Vitus Bering to the region. By the late 1700's and into the mid-19th century, Russian settlers had established several posts and communities on northeast Pacific coast, eventually reaching as far south as Fort Ross, California. Painting by Charles Russell This work is copyrighted. ... Painting by Charles Russell This work is copyrighted. ... Charles Marion Russell (1864, Oak Hill, Missouri – 1926, Great Falls, Montana), also known as C.M. Russell, was one of the great artists of the American West. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Juan de Fuca (born 1536 as Ioannis Phokas in Kefalonia/Greece; † 1602 in Zákynthos/Greece, often reported as Apostolos Valerianos), was a Greek captain employed by Spain to sail northward from Mexico and look for a northern passage from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Island of British Columbia from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... A portrait attributed to Vitus Bering (according to modern data, his uncles portrait) Vitus Jonassen Bering (also, less correctly, Behring) (August 1681–December 19, 1741) was a Danish-born navigator in the service of the Russian Navy, a captain-komandor known among the Russian sailors as Ivan Ivanovich. ... Fort Ross is a former Russian fur trading outpost in what is now Sonoma County, California in the United States. ...


In 1774 the viceroy of New Spain sent Juan Pérez in the ship Santiago to the Pacific Northwest. Peréz made landfall on the Queen Charlotte Islands on July 18, 1774. The northernmost latitude he reached was 54° 40' N. This was followed, in 1775, by another Spanish expedition, under the command of Bruno de Heceta and including Juan Peréz and Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra as officers. On July 14, 1775 they landed on the Olympic Peninsula near the mouth of the Quinault River. Due to an outbreak of scurvy, Heceta returned to Mexico. On August 17, 1775 he sighted the mouth of the Columbia River but could not tell if it was a river or a major strait. His attempt to sail in failed due to overly strong currents. He named it Bahia de la Asúnciõn. While Heceta sailed south, Quadra continued north in the expedition's second ship, the Sonora. He reached 59° N, before turning back.[1] map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Juan Pérez (3 September 1978– ) is a baseball player currently in the New York Mets farm system. ... Leaving Skidegate Inlet aboard BC Ferries M/V Queen of Prince Rupert The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii (Land of the Haida) are an archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands, Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south... Bruno de Heceta (Hezeta) y Dudagoitia (1744-1807) was a Spanish explorer of the Pacific Northwest. ... Captain Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, Marina real, circa 1785. ... The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington state that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle. ... The Quinault River is is located on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, U.S.A. The river is the outlet for Lake Quinault. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ...


In 1776 English mariner Captain James Cook visited Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island and also voyaged as far as Prince William Sound. In 1779 a third Spanish expedition, under the command of Ignacio de Artega in the ship Princesa, and with Quadra as captain of the ship Favorite, sailed from Mexico to the coast of Alaska, reaching 61° N. Two further Spanish expeditions, in 1788 and 1789, both under Esteban Jose Martínez and Gonzalo López de Haro, sailed to the Pacific Northwest. During the second expedition they met the American captain Robert Gray near Nootka Sound. Upon entering Nootka Sound, they found William Douglas and his ship the Iphigenia. There followed the so-called Nootka Incident, which was resolved by agreements known as the Nootka Convention. In 1790 the Spanish sent three ships to Nootka Sound, under the command of Francisco de Eliza. After establishing a base at Nootka, Eliza sent out several exploration parties. Salvador Fidalgo was sent north to the Alaska coast. Manuel Quimper, with Gonzalo López de Haro as pilot, explored the Strait of Juan de Fuca, discovering the San Juan Islands and Admiralty Inlet in the process. Francisco de Eliza himself took the ship San Carlos into the Strait of Juan de Fuca. From a base at Port Discovery, he explores the San Juan Islands, Haro Strait, Rosario Strait, and Bellingham Bay. In the process he discovered the Strait of Georgia, exploring it as far north as Texada Island. He returned to Nootka Sound by August of 1791. Another Spanish explorer, Jacinto Caamaño, sailed the ship Aranzazu to Nootka Sound in May of 1792. There he met Quadra, who was in command of the Spanish settlement. Quadra sent Caamaño north, where he explored the region of today's Alaska panhandle. Various Spanish maps, including Caamaño's, were given to George Vancouver in 1792, as the Spanish and British worked together to chart the complex coastline.[1] Captain James Cook may refer to: James Cook - British explorer, navigator, and map maker Captain James Cook (TV miniseries) - 1987 Australian television miniseries This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Nootka Sound is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean and a natural harbour on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... Gonzalo López de Haro was a Spanish explorer, notable for his expeditions in the Pacific Northwest in the late 18th century. ... Robert Gray (May 10, 1755 – July, 1806) was an American merchant sea-captain and explorer. ... Nootka Sound is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean and a natural harbour on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. ... The Nootka Convention was a treaty between Spain and Great Britain in 1790 that averted a war between the two countries over overlapping claims to portions of the northwestern coast of North America. ... Francisco de Eliza was a Spanish navigator and explorer. ... Salvador Fidalgo was a Spanish explorer who commanded an exploring expedition for Spain to Alaska and the Pacific Northwest during the late 1700s. ... Manuel Quimper del Pino was a Spanish explorer of French paternity who participated in exploration and settlement expeditions for Spain along the Pacific Coast of North America. ... One of the San Juan islands The San Juan Islands are a part of the San Juan Archipelago in the northwest corner of the continental United States. ... Admirality Inlet is an arm of the Pacific Ocean in the northwestern United States. ... Strait of Georgia at sunset The Strait of Georgia (also known as Georgia Strait and the Gulf of Georgia) is a 240 km (150 mi)-long strait between Vancouver Island (as well as its nearby Gulf Islands) and the mainland Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. ... A life sized statue covered in gold of George Vancouver on top of the British Columbia Parliament Buildings Captain George Vancouver RN (June 22, 1757 – May 12, 1798) was an officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his exploration of North America, including the Pacific coast along the modern...


George Vancouver charted the Pacific Northwest on behalf of Great Britain, including the bays and inlets of Puget Sound, the Strait of Georgia and the Johnstone Strait-Queen Charlotte Strait and the much of the rest of the British Columbia Coast and Alaska Panhandle shorelines. The last Spanish exploration expedition in the Pacific Northwest, under Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayentano Valdes met Vancouver in the Strait of Georgia on June 21, 1792. Vancouver had explored Puget Sound just previously. The Spanish explorers knew of Admiralty Inlet and the unexplored region to the south, but decided to sail north. They discovered and entered the Fraser River shortly before meeting Vancouver. After sharing maps and agreeing to cooperate, Galiano, Valdes, and Vancouver sailed north, charting the coastline together. They passed through Johnstone Strait and returned to Nootka Sound. As a result, the Spanish explorers, who had set out from Nootka, became the first Europeans to circumnavigate Vancouver Island. Vancouver himself had entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca directly without going to Nootka first, so had not sailed completedly around the island.[1] Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... Strait of Georgia at sunset The Strait of Georgia (also known as Georgia Strait and the Gulf of Georgia) is a 240 km (150 mi)-long strait between Vancouver Island (as well as its nearby Gulf Islands) and the mainland Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. ... Johnstone Strait is a 110 km (68 mi) long strait between the north east coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada and, running north to south, Hanson Island, West Cracroft Island, the mainland British Columbia coast, Hardwicke Island, West Thurlow Island and East Thurlow Island where it meets Discovery... Queen Charlotte Strait between Vancouver Island and the mainland in British Columbia, Canada. ... The British Columbia Coast is one of Canadas two continental coastlines; the other being the coastline from the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean via the Northwest Passage and Hudson Bay to the Ungava Peninsula and Labrador and the Gulf of St. ... The Alaska Panhandle is the coast of the American state of Alaska, just west of the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Dionisio Alcalá Galiano (1760, Cabra, Córdoba, Spain – October 21, 1805) was a Spanish naval officer, cartographer and explorer. ... For other uses of this name see Fraser River (disambiguation). ...


In 1786 Jean François La Pérouse, representing France, sailed to the Queen Charlotte Islands after visiting Nootka Sound but any possible French claim to this region were lost when La Pérouse and his men and journals were lost in a shipwreck near Australia. Captain James Barclay (also spelled Barkley) also visited the area flying the flag of the Austrian Empire. American merchant sea-captain Robert Gray traded along the coast and discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. Lapérouse by François Rude (1784-1855), in 1828 Lapérouse Jean François Galaup, comte (count) de La Pérouse (August 23, 1741 – 1788) was a French naval officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania. ... Leaving Skidegate Inlet aboard BC Ferries M/V Queen of Prince Rupert The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii (Land of the Haida) are an archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands, Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south... Nootka Sound is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean and a natural harbour on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. ... James Barclay is a high fantasy author. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Robert Gray (May 10, 1755 – July, 1806) was an American merchant sea-captain and explorer. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ...


Territorial disputes

US Navy Admiral Charles Wilkes' 1841 Map of the Oregon Territory from "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition." Philadelphia: 1845
US Navy Admiral Charles Wilkes' 1841 Map of the Oregon Territory from "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition." Philadelphia: 1845

Initial formal claims to the region were asserted by Spain, based on the Treaty of Tordesillas which, in the Spanish Empire's interpretation, endowed that empire with the Pacific Ocean as a "Spanish lake". Russian maritime fur trade activity extending from the farther side of the Pacific prompted Spain to send expeditions north to assert Spanish ownership, while at the same time British claims were made and advanced by Captain James Cook and subsequent expeditions by George Vancouver. Potential French, Austrian and Portuguese claims were never advanced. As of the Nootka Conventions, the last in 1794, Spain gave up its exclusive a priori claims and agreed to share the region with the other Powers, giving up its garrison at Nootka Sound in the process. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x703, 106 KB) Admiral Charles Wilkes Map of the Pacific Northwest from Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x703, 106 KB) Admiral Charles Wilkes Map of the Pacific Northwest from Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. ... Charles Wilkes Charles Wilkes (April 3, 1798 – February 8, 1877) was an American naval officer and explorer. ... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ... Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty. ... A life sized statue covered in gold of George Vancouver on top of the British Columbia Parliament Buildings Captain George Vancouver RN (June 22, 1757 – May 12, 1798) was an officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his exploration of North America, including the Pacific coast along the modern... The Nootka Convention was a treaty between Spain and Great Britain in 1790 that averted a war between the two countries over overlapping claims to portions of the northwestern coast of North America. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Nootka Sound is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean and a natural harbour on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. ...


The United States later established a claim following the exploration of the region by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, partly through the negotiation of former Spanish claims north of the Oregon-California boundary. From the 1810s until the 1840s, modern-day Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana, along with most of British Columbia, were part of what Americans called the Oregon Country and the British called the Columbia District. This region was jointly claimed by the United States and Great Britain after the Treaty of 1818, which established a condominium of interests in the region in lieu of a settlement. In 1840 American Charles Wilkes explored in the area. John McLoughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, headquartered at Fort Vancouver, was the de facto local political authority for most of this time. “Lewis and Clark” redirects here. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between... Charles Wilkes Charles Wilkes (April 3, 1798 – February 8, 1877) was an American naval officer and explorer. ... John McLoughlin (NSHC statue) Dr. John McLoughlin (pronounced mc-lock-lin, October 19, 1784 – September 3, 1857), the Father of Oregon, was a fur trader and early settler in the Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... Fort Vancouver Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in the companys Columbia District (known to Americans as the Oregon Country). ...


This arrangement ended as U.S. settlement grew and President James K. Polk was elected on a platform of calling for annexation of the entire Oregon Country and of Texas. After his election, supporters coined the famous slogan "Fifty-four Forty or Fight", referring to 54 degrees latitude, 40 minutes north - the northward limit of the region. After a war scare with the United Kingdom, the Oregon boundary dispute was settled in the 1846 Oregon Treaty, partitioning the region along the 49th parallel and resolving most but not all of the border disputes (see Pig War). This article is about the U.S. President. ... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... Map of the lands in dispute The Oregon Treaty, officially known as the Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, and also known as the Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United... The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the International Boundary between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Strength 461 soldiers 2,140 soldiers Casualties None None The Pig War (also called the Pig Episode, the San Juan Boundary Dispute or the Northwestern Boundary Dispute) was a confrontation in 1859 between American and British authorities, resulting from a dispute over the boundary between...


The mainland territory north of the 49th Parallel remained unincorporated until 1858, when a mass influx of Americans and others during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush forced the hand of Colony of Vancouver Island's Governor James Douglas, who declared the mainland a Crown Colony, although official ratification of his unilateral action was several months in coming. The two colonies were amalgamated in 1866 to cut costs, and joined the Dominion of Canada in 1871. The U.S. portion became the Oregon Territory in 1848; it was later subdivided into territories that were eventually admitted as states, the first of these being Oregon itself in 1859. See Washington Territory. The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the International Boundary between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side. ... The Gold Rush of British Columbia occurred after gold was discovered in the Fraser River Valley. ... See main article Vancouver Island Colonial flag of Vancouver Island, consisting of the British Blue Ensign and the great seal of the colony. ... James Douglas can refer to: James Douglas (the Good, the Black) an early-14th century Lord of Douglas and champion of Robert the Bruce James Douglas a mid-19th century governor of Vancouver Island James Buster Douglas, a boxer James Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton James Douglas, 4th Earl of... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Motto (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean  -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment  -  Act of Union February... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Washington history | U.S. historical regions and territories ...


American expansionist pressure on British Columbia persisted after the colony became a province of Canada, even though Americans living in the province did not harbor annexationist inclinations. The Fenian Brotherhood openly organized and drilled in Washington, particularly in the 1870s and the 1880s, though no cross-border attacks were experienced. During the Alaska Boundary Dispute, U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt threatened to invade and annex British Columbia if Britain would not yield on the question of the Yukon ports. In more recent times, during the so-called "Salmon War" of the 1990s, Washington Senator Slade Gorton called for the U.S. Navy to "force" the Inside Passage, even though it is not an official international waterway. At various times, annexationist movements in Canada have campaigned in favour of the annexation of parts or all of Canada by the United States. ... The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish nationalist organization based in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. ... Blue is the border as was claimed by the United States, red is the border as was claimed by Canada and the United Kingdom. ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858–January 6, 1919) was the twenty-fifth (1901) Vice President and the twenty-sixth (1901-1909) President of the United States, succeeding to the office upon the assassination of William McKinley. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... Slade Gorton Thomas Slade Gorton III (born January 8, 1928) is an American politician. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Part of the Inside Passage. ...


Geology

See the main article at Geology of the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest region of the United States is still geologically active. ...


The Northwest is still geologically active, with both active volcanos and geologic faults. Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ...


Geography

The Pacific Northwest is a diverse geographic region, dominated by several mountain ranges, including the Coast Mountains, the Cascade Range, the Olympic Mountains, the Columbia Mountains and the Rocky Mountains. The highest peak in the Pacific Northwest is Mt. Rainier, in the Washington Cascades, at 14,410 feet (4,392 m). Immediately inland from the Cascade Range there is a broad plateau, narrowing progressively northwards, and also getting higher. In the US this region, semi-arid and often completely arid, is known as the Columbia Plateau, while in British Columbia it is the Interior Plateau, also called the Fraser Plateau. The Columbia Plateau was the scene of massive ice-age floods, as a consequence there are many coulees, canyons, and plateaus. The Columbia River cuts a deep and wide gorge around the rim of the Columbia Plateau, and through the Cascade Range on its way to the Pacific Ocean. After the Mississippi, more water flows through the Columbia than any other river in the lower 48 states. The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... The Olympic Mountains The Olympic Mountains are a mountain range on the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington in the United States. ... Location map of Columbia Mountains: dotted lines to left mark boundaries of Okanagan, Shuswap and Quesnel Highlands, dotted lines to lower right mark Salish and Cabinet Mountains. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... The Washington towns of Spokane, Vantage, Yakima and Pasco, and the Oregon town of Pendleton, lie on the Columbia River Plateau. ... The Interior Plateau comprises a large region of central British Columbia, and lies between the Cariboo and Monashee Mountains on the east, and the Hazelton Mountains, Coast Mountains and Cascade Range on the west. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ...


Because many areas have plentiful rainfall, the Pacific Northwest has:

  • some of North America's most lush and extensive forests, and at one time, the largest trees in the world. Coastal forests in some areas are classified as temperate rain forest, or in some local slang, "cold jungle".

The major cities of Vancouver, Portland, and Seattle all began as seaports supporting the logging, mining, and farming industries of the region, but have developed into major technological and industrial centers (such as the Silicon Forest), which benefit from their location on the Pacific Rim. This article is about a community of trees. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ... Seattle redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The Silicon Forest is a nickname for the Portland metropolitan area in Oregon and Southwest Washington. ... The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ...


The region has four U.S. National Parks: Crater Lake in Oregon, and Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades in Washington. Other outstanding natural features include the Oregon Coast, the Columbia River Gorge, The Columbia River, Mt. St. Helens, and Hells Canyon on the Snake River between Oregon and Idaho. There are several Canadian National Parks in the Pacific Northwest, from Pacific Rim National Park on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and Mount Revelstoke National Park and Glacier National Park in the Selkirk Range alongside Rogers Pass, as well as Kootenay National Park and Yoho National Park on the British Columbia flank of the Rockies. Although unprotected by national parks and only a handful of provincial parks, the south-central Coast Mountains in British Columbia contain the five largest mid-latitude icefields in the world. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article is about national parks. ... A crater lake that simply goes by the name Crater Lake, in Oregon, USA Heaven Lake (Chonji / Tianchi), North Korea / China Cuicocha, Ecuador Lake formed after 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines Mount Katmai, Alaska, USA Mount Wenchi crater lake, Ethiopia Nemrut, Turkey Volcán Irazú, Costa Rica This page... Olympic National Park is located in the U.S. state of Washington, in the far northwestern part of the state known as the Olympic Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Mount Rainier (disambiguation). ... Mount Adams in Washington state The Cascade Range is a mountainous region famous for its chain of tall volcanos called the High Cascades that run north-south along the west coast of North America from British Columbia to the Shasta Cascade area of northern California. ... The Columbia River Gorge is a spectacular canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... Mount St. ... Hells Canyon in Oregon Hells Canyon is a canyon created by the Snake River. ... For other uses, see Snake River (disambiguation). ... Pacific Rim National Park is a Canadian national park made up of three separate regions: Long Beach, the Broken Group Islands, and the West Coast Trail. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... Mount Revelstoke National Park is located adjacent to the city of Revelstoke, British Columbia in Canada. ... Glacier National Park is one of seven national parks in British Columbia, Canada. ... Rogers Pass (el. ... Kootenay National Park is located in southeastern British Columbia, Canada covering 1,406 km² (543 mi²) in the Canadian Rockies and is part of a World Heritage Site. ... Natural Bridge Yoho National Park is located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains along the western slope of the Continental Divide in southeastern British Columbia. ... An ice field (also called an icefield) is a flat land area covered by ice, usually formed by long periods of snow. ...


Climate

The Pacific Northwest experiences a wide variety of climates. Oceanic climate ("marine west coast climate") occurs in many coastal areas, typically between the ocean and high mountain ranges. Alpine climate dominates in the high mountains. Semi-arid and Arid climate is found east of the higher mountains, especially in rainshadow areas. The Harney Basin of Oregon is an example of arid climate in the Pacific Northwest. Hemiboreal climate occurs in places such as Revelstoke, British Columbia. Subarctic climate occurs farther north. Mediterranean climate occurs in various areas such as Victoria, British Columbia. World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... A Rainshadow is an area which is unusally dry due to nearby geographic features. ... The Harney Basin The Harney Basin is an arid basin in southeastern Oregon in the United States, at the northwestern corner of the Great Basin. ... Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic (or boreal) zones. ... Revelstoke was also the name of a well-known Canadian chain of hardware and home improvement stores, now known as Rona. ... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... This article is about the city of Victoria. ...


Population

Map of Cascadia megacity, showing population density (shades of yellow/brown), highways (red), and major railways (black). Public land shown in shades of green.
Map of Cascadia megacity, showing population density (shades of yellow/brown), highways (red), and major railways (black). Public land shown in shades of green.

Most of the population of the Pacific Northwest is concentrated in the Vancouver-Seattle-Portland corridor. This area is sometimes seen as a megacity (also known as a conurbation, an agglomeration, or a megalopolis). This megacity stretches along Interstate 5 in the states of Oregon and Washington and Hwy 99 in the province of British Columbia. As of 2004, the combined populations of the Greater Vancouver Lower Mainland, the Seattle metropolitan area and the Portland metropolitan area totaled almost nine million people. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (466x1000, 328 KB) Map of the Cascadia Megacity. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (466x1000, 328 KB) Map of the Cascadia Megacity. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ... This article is about megacities in general. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... A megalopolis is defined as an extensive metropolitan area or a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas. ... Interstate 5 (abbreviated I-5) is the westernmost interstate highway in the continental United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Highway 99 is the major north-south artery through the Greater Vancouver Regional District. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Motto: Building a sustainable region Area: 2,878. ... The Lower Mainland is the name that residents of British Columbia apply to the region surrounding the City of Vancouver. ... The Seattle metropolitan area includes the city of Seattle, Washington; King County, Washington; and several surrounding cities and counties in the Puget Sound area. ... The Portland metropolitan area is the urban area centered around Portland, Oregon and the Willamette River. ...


Population is expected to increase steadily.


Politics

A major divide in political opinion separates the region's greatly more populous urban core and Western rural areas from its less populated Eastern rural areas. The former - especially in the cities of Vancouver, Bellingham, Seattle, Tacoma, Olympia, Portland and Eugene - is one of the most politically progressive parts of North America, consistently supporting liberal political candidates and causes by significant majorities, while the latter tends to be more conservative and consistently supports right-wing candidates and causes (though it should be noted that the religious right has far less influence throughout the region than elsewhere in Canada and the U.S.). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The urban core is known for supporting progressive political views of a controversial nature. Many jurisdictions have relatively liberal abortion laws, gender equality laws, legalized medical marijuana, and are supportive of LGBT rights. Due to the urban core's size and voting impact, their counties and states as a whole have generally followed their leads (often to the disgruntlement of the more conservative rural areas). Oregon was the first (and remains the only) U.S. state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, with the Death with Dignity Act of 1994. Colegio Cesar Chavez, the nation's first fully accredited Hispanic college, was founded in Mount Angel, Oregon in 1973. King County, Washington, of which Seattle is a part, rebranded itself in honor of Martin Luther King. Cannabis sativa extract. ... LGBT social movements is a collective term for a number of movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. ... Euthanasia (Greek, good death) is the practice of killing a person or animal, in a painless or minimally painful way, for merciful reasons, usually to end their suffering. ... Measure 16 of 1994 established Oregons Death with Dignity Act (ORS 127. ... Jose Romero, former teacher at Colegio César Chávez, poses near the colleges sign on the front lawn. ... Mount Angel is a city located in Marion County, Oregon. ...


These areas, especially around Puget Sound, have a long history of political radicalism. The radical labor organizers called Wobblies were particularly strong there in the mines, lumber camps and shipyards. A number of anarchist communes sprung up there in the early 1900s (see Charles Pierce LeWarne's Utopias on Puget Sound, 1885-1915 for an excellent overview of this popular yet forgotten movement). Seattle is still the only major city in North America in which the populace engaged in a general strike. Socialist beliefs were once widespread (thanks in large part to the area's large numbers of Scandinavian immigrants) and the region has had a number of Socialist elected officials: so great was its influence that the U.S. Postmaster General, James Farley, jokingly toasted the "forty-seven states of the Union, and the Soviet of Washington," at a gala dinner in 1936 [2]. The IWW Label A Wobbly membership card The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, having much in common with anarcho-syndicalist unions, but also many differences. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The Seattle General Strike of February 6 to February 11, 1919, was a general work stoppage by over 65,000 individuals in the U.S. city of Seattle, Washington. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


The region also has a long history of starting cooperative and communal businesses and organizations, including Group Health [3], REI, Puget Consumer's Co-ops and numerous granges and mutual aid societies. It also has a long history of publicly-owned power and utilities, with many of the region's cities owning their own public utilities. In part as a result, the region enjoys the lowest electrical power rates on the continent. Group Health Cooperative, based in Seattle, Washington, is a consumer-governed nonprofit healthcare system. ... REI (Recreational Equipment Inc. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ...


Economy

Some of the notable industries and products from the region:

Aluminium smelting was once an important part of the region's economy. Hydroelectric power generated by the hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River powered at least ten aluminium smelters during the mid-20th century. By the end of World War II these smelters were producing over a third of the United States' aluminium. Production rose during the 1950s and 1960s, then declined. By the first decade of the 21st century the aluminium industry in the Pacific Northwest was essentially defunct.[4] The Tillamook County Creamery Association is a dairy co-operative headquartered in Tillamook County, Oregon. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... Alaska Airlines, based in Seattle, Washington, USA, has grown from a small regional airline to one carrying more than 12 million customers per year. ... CHC Helicopter Corporation (sometimes known as Canadian Helicopter Corporation or Hélicoptères Canadiens) (TSX: FLY.SV.A TSX: FLY.MV.B NYSE: FLI) is the world’s largest global commercial helicopter operator. ... The Jim Pattison Group is Canada’s 3rd largest privately held company and, in a recent survey by the Financial Post, The Jim Pattison Group was ranked as Canada’s 48th largest company. ... Shark fin soup Shark fin soup (Chinese: é­šç¿…, Pronunciation in Mandarin: (Pinyin) Yú Chì / (Wade-Giles) Yü Chih4 ) is a dish commonly served in Chinese restaurants as part of a Chinese feast, usually at special occasions such as weddings and banquets as a symbol of wealth and prestige. ... Lions Gate redirects here, for other meanings see Lions Gate (disambiguation)‎. Lions Gate Entertainment Corporation, (usually renderred as Lionsgate), (NYSE: LGF) is an American entertainment company which originated in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Lionsgate Studios is the film studio division of Lions Gate Entertainment, a Canadian entertainment company. ... Lionsgate Television is the television division of Lions Gate Entertainment, a Canadian entertainment company. ... For other uses, see HSBC (disambiguation). ... “WaMu” redirects here. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Tektronix is a United States corporation that is currently a major presence in the test, measurement, and measuring industry. ... Amazon. ... Expedia. ... Ballard Power Systems (TSX: BLD, NASDAQ: BLDP), located in Burnaby, British Columbia -- a suburb of Vancouver -- is a company that designs, develops, and manufactures zero emission proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. ... MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. ... EA Canada is a video game developer located in Burnaby, British Columbia, close to Vancouver. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna. ... Simon Fraser University (SFU) is located on Burnaby Mountain in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, part of the metropolitan area of Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Western Washington University (WWU or Western) is one of six state-funded, four-year universities of higher education in the U.S. state of Washington. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... The University of Puget Sound (often called UPS or just Puget Sound) is a private liberal arts college located in the North End of Tacoma, Washington, in the United States. ... Centennial Fountain, designed by George Tsutakawa. ... Portland State University Portland State University is a public state urban university located in downtown Portland, Oregon. ... Reed College is a private, independent liberal arts college located in Portland, Oregon. ... Lewis & Clark College is a private liberal arts college in Portland, Oregon. ... Washington State University (WSU) is a major public research university in Pullman, Washington. ... The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. ... For the town, see Coulee Dam, Washington. ... Bonneville Lock and Dam is several dam structures that together complete a span of the Columbia River between the US states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146. ... Weyerhaeuser is one of the largest pulp and paper companies in the world; the worlds largest private owner of softwood timberland; and the second largest owner in the United States, behind International Paper. ... Canfor Corporation (TSX:CFP) is an Canadian integrated forest products company based in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Tolko Industries Ltd. ... For other meanings of the name Starbuck, see Starbuck. ... Tullys Coffee is a specialty coffee retailer and wholesaler based in Seattle, Washington. ... Blenz corporate logo Blenz The Canadian Coffee Company, also known as simply Blenz, is a Canadian franchise chain of coffee shops. ... This is the page for the department store. ... Zumiez (NASDAQ:ZUMZ) is a mall-based, specialty apparel store founded by Tom Campion in 1978, and publicly traded since 2005. ... Goldcorp is one of the world’s largest gold mining companies with the strongest production growth profile among all major gold companies. ... Alpine skier carving a turn on piste Alpine skiing (or downhill skiing) is a recreational activity and sport involving sliding down snow-covered hills with long, thin skis attached to each foot. ... This article is about the ski resort. ... Snowboarder in a half-pipe Snowboarder riding off cornice Snowboarding contributes greatly to the economies of ski resorts Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope on a snowboard that is attached to ones feet using a boot/binding interface. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Sea Kayaking at Wilsons Promontory in Victoria, Australia Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. ... Mountain biker riding in the Arizona desert. ... Nike, Inc. ... Modern R.E.I. Logo The REI store in Mountain View, California REI (Recreational Equipment Inc. ... Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from its oxide alumina, generally by the Hall-Héroult process. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River (Listed in order from the headwaters, to the Pacific Ocean) See also: Columbia River Categories: Lists of dams ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The region as a whole, but especially Seattle, is a hot-bed of high-tech business. It is also a leading "creative class" economic driver, with a thriving cultural sector, many knowledge workers and numerous international advertising, media and design firms.


B.C., Washington and Oregon together generate more than $450 billion worth of goods and services annually. If the three were a separate country, their GDP would be in the top 20 economies of the world.


Culture

The Pacific Northwest's culture is quite varied, and to a certain degree reflects the varied geography of the region.


Environmentalism is prominent throughout the region. Ecologically conscious services such as recycling and public transportation are fairly well-developed and generally available in the more populated areas as well. The international organization Greenpeace was born in Vancouver in 1970 as part of a large public opposition movement in British Columbia to US nuclear weapons testing on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians. Conservative Northwesterners, like U.S. Senator Slade Gorton, are prominent in the development of conservative approaches to environmental protection. The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... The international recycling symbol. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... Slade Gorton Thomas Slade Gorton III (born January 8, 1928) is an American politician. ...


Skiing, snowboarding, climbing, hiking, camping, hunting, fishing, boating and water sports are popular outdoor activities. In general, residents appreciate the region's varied geography, and enjoy spending time in the great outdoors.


In his book Nine Nations of North America, author Joel Garreau claimed that the Pacific Rim region he called "Ecotopia" after the novel of the same name had a different culture from that of what he called The Empty Quarter to the east, and was necessarily different economically as well as ecologically. It must be noted that "Ecotopia," and "Cascadia," vary in definition and can be used to signify a large array of concepts. The Nine Nations of North America was a book written in 1981 by Joel Garreau. ... Joel Garreau (born 1948) is a journalist and author. ... The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ... Ecotopia: The Notebooks and Reports of William Weston is the title of a seminal book by Ernest Callenbach, published in 1975. ... The Empty Quarter is a name given to the historically sparsely populated regions within the western United States and Canada. ... Different definitions of Cascadia and related terms. ...


Video game usage is higher per-capita than any other region of the country[5].


The Pacific Northwest is also known for indie music, especially grunge and so-called alternative rock as well as historically-strong folk music and world music traditions. This area is where bands like Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Presidents of The United States of America, Heart, Modest Mouse, Nickelback, Nelly Furtado, Swollen Members and Nirvana got their start and became essential rock bands of their times. In popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by perceived independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. ... Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is an independent-rooted music genre that became a commercially successful offshoot of hardcore punk, thrash metal, and alternative rock in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Folk song redirects here. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... This article is about the rock group. ... Soundgarden was an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington in 1984. ... The Presidents of the United States of America has two meanings. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Modest Mouse is an American indie rock band formed in 1993 in Issaquah, Washington by singer/lyricist/guitarist Isaac Brock, drummer Jeremiah Green, bassist Eric Judy, and guitarist Dann Gallucci. ... This article is about the Canadian rock band. ... Nelly Kim Furtado (born December 2, 1978) is a Canadian singer, songwriter, record producer, and instrumentalist, who also holds Portuguese citizenship. ... Swollen Members is a Canadian hip hop hip/hop group hailing from Vancouver, British Columbia, consisting principally of the duo Mad Child and Prevail. ... This article is about the American grunge band. ...


Cuisine of the area include wild salmon, huckleberries, and locally-produced fruits, vegetables, and cheeses. A distinct version of West Coast fusion cuisine more influenced by Asian and Mid-East influences than its Californian counterpart. Due to the close proximity of locally-grown fruit and vegetables, weekly and monthly farmers markets are popular during the growing season. For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Wild huckleberry in the Mount Hood National Forest. ... Fusion cuisine combines elements of various culinary traditions whilst not fitting specifically into any. ... A farmers market near the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. ...


Northwest craft beers and premium Northwest wines are popular with alcohol consumers. Cannabis use is relatively popular and tolerated, especially around Vancouver BC, Bellingham, Seattle, Olympia, Portland, and Eugene.

Latinos make up much of the agricultural labor force and population east of the Cascade Range in the U.S. states, and are an increasing presence in the general labor force in the western regions as well. African Americans are less numerous than either Asians or Latinos in many communities in the American Pacific Northwest, however the overall African American population has been on an upwards growing trend in other smaller urban area's throughout the American portion of the region, such as Spokane and Eugene.[6] They are concentrated in western urban areas such as Seattle and Portland, though unlike other regions, there are fewer majority black communities than the majority Asian communities that can be found in Vancouver and Seattle. As of the 2000s, many Asians were moving out and into middle class suburbs, though some would voice concern about preserving historical communities. African Americans have held the positions of Mayor and King county executive, while Washington state elected a Chinese American Governor during the 1990s, Gary Locke. British Columbians of many ethnicities are prominent in all levels of politics and government there, and the province has a number of "firsts" in Canadian political history, including the first non-white Premier, Ujjal Dossanjh, who is Indo-Canadian and the first non-white Lieutenant-Governor the Hon. David Lam. For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... Gary F. Locke, born January 21, 1950) was the Democratic governor of Washington (1997-2005), and the first American governor of Chinese descent in United States history. ... Categories: Stub | British Columbia premiers ... Ujjal Singh Dosanjh, PC, MP, BA, LL.B (born September 9, 1947, Jalandhar) is a Canadian lawyer and politician, currently serving as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Vancouver South. ... // Indo-Canadians are Canadians whose origin traces back to the nation of India. ... Categories: Lieutenant Governors of British Columbia | Lists of office-holders ... The Honourable David See-Chai Lam (林思齐, pinyin: Lín Sīqí) (born September 2, 1923) was lieutenant governor of British Columbia from 1988 to 1995. ...

Language

The Pacific Northwest English accent is considered to be "very neutral" to most Americans and Canadians. Although it does possess the low back vowel merger, or the Cot-caught merger, it is one of the closest living accents to conservative General American English. It lacks the Northern Cities Vowel Shift, and does not participate as strongly in the California Vowel Shift or the Canadian raising as do other regional accents. Because of its lack of any distinguishing vowel shift, the accent is very similar to and hard to distinguish from conservative speakers in other dialect regions especially the Northern Midlands, California, and the prairies. Pacific Northwest English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the Pacific Northwest. ... The areas enclosed by the green line are those where most speakers have completely merged the vowels of cot and caught. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. In the brown areas is more retracted than . ... California English is a dialect of the English language spoken in the U.S. state of California. ... Canadian raising is a phonetic phenomenon that occurs in varieties of the English language, especially Canadian English, in which diphthongs are raised before voiceless consonants (e. ...


Chinook Jargon was a pidgin or trade language established among the indigenous inhabitants of the region. After contact with Europeans, French, English and Cree words entered the language, and "eventually Chinook became the lingua franca for as many as 250,000 people along the Pacific Slope from Alaska to Oregon". [2] Chinook Jargon reached its height of usage in the 19th century though remained common in resource and wilderness areas, particularly but not exclusively by Native Americans and Canadian First Nations people, well into the 20th century. Today its influence is felt mostly in place names and a handful of localized slang terms, particularly the word skookum, which remains hallmark of people raised in the region. Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon, through Washington, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. ... Chief Anotklosh of the Taku Tribe, ca. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Skookum is a Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia and Yukon Territory in Canada, and in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ...


Besides English and indigenous languages, Chinese has been common since the gold rushes of the mid-19th century, particularly in British Columbia. Since the 1980s the Toishan, a Cantonese-based dialect which was predominant in the area, has been replaced by mainstream Cantonese and by Mandarin because of large-scale immigration from Asia. Punjabi is also common in British Columbia, which has a large Sikh community. For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... Taishan (台山; Mandarin: Táishān; Cantonese: Toisan; Taishanese: Hoisan, Other: Toishan, Toisaan) is a coastal county-level city in Guangdong Province, China. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


Spirituality and religion

The Pacific Northwest is the least church-going part of North America and consistently reports the highest percentage of atheism; this is most pronounced on the part of the region west of the Cascades. Religious views are very much less commonly expressed in Northwest American politics than in the rest of the United States, and conservative Christians have considerably less political influence than in other regions. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ...


However, the region is certainly not without religion, and three of the four large international charities in the region are faith-based: Northwest Medical Teams International, World Concern, World Vision International, and Mercy Corps. The archetype of the Skid Road mission, a shelter offering soup and sermons to down-and-out workers and inebriates, was launched on the skid roads of Seattle and Vancouver, with the Salvation Army having deep roots in Vancouver's Gastown district, dating back to the era of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1880s) and attained prominence in the same centers during the Klondike Gold Rush. // Legal definitions A charity is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ... Northwest Medical Teams International is a non-profit humanitarian aid organization founded in 1979 which helped more than 1. ... World Concern - non-profit organization of christian origin, providing development and relief assistance for needy countries. ... World Vision International is a Christian charity, founded in 1950 by Dr Robert Pierce to address poverty in the third world, particularly among children. ... Mercy Corps logo Mercy Corps is a non-profit organization engaged in humanitarian aid and development activities. ... The American term skid row or skid road is used to refer to the rundown area of a city where alcoholics and vagrants congregate. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... Map of Gastown Statue of Gassy Jack, Gastown. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek. ...


Despite its low rate of church attendance, the region is also known as a magnet for unique Christian groups, ranging from the Doukhobors to the Mennonites of British Columbia, and countless religiously-based communal efforts by ethnic groups such as Finns, Norwegians, Danes and others. The Mennonite Central Committee Supportive Care Services is based in Abbotsford, BC.[7] Mennonite Central Committee and Mennonite Disaster Service enjoy a heavy rate of enlistment and donations from the strong Mennonite community in BC's Fraser Valley. Also within the region there is a fairly strong representation of Orthodox churches (Greek, Russian, Serbian and others) as well as the Ukrainian Uniate Catholic church. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Doukhobors (Russian Духоборы) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Mennonite Central Committee logo. ... Fraser Valley is the section of the Fraser River basin in southwestern British Columbia downstream of the Fraser Canyon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...

"American Buddhist with Thai Buddha", Living Enrichment Center, Wilsonville, Oregon, 1998.
"American Buddhist with Thai Buddha", Living Enrichment Center, Wilsonville, Oregon, 1998.

Eastern religions (especially Buddhism and Taoism) have been adopted by an unusual number of people in the Pacific Northwest, and Tibetan Buddhism in particular has a strong local following. The Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association, claimed to be the largest organization of its kind in the world, was founded in Portland in 1993. Yogic teachings, Sufism, tribal and ancient beliefs and other philosophies are widely studied and appreciated. Because of immigration to Canada the Lower Mainland of British Columbia has a very large Sikh community and cultural presence as well as a major growth in Chinese Buddhist temples and congregations since the increase in immigration from Asia in the 1980s. There is a small Hindu population, a number of Parsee (Zoroastrians), and an emerging Muslim population from India, the Middle East, Africa, the Balkans, Southeast Asia and elsewhere. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1349x1829, 457 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1349x1829, 457 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The entrance to Living Enrichment Center. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association is an association founded in Portland, Oregon in 1993. ... The Lower Mainland is the name that residents of British Columbia apply to the region surrounding the City of Vancouver. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Seated Buddha, from the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Hebei province, ca. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


People in the area also embrace alternative religions and spirituality, such as New Age spirituality and Neo-Paganism. Before its closure in 2004, Mary Manin Morrissey's "megachurch" called Living Enrichment Center, located in Wilsonville, Oregon, was one of the biggest New Thought churches in the entire world, with a congregation estimated at between two thousand and five thousand members. Morrissey's "Life Keys" religious program was broadcast to several major networks around the U.S. West Coast. Neale Donald Walsch, author of Conversations with God, lives in Ashland, Oregon, where he runs a retreat center. Gangaji, an internationally recognized spiritual teacher and disciple of Poonjaji, lives in Ashland, Oregon. Established in more recent times, the training school of the immortal (according to the organization) being Ramtha is headquartered in Yelm, Washington. The followers of the Guru Rajneesh, the sannyasins, established a center for their beliefs and lifestyle near Antelope, Oregon, which included an ashram complex as well as, for a while, an attempted takeover of the local economy. The Emissaries of the Divine Light are a notable presence in the region of 100 Mile House, BC. More controversially, the commune run by Brother Twelve in the Gulf Islands of British Columbia early in the 20th century. Oregon's Willamette Valley has a large population of Russian Old Believers. [8] Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Mary Morrissey speaking before the Living Enrichment Center congregation, Wilsonville, Oregon, 1994 Mary Manin Morrissey (born 1949) is a New Thought minister from Oregon, U.S.A. She has served as president of the Association for Global New Thought. ... The entrance to Living Enrichment Center. ... Motto: Serving The Community With Pride Location in Oregon Coordinates: County Clackamas County Incorporated 1969 Government  - Mayor Charlotte Lehan Area  - City 17. ... The New Thought Movement or New Thought is comprised of a loosely allied group of denominations, organizations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of metaphysical beliefs concerning healing, life force, visualization, and personal power. ... Neale Donald Walsch Neale Donald Walsch is an American novelist and author of the series Conversations with God. ... Conversations with God (sometimes abbreviated as CwG) is a sequence of nine books written by Neale Donald Walsch. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Oregon County Jackson Settled 1852 Government  - Mayor John Morrison Area  - City  6. ... Gangaji, born Merle Antoinette (Toni) Roberson in Texas in 1942, is an American teacher or guru who regularly gives Satsangs around the globe. ... Sri H. W. L. Poonja (Hariwansh Lal Poonja), * 13 October 1910 in Punjab, (now Pakistan, early India); † 6 September 1997 in Lucknow, India; called Papaji“ or Lion of Lucknow“ was an Indian saint of the Advaita Vedanta. ... For a town in Jordan, see Ramtha, Jordan. ... Yelm is a city located in Thurston County, Washington. ... This article is about the controversial spiritual teacher formerly known as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. ... Sanyasa (pronounced sanyaas) symbolises the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... Antelope is a city in Wasco County, Oregon, United States. ... An Ashram (Pronounced aashram) in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages (See Rishi) lived in peace and tranquility amidst nature. ... Brother Twelve, also known as Edward Arthur Wilson, was the leader of a religious movement called the Aquarian Foundation. ... Map showing the location of the Southern Gulf Islands The Gulf Islands is the name collectively given to the islands in the Strait of Georgia between Vancouver Island and the mainland Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that surrounds the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence from mountains near Eugene to its confluence with the Columbia River. ... In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers (Russian: ) separated after 1666 - 1667 from the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. ...


Weirdness

For reasons that seem to be clear to few, the Northwest has always had an extremely high concentration of eccentrics, rebels, free spirits and outright loonies. A number of prominent works of art and pop-culture references have portrayed this strangeness, including the television series Twin Peaks, the movie Dead Man, the books of writers like Ken Kesey, Douglass Coupland, Tom Robbins, and many musical groups. For the hills in San Francisco, see Twin Peaks, San Francisco, California. ... Dead Man is a 1995 film written and directed by Jim Jarmusch. ...


Some longtime residents have seen the original eccentricity of the Northwest fading away, and bemoaned the loss [9]. Others say it's as weird as it's ever been, you just have to know where to look.


See also

Different definitions of Cascadia and related terms. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... Blue is the border as was claimed by the United States, red is the border as was claimed by Canada and the United Kingdom. ... The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ... Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon, through Washington, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Hayes, Derek (1999). Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of exploration and Discovery. Sasquatch Books. ISBN 1-57061-215-3. 
  2. ^ http://depts.washington.edu/labhist/cpproject/
  3. ^ http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7531
  4. ^ Aluminum, Columbia River History, Northwest Power & Conservation Council
  5. ^ "Seattle Top Gaming City?", Digital Trends, May 2, 2006. 
  6. ^ uwnews.washington.edu
  7. ^ Mennonite Central Committee Supportive Care Services
  8. ^ Oregon Historical Society article about Old Believers Retrieved February 9, 2007
  9. ^ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/22773_watson12.shtml

May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Harbour Publishing - Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest (236 words)
With 1,700 superb colour photographs of over 1,400 species, Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest: A Photographic Encyclopedia of Invertebrates, Seaweeds and Selected Fishes is the most comprehensive collection of photographs of Pacific Northwest marine life ever published.
It is designed to allow the reader to recognize virtually any coastal organism that might be encountered from southern Alaska to southern Oregon—from sea lettuces and feather boa kelp through to the leopard ribbon worm, Pacific red octopus, spiny-thigh sea spider and gutless awning-clam.
Colour-coded for quick reference and including a glossary and full index, Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest is a must-have for serious biologists, scuba divers, beachcombers or anyone interested in marine life and beautiful underwater photography.
The Seattle Times: Home & Garden: Gardening books from PBS to the Pacific Northwest (807 words)
This is one of those rare books in which you find more to like and learn every time you pick it up, rather than figuring out that once again the photos and design outshine the content.
"Pacific Northwest Wildflowers: A Guide to Common Wildflowers of Washington, Oregon, Northern California, Western Idaho, Southeast Alaska and British Columbia"
A slim book with a sturdy soft binding, this newest guide has color photos and descriptions of more than 300 species of wildflowers found in our mountains, wetlands, forests and prairies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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