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Encyclopedia > Pacific
For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific can mean: The Pacific Ocean, the largest ocean in the world. Pacific, Missouri, a place in the State of Missouri in the United States of America The name Pacific is often given to steam locomotives of the 4-6-2 wheel arrangement. This is a disambiguation page — a... Pacific (disambiguation).
For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth The Blue Marble, taken from Apollo 17 Human Social statistics Largest Agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Seoul, New York, São Paulo, Bombay Languages (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37%, Hindi 6.02%, English 5.61%, Spanish 5.59%, Bengali 3.4%, Portuguese 2... Earth's five For other uses, see Ocean (disambiguation). Ocean (Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. This global, interconnected body of salt water is divided by the continents and Atlantic Ocean Indian... Oceans
  • For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) Earths five Oceans Atlantic Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. The oceans name, derived from Greek mythology, means the Sea of Atlas. This... Atlantic Ocean
  • For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth The Blue Marble, taken from Apollo 17 Human Social statistics Largest Agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Seoul, New York, São Paulo, Bombay Languages (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37%, Hindi 6.02%, English 5.61%, Spanish 5.59%, Bengali 3.4%, Portuguese 2... Arctic Ocean
  • For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth The Blue Marble, taken from Apollo 17 Human Social statistics Largest Agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Seoul, New York, São Paulo, Bombay Languages (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37%, Hindi 6.02%, English 5.61%, Spanish 5.59%, Bengali 3.4%, Portuguese 2... Indian Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Earths five Oceans Atlantic Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean The Southern Ocean is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica. It is the worlds fourth-largest body of water, and the latest to be defined as an Ocean, having been accepted by... Southern Ocean

The Pacific Ocean (from the For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. It gained great importance as the formal language of the Roman Empire. All Romance languages are descended from Latin, and many words based on Latin are found in other modern languages... Latin name Mare Pacificum, "peaceful sea", bestowed upon it by the The Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), or Portugal, is a democratic republic located on the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Portugal is bordered by Spain to the north and east and by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south. In addition, Portugal contains... Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese sea explorer Born Spring 1480 Vila Real, Trás-os-Montes, Portugal Died April 27, 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines Ferdinand Magellan (Spring 1480 – April 27, 1521; Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes) was a Portuguese sea explorer who sailed for Spain... Ferdinand Magellan) is the world's largest body of Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. The water (molecule) article describes the water chemical and physical properties from a scientific and technical perspective. Water (from Low German or Old Saxon) is an abundant substance on Earth. It exists in many places and forms... water. It encompasses a third of the For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth The Blue Marble, taken from Apollo 17 Human Social statistics Largest Agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Seoul, New York, São Paulo, Bombay Languages (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37%, Hindi 6.02%, English 5.61%, Spanish 5.59%, Bengali 3.4%, Portuguese 2... Earth's surface, having an area of 179.7 million km² (69.4 million sq mi). Extending approximately To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths starting at 107 m (10,000 km). See also lengths of other orders of magnitude. Distances shorter than 107 m 10,000 km = 6,215 miles. side of a square of area 100,000,000 km2 radius of a... 15,500 km (9,600 mi) from the The Bering Sea or Imarpik Sea is a body of water in the far northern Pacific Ocean covering over two million square kilometres. It is bordered to the north and east by Alaska, to the west by Siberia in Russia, and to the south by the Alaska Peninsula and the... Bering Sea in the The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths Russia, Alaska, Canada, Iceland, Norway (including Arctic Ocean. The 10°C (50°F) July isotherm is commonly used to define the border of... Arctic to the icy margins of World map showing location of Antarctica A satellite composite image of Antarctica For the Kim Stanley Robinson (born March 23, 1952) is an American science fiction writer, best known for his award-winning Mars Trilogy and the author of over ten other novels as well as several short fiction collections... Antarctica's External links Antarctic Physical Geography (http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/categories/antpg.html) Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Seas | Ross Dependency ... Ross Sea in the south, the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5 deg N latitude, where it stretches approximately To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths starting at 107 m (10,000 km). See also lengths of other orders of magnitude. Distances shorter than 107 m 10,000 km = 6,215 miles. side of a square of area 100,000,000 km2 radius of a... 19,800 km (12,300 mi) from The Republic of Indonesia, the worlds largest archipelago, is located between the Southeast Asian peninsula and Australia, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the most populous Muslim-majority nation in the world and the fourth most populous overall. It has had free elections since the Indonesian 1998... Indonesia to the coast of For other uses see Note: The similar sounding country uses a different spelling--see Colombia. Columbia is a name used in the English language for many things and places. The name is derived from that of Christopher Columbus. The term Pre-Columbian is used for American cultures before the arrival... Colombia. The western limit of the ocean is often placed at the The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. From an economic and strategic perspective the Straits of Malacca is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world, an equivalent of the Suez Canal, or the... Strait of Malacca. The lowest point on earth—the The Mariana Trench is the deepest known submarine trench, and the deepest location in the Earth itself. It is located in the floor of the western North Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands at 1121 North latitude and 142 12 East longitude, which is near Japan... Mariana Trench—lies some 10,911 m (35,797 feet) below sea level.


The Pacific contains about 25,000 islands (more than the total number in the rest of the world's oceans combined), the majority of which are found south of the equator. (See: The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number is unknown. These islands are also sometimes collectively called Oceania, and are traditionally grouped into three: (1) Melanesia, (2) Micronesia, and (3) Polynesia. Melanesia means black islands. These include New Guinea(the largest Pacific island... Pacific Islands.)


Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea on its northern border. Coastal area of Pacific Ocean, bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangi Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi, and on the west by Borneo. The Sea is... Celebes Sea, The Coral Sea is a region off the north-east coast of Australia with a namesake chain of islands (uninhabited), including the Willis, Coringa, and Tregosse Islets. The Coral Sea is named for its primary feature, the Great Barrier Reef, which is the largest coral reef in the world. The... Coral Sea, The East China Sea (Chinese: Dōng Hǎi 東海/东海, literal meaning: East Sea) is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean, surrounded by Mainland China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Its surface area is around 1,200,000 km². In South Korea... East China Sea, Sea of Japan (East Sea) Sea of Japan Japanese name Romaji Nihonkai Kanji 日本海 South Korean name Revised Romanization Donghae McCune-Reischauer Tonghae Hangul 동해 Hanja 東海 North Korean name McCune-Reischauer Chosŏn Tonghae Revised Romanization Joseon Donghae Hangul 조선동해 Hanja... Sea of Japan, The South China Sea, showing surrounding coutires and neighbouring seas and oceans The South China Sea is a marginal sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 km². The minute South China Sea Islands, collectively an archipelago... South China Sea, The Sulu Sea is a large sea in the southwestern area of the Philippines. It is separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan, and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago. Borneo is found to the southwest and Visayas to the northeast... Sulu Sea, The Tasman Sea is the large body of water between Australia and New Zealand and is a south-western segment of the South Pacific Ocean. The sea was named after the Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman, discoverer of New Zealand and Tasmania. The British explorer Captain James Cook later extensively... Tasman Sea and The Yellow Sea (in North and South Korea, it is also called the West Sea (strangely not disputed like East Sea) is the northern part of the East China Sea, which in turn is a part of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between Mainland China and the Korean peninsula... Yellow Sea. The The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. From an economic and strategic perspective the Straits of Malacca is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world, an equivalent of the Suez Canal, or the... Straits of Malacca joins the Pacific and the For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth The Blue Marble, taken from Apollo 17 Human Social statistics Largest Agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Seoul, New York, São Paulo, Bombay Languages (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37%, Hindi 6.02%, English 5.61%, Spanish 5.59%, Bengali 3.4%, Portuguese 2... Indian oceans on the west, and the The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. Located between the continent and Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn to the south, the strait is arguably the most important natural passage between the Pacific and the Atlantic... Straits of Magellan links the Pacific with the For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) Earths five Oceans Atlantic Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. The oceans name, derived from Greek mythology, means the Sea of Atlas. This... Atlantic Ocean on the east.


The The Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), or Portugal, is a democratic republic located on the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Portugal is bordered by Spain to the north and east and by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south. In addition, Portugal contains... Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese sea explorer Born Spring 1480 Vila Real, Trás-os-Montes, Portugal Died April 27, 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines Ferdinand Magellan (Spring 1480 – April 27, 1521; Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes) was a Portuguese sea explorer who sailed for Spain... Ferdinand Magellan named the ocean. For most of his voyage from the The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. Located between the continent and Tierra del Fuego, and Cape Horn to the south, the strait is arguably the most important natural passage between the Pacific and the Atlantic... Straits of Magellan to the The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. Spain (1565-1898) and the United States (1898-1946), colonized the country and have been the largest influences on... Philippines, Magellan indeed found the ocean peaceful. However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. Many This article is about weather phenomena. For other uses, see Hurricane (disambiguation), Typhoon (disambiguation) and Tropical storm (disambiguation). Hurricane Ivan viewed from the International Space Station, September 2004. NASA photo by Edward Fincke. In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (or tropical storm, typhoon or hurricane, depending on strength and location) is... typhoons and This article is about weather phenomena. For other uses, see Hurricane (disambiguation), Typhoon (disambiguation) and Tropical storm (disambiguation). Hurricane Ivan viewed from the International Space Station, September 2004. NASA photo by Edward Fincke. In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (or tropical storm, typhoon or hurricane, depending on strength and location) is... hurricanes batter the islands of the Pacific and the lands around the Pacific rim are full of This article is about volcanoes in geology. For the action movie, see Volcano (movie). A volcano (plural, volcanoes) is a geological landform (usually a mountain) where magma (rock of the earths interior made molten or liquid by high pressure and temperature) erupts through the surface of the planet. Although... volcanoes and often rocked by Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998. An earthquake is a trembling or a shaking movement of the Earths surface. Earthquakes typically result from the movement of faults, quasi-planar zones of deformation within its uppermost layers. The word earthquake is also widely used to indicate the source region itself... earthquakes. The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. A tsunami (pronounced /suːnɑːmi(ː)/ or /tsuː-/) is a natural phenomenon consisting of a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive... Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and wiped out whole towns.

Pacific Ocean
Contents

Ocean bottom

The ocean floor of the central Pacific basin is relatively uniform, with a mean depth of about 4,270m (14,000ft). The major irregularities in the area are the extremely steep-sided, flat-topped submarine peaks known as A seamount is a mountain rising from the seafloor that does not reach to the surface of the ocean. Seamounts are often found in groupings or submerged archipelagos. A classic example, one clearly demonstrating plate tectonics, is the Emperor Seamounts. Isolated seamounts and those without clear volcanic origins appear to... seamounts. The western part of the floor consists of mountain arcs that rise above the sea as island groups, such as the The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. It consists of more than 990 islands, which together cover a land mass of 28,000 square kilometres. Solomon Islands (adopted November 18, 1977) (Full size... Solomon Islands and For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand, and deep trenches, such as the The Mariana Trench is the deepest known submarine trench, and the deepest location in the Earth itself. It is located in the floor of the western North Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands at 1121 North latitude and 142 12 East longitude, which is near Japan... Mariana Trench, the Philippine Trench, and the The Tonga trench is located in the Pacific ocean and is 32,000 ft (9,900 m) deep. The Tonga Trench and its forearc form an active convergent margin between two plates of the lithosphere, the Pacific Plate being subducted into the earths semi-molten aesthenosphere, and the northeastern... Tonga Trench. Most of the trenches lie adjacent to the outer margins of the wide western Pacific continental shelf.


Along the eastern margin of the Pacific Basin is the The East Pacific Rise is a long north-south welt of sea floor spreading that roughly parallels the Pacific coast of South America. The Rise is a constructive tectonic plate margin or divergent boundary lying along the eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean basin. The spreading zone separates the Pacific... East Pacific Rise, which is a part of the worldwide mid-oceanic ridge. About 3,000km (1,800mi) across, the rise stands about 3km (2mi) above the adjacent ocean floor. Because a relatively small land area drains into the Pacific, and because of the ocean's immense size, most sediments are authigenic or The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i.e. all of the sea other than that near the coast or the sea floor. In contrast, the demersal zone comprises the water that is near to (and thus is significantly affected by... pelagic in origin. Authigenic Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. Sedimentation is the deposition by settling of a suspended material. Sediments are also transported... sediments include Montmorillonite is a very soft The silicate minerals make up the the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. They are classified based on the structure of their silicate anion group. Subclasses: Contents // 1 Nesosilicates 2 Sorosilicates 3 Cyclosilicates 4 Inosilicates 4.1 Single chain inosilicates: 4.2... montmorillonite and phillipsite. Pelagic sediments derived from seawater include pelagic red clays and the skeletal remains of sea life. Terrigenous sediments are confined to narrow marginal bands close to land.


Elevation extremes

  • lowest point: -10,924 m (-35,840 ft). at the bottom of the The Mariana Trench is the deepest known submarine trench, and the deepest location in the Earth itself. It is located in the floor of the western North Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands at 1121 North latitude and 142 12 East longitude, which is near Japan... Mariana Trench
  • highest point: sea level 0 m

Water characteristics

Water temperatures in the Pacific vary from freezing in the poleward areas to about 29 degrees Celsius (84 degrees Fahrenheit) near the equator. Salinity also varies latitudinally. Water near the equator is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year. Poleward of the temperate latitudes salinity is also low, because little evaporation of seawater takes place in these areas.


The surface circulation of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator. On Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and population. In the temperate regions of the hemisphere, winter lasts from around December to February and Summer from around... Northern Hemisphere and anti-clockwise in the The Southern Hemisphere is the part of Earths surface that is south of the equator. It contains four continents (Africa, Australia, South America and Antarctica) separated by four oceans (South Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Antarctic Ocean). Summer occurs around December to February and winter around June to... Southern Hemisphere. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15 deg north by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or The Kuroshio Current is an ocean current found in the western Pacific Ocean off the east coast of Taiwan and flowing northeastward past Japan, where it merges with the easterly drift of the North Pacific Current. It is analogous to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, transporting warm, tropical... Kuroshio Current. Turning eastward at about 45 deg north, the Kuroshio forks and some waters move northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turn southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current. The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of an anti-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea. Its southern arm becomes the slow, south-flowing California Current.


The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the worlds second largest island having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded around 5000 BC. The name Papua also refers to the island in whole or in part. (Refer to Papua... New Guinea, turns east at about 50 deg south latitude, and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current. As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or The Humboldt Current (or Peru Current) is a cold ocean current that flows northward off the west coast of South America. It is named after the German scientist, Alexander von Humboldt. This current originates in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic, and is thus about 7-8 C° cooler than... Humboldt Current.


Climate

Only the interiors of the large land masses of Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of... Australia, New Guinea, and New Zealand escape the pervasive climatic influence of the Pacific. Within the area of the Pacific, five distinctively different climatic regions exist: the mid-latitude westerlies, the trades, the monsoon region, the typhoon region, and the The doldrums is the low-pressure area around the equator where the prevailing winds are calm. The low pressure is caused by the heat at the equator, which makes the air rise and travel north and south high in the atmosphere, until it subsides again in the horse latitudes. Some... doldrums. Mid-latitude westerly air streams occur in both northerly and southerly latitudes, bringing marked seasonal differences in temperature. Closer to the equator, where most of the islands lie, steadily blowing trade winds allow for relatively constant temperatures throughout the year of 21-27 degrees Celsius (70-81 degrees Fahrenheit).


The A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. The word is also used to label the season in which this wind blows from the southwest in India and adjacent areas that is characterized by very heavy rainfall, and specifically the rainfall that is associated... monsoon region lies in the far western Pacific between Japan and Australia. Characteristic of this climatic region are winds that blow from the continental interior to the ocean in winter and in the opposite direction in summer. Consequently, a marked seasonality of cloudiness and rainfall occurs. This article is about weather phenomena. For other uses, see Hurricane (disambiguation), Typhoon (disambiguation) and Tropical storm (disambiguation). Hurricane Ivan viewed from the International Space Station, September 2004. NASA photo by Edward Fincke. In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (or tropical storm, typhoon or hurricane, depending on strength and location) is... Typhoons often cause extensive damage in the west and southwest Pacific. The greatest typhoon frequency exists within the triangle from southern Japan to the central Philippines to eastern Micronesia. Although more poorly defined than the other climatic regions, two major doldrum areas lie within the ocean, one located off the western shores of Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. Some geographers classify Central America as a large isthmus, and in this geographic sense it sometimes includes the portion of Mexico east of the Isthmus of... Central America and the other within the equatorial waters of the western Pacific. Both areas are noted for their high humidity, considerable cloudiness, light fluctuating winds, and frequent calms.


Geology

The Andesite Line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. It separates the deeper, basic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of acidic igneous rock on its margins. The Andesite Line follows the western edge of the islands off For other uses, see California (disambiguation). State of California (Flag of California) (Seal of California) State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water... California and passes south of the Looking down the Aleutians from an airplane. The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of small islands forming an Pacific Ocean, and extending about 1,900 km (1,200 miles) westward from the extremity of the Alaskan peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula. Nearly all of the... Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the For other uses of Kamchatka, see Kamchatka (disambiguation). Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian: полуо́стров Камча́тка) is a 1,250-kilometer-long peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of 472,300 km... Kamchatka Peninsula, the The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. They are... Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands (sometimes called The Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called the Ladrone Islands) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the Pacific Ocean. They are the southern part of a submerged mountain range that extends 1,565 miles... Mariana Islands, the The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. It consists of more than 990 islands, which together cover a land mass of 28,000 square kilometres. Solomon Islands (adopted November 18, 1977) (Full size... Solomon Islands, and New Zealand. The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Albatross Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California. Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand—all eastward extensions of the continental blocks of Australia and Asia—lie outside the Andesite Line.


Within the closed loop of the Andesite Line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Central Pacific Basin. It is here that basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. Outside the Andesite Line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the The Ring of Fire is a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that encircles the basin of the Pacific Ocean. It is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, island arcs, and volcanic mountain ranges. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific seismic belt. About 81% of... Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism.


Landmasses

The largest landmass entirely within the Pacific Ocean is the island of New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the worlds second largest island having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded around 5000 BC. The name Papua also refers to the island in whole or in part. (Refer to Papua... New Guinea - the second largest in the world. Almost all of the smaller islands of the Pacific lie between 30 deg north and 30 deg south latitude, extending from Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. The name for the region was first coined in the 20th century. The subregion has 11 countries and the countries can be divided into the mainland and the archipelago. The mainland countries include: Cambodia Laos Myanmar (Burma) Thailand Vietnam... South-east Asia to Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. Although located 3,515 km (2,185 miles) west of continental Chile, it is administratively a province of the Chilean Valparaíso Region... Easter Island; the rest of the Pacific Basin is almost entirely submerged. The great triangle of Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. Geographically, Polynesia is a triangle with its three corners at Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Samoa, Tonga, Marquesas, and French Polynesia are the other... Polynesia, connecting For the 1959 novel and 1966 movie, see Hawaii (novel). State of Hawaii Hawai‘i (Flag of Hawaii) (Seal of Hawaii) State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km... Hawaii, Easter Island, and For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand, encompasses the island arcs and clusters of the Cook, The Marquesas Islands is a group of islands in French Polynesia. They were named by Álvaro de Mendaña who reached them in 1595. In French they are known as the Îles Marquises. With a combined land area of 1,050 km² (405 sq. miles), the Marquesas are among the... Marquesas, The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Previous names are Western Samoa from 1914 to 1997 and German Samoa from 1900 to 1914. Malo Saoloto Tutoatasi o Samoa Independent... Samoa, Society, Tokelau Flag of New Zealand Languages Tokelauan, English Capital None; each atoll has its own administrative center Political status Territory of New Zealand Chief of State Queen Elizabeth II Administrator Neil Walter Head of Government Aliki Faipule Kuresa Area  – Total  – % water  10 km²  ... Tokelau, The Kingdom of Tonga is an archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean, about a third of the way between New Zealand and Hawaii. It lies south of Samoa and east of Fiji. Puleanga Fakatui o Tonga Kingdom of Tonga (In Detail) (Full size) National motto: Ko e Otua... Tonga, and Tuamotu islands. North of the equator and west of the Jagged red line down the right is the International Date Line The International Date Line is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth. Its purpose is to offset the hours that are added as one travels East through each successive time zone. It is for the most part... international date line are the numerous small islands of This article is about the Pacific region known as Micronesia. Micronesia is often used to refer to the Federated States of Micronesia. Micronesia (from the Greek words μικρόν = small and νησί = island) is the name of a region in the Pacific Ocean... Micronesia, including the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands, and the Mariana Islands. In the southwestern corner of the Pacific lie the islands of Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. The term was first used by Jules Dumont dUrville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands distinct from Polynesia and Micronesia. Today... Melanesia, dominated by New Guinea. Other important island groups of Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. The term was first used by Jules Dumont dUrville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands distinct from Polynesia and Micronesia. Today... Melanesia include the The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the coast of New Guinea in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. The archipelago includes mostly volcanic islands, the most important of which are: Admiralty Islands Duke... Bismarck Archipelago, The Republic of the Fiji Islands occupies an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu. Republic of the Fiji Islands Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti (In Detail) National motto: Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui (English: Fear God... Fiji, New Caledonia, from the CIA fact book. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... New Caledonia, the The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. It consists of more than 990 islands, which together cover a land mass of 28,000 square kilometres. Solomon Islands (adopted November 18, 1977) (Full size... Solomon Islands, and The Republic of Vanuatu is a country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago is located some 1,750 km east of Australia, 500 km north-east of New Caledonia, west of Fiji and south of the Solomon Islands. Its colonial name, New Hebrides, is no longer used except... Vanuatu. Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms. Continental islands lie outside the Andesite Line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines. These islands are structurally associated with the nearby continents. High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes. Among these are Bougainville Bougainville is the largest of the Solomon Islands and is a province of Papua New Guinea. Bougainville and the adjacent island of Buka are sometimes called the North Solomons, and are ecologically and geographically, although not politically, considered part of the Solomon Islands. Buka, Bougainville, and most of the... Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.


The third and fourth types of islands are both the result of coralline island building. Coral reefs are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface. One of the most dramatic is the Satellite image of a part of the Great Barrier Reef. Photo courtesy of NASA. The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef. The reef is located in the Coral Sea off the coast of Queensland in north-east Australia. It stretches over 2000 kilometres in length and... Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia. A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands. Examples include Banaba Island (also Ocean Island), an island in the Pacific Ocean, lies west of the Gilbert Island chain and east of Nauru. It forms part of the Republic of Kiribati. Phosphate-mining (for fertiliser) from 1900 to 1979 stripped away a large portion of the islands surface. The British... Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Categories: Stub | Polynesia ... Tuamotu group of Polynésie française Flag ratio: 2:3 Flag of French Polynesia. National flags List of national flags | Gallery of national flags List of national coats of arms Categories: French Polynesia ... In detail National A motto is a A phrase is a group of words that functions as... French Polynesia.


History and economy

See the For the fictional superstate in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, see Oceania (fiction). Map of Oceania. Oceania is a name used for varying groups of islands of the Pacific Ocean. In its narrow usage it refers to Polynesia (including New Zealand), Melanesia (including New Guinea) and Micronesia. In... Oceania article for information on one set of the Pacific Island states listed below here.


Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times, most notably those of Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. Geographically, Polynesia is a triangle with its three corners at Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Samoa, Tonga, Marquesas, and French Polynesia are the other... Polynesians from Tahiti is the largest island in French Polynesia, located in the archipelago of Society Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean, at 17° 40 South, 149° 30 West. The island had a population of 169,674 inhabitants at the 2002 census. (This makes it the most populated island of French Polynesia... Tahiti to For the 1959 novel and 1966 movie, see Hawaii (novel). State of Hawaii Hawai‘i (Flag of Hawaii) (Seal of Hawaii) State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km... Hawaii and For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand. The ocean was sighted by Europeans early in the 16th century, first by Vasco Núñez de Balboa ( Years: 1510 1511 1512 - 1513 - 1514 1515 1516 Decades: 1480s 1490s 1500s - 1510s - 1520s 1530s 1540s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events January 20 - Denmark and Norway. March 11 - Leo X elected pope. March 27 - Explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sights North America (specifically Florida) for the first... 1513) and then by Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese sea explorer Born Spring 1480 Vila Real, Trás-os-Montes, Portugal Died April 27, 1521 Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines Ferdinand Magellan (Spring 1480 – April 27, 1521; Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes) was a Portuguese sea explorer who sailed for Spain... Ferdinand Magellan, who crossed the Pacific during his circumnavigation ( Years: 1516 1517 1518 - 1519 - 1520 1521 1522 Decades: 1480s 1490s 1500s - 1510s - 1520s 1530s 1540s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. June 28 - Charles I of Spain becomes Emperor of Holy Roman Empire as Charles V, Holy Roman... 1519- Years: 1519 1520 1521 - 1522 - 1523 1524 1525 Decades: 1490s 1500s 1510s - 1520s - 1530s 1540s 1550s Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán... 1522). For the remainder of the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age... 16th century The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino de España; Asturian: Reinu dEspaña) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra... Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Spain to the The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. Spain (1565-1898) and the United States (1898-1946), colonized the country and have been the largest influences on... Philippines, New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the worlds second largest island having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded around 5000 BC. The name Papua also refers to the island in whole or in part. (Refer to Papua... New Guinea, and the Solomons. During the (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power... 17th century the For other uses, see The Netherlands have been the name of different political and geographical entities in northwestern Europe. The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland), the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Seven United Netherlands, also known as the United Provinces. A predecessor of the current country. It existed from 1581 to... Dutch, sailing around southern ... World map showing location of Africa Download high resolution version (741x800, 113 KB) This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are in the public domain, with the exception of the usage-restricted NASA logo, because works created by... Africa, dominated discovery and trade; Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - 1659) was a Dutch seafarer and explorer, born in Lutjegast, a village in the province of Groningen, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644, in the service of the VOC (Dutch East India Company). His was the first European expedition to reach the islands... Abel Janszoon Tasman discovered ( Years: 1639 1640 1641 - 1642 - 1643 1644 1645 Decades: 1610s 1620s 1630s - 1640s - 1650s 1660s 1670s Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century 1642 in literature 1642 in science Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. Beginning of English... 1642) Tasmania (Flag of Tasmania) (Coat of Arms of Tasmania) Motto: Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Area 90,758 km² (7th)  - Land 68,401 km²  - Water 22,357 km² (24.63%) Population (2003)  ... Tasmania and For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand. The (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. Historians will sometimes specifically refer to the 18th century as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death... 18th century marked a burst of exploration by the The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many other countries Region: Eastern Europe and Asia Total speakers: 280 million Ranking: 4... Russians in For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). State of Alaska (Flag of Alaska) (Seal of Alaska) State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km (1st)  ... Alaska and the Looking down the Aleutians from an airplane. The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of small islands forming an Pacific Ocean, and extending about 1,900 km (1,200 miles) westward from the extremity of the Alaskan peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula. Nearly all of the... Aleutian Islands, the Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. Subject to disclaimers. Trying... French in Polynesia, and the British in the three voyages of British explorer James Cook is most noted for having discovered Australia and Hawaii. James Cook (October 27, 1728 - February 14, 1779) was a British explorer and navigator. He made three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, in which its main shorelines were discovered. Cook was also a map maker. Contents // 1... James Cook (to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest).


Growing Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. The term is used by some to... imperialism during the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of the Pacific by the Western powers. Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of the For other RN ships of this name, see HMS Beagle (disambiguation). HMS Beagle was a Royal Navy ship, made famous for the second voyage she made (with Charles Darwin aboard). Beagle was launched 11 May 1820 as a 90 ft (27 m), 10 gun brig from the Woolwich Dockyard on... HMS Beagle in the Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s - 1830s - 1840s 1850s 1860s Years: 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 Events and Trends Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony. Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest... 1830s, with For other possible meanings see Various places, things and persons are associated with Darwin. The word Darwin, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around... Charles Darwin aboard; the Eight ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Challenger, most famously the survey vessel Challenger that carried the Challenger expedition from 1872 to 1876. The first Challenger was a 16-gun brig-sloop launched in 1806 and captured by the French in 1811. The second Challenger was... HMS Challenger during the 1870s; the U.S.S. Tuscarora (1873-76); and the German Gazelle ( Years: 1871 1872 1873 - 1874 - 1875 1876 1877 Decades: 1840s 1850s 1860s - 1870s - 1880s 1890s 1900s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1874 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1874- 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. Years: 1873 1874 1875 - 1876 - 1877 1878 1879 Decades: 1840s 1850s 1860s - 1870s - 1880s 1890s 1900s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1876 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial... 1876). Although the United States took the The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. Spain (1565-1898) and the United States (1898-1946), colonized the country and have been the largest influences on... Philippines in Years: 1895 1896 1897 - 1898 - 1899 1900 1901 Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s - 1890s - 1900s 1910s 1920s Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century 1898 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Literature - Music Other topics Canada - Rail transport - Science - Sport Lists of leaders: Colonial governors - State leaders Contents // 1 Events 1.1... 1898, For other uses, see Japan (disambiguation). 日本国 (Nippon/Nihon-koku) Dual status seal. See National and Imperial Seal for more of this issue. (Flag of Japan) Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377... Japan controlled the western Pacific by 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. (see link for calendar) Years: 1911 1912 1913 - 1914 - 1915 1916 1917 Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s - 1910s - 1920s 1930s 1940s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1914 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport... 1914, and occupied many other islands during World War II. By the end of that war the The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. The U.S. Navy consists of slightly fewer than 300 ships and over 4,000 operational aircraft. It has over a half million men and women on active or ready reserve duty... U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean.


Seventeen independent states are located in the Pacific: Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of... Australia, The Republic of the Fiji Islands occupies an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu. Republic of the Fiji Islands Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti (In Detail) National motto: Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui (English: Fear God... Fiji, For other uses, see Japan (disambiguation). 日本国 (Nippon/Nihon-koku) Dual status seal. See National and Imperial Seal for more of this issue. (Flag of Japan) Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377... Japan, The Republic of Kiribati is an island nation located in the central tropical Pacific Ocean. The countrys 33 atolls are scattered over 3,500,000 km² near the equator. Its name is pronounced /kiribas/ and is a Gilbertese transliteration of Gilberts, the English name for the main group of... Kiribati, The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the U.S. island of Wake. Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ Republic of the... Marshall Islands, This article is about the Pacific region known as Micronesia. Micronesia is often used to refer to the Federated States of Micronesia. Micronesia (from the Greek words μικρόν = small and νησί = island) is the name of a region in the Pacific Ocean... Micronesia, For other uses, see Nauru (disambiguation). The Republic of Nauru (pronounced nah-OO-roo), formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island republic in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the worlds smallest independent republic both in terms of population and land area. Much of its past prosperity derived... Nauru, For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand, For other uses, see Palau (disambiguation). The Republic of Palau (also spelled Belau) is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, located some 500 km east of the Philippines. Having gained independence in 1994, it is one of the worlds youngest and least populated nations. Beluu er a Belau... Palau, Papua New Guinea is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). It is located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, north of Australia, and west of the Solomon Islands. Papua New Guinea (Flag) (Coat of... Papua New Guinea, the The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. Spain (1565-1898) and the United States (1898-1946), colonized the country and have been the largest influences on... Philippines, The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Previous names are Western Samoa from 1914 to 1997 and German Samoa from 1900 to 1914. Malo Saoloto Tutoatasi o Samoa Independent... Samoa, The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. It consists of more than 990 islands, which together cover a land mass of 28,000 square kilometres. Solomon Islands (adopted November 18, 1977) (Full size... Solomon Islands, The Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó) is a state that currently administers the island groups of Taiwan, the Pescadores, Quemoy, and the... Republic of China ( For the political entity commonly known as Taiwan, see Republic of China. Map of Taiwan The island of Taiwan (Traditional: 臺灣, Simplified: 台湾, Pinyin: Táiwān, Wade-Giles: Tai-wan, Taiwanese: Tâi-oân) is located off the coast of mainland China in the... Taiwan), The Kingdom of Tonga is an archipelago in the southern Pacific Ocean, about a third of the way between New Zealand and Hawaii. It lies south of Samoa and east of Fiji. Puleanga Fakatui o Tonga Kingdom of Tonga (In Detail) (Full size) National motto: Ko e Otua... Tonga, Tuvalu Flag of Tuvalu Tuvalu Coat of Arms National anthem Tuvalu mo te Atua (Tuvaluan: Eight Standing Together for the Almighty) Languages Tuvaluan, English Capitals Funafuti (atoll), Vaiaku (village; Gov.), Fongafale (village) Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General Faimalaga Luka Prime Minister Maatia Toafa Independence From the U.K. October 1... Tuvalu, and The Republic of Vanuatu is a country located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago is located some 1,750 km east of Australia, 500 km north-east of New Caledonia, west of Fiji and south of the Solomon Islands. Its colonial name, New Hebrides, is no longer used except... Vanuatu. Eleven of these nations have achieved full independence since 1960. The The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) is a commonwealth in political union with the United States of America at a strategic location in the West Pacific Ocean. It consists of 14 islands about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines, at 15°12N, 145... Northern Mariana Islands are self-governing with external affairs handled by the United States, and The Cook Islands Flag of the Cook Islands Coat of Arms of the Cook Islands Languages English (official), Maori Capital Avarua Queen Elizabeth II Prime Minister Jim Marurai Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 225th  240 km²  0% Population  – Total (2003)  – Density... Cook Islands and Niue Flag of Niue Official languages Niuean, English Capital Alofi Queen Elizabeth II New Zealand High Commissioner Sandra Lee-Vercoe Premier Young Vivian Area  – Total  – % water  260 km²  0 Population  – Total (2003)  2,145 Establishment  – Date Niue Constitution Act... Niue are in similar relationships with New Zealand. Also within the Pacific are the U.S. state of For the 1959 novel and 1966 movie, see Hawaii (novel). State of Hawaii Hawai‘i (Flag of Hawaii) (Seal of Hawaii) State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km... Hawaii and several island territories and possessions of Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of... Australia, This article is about the country in South America; the word chile may also refer to Chilli pepper The Republic of Chile is a republic located on the southwestern coast of South America. It is a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean... Chile, The Republic of Ecuador is a country in northwestern South America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands (Colón Archipelago) in the Pacific, about 965 km (about... Ecuador, Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. Subject to disclaimers. Trying... France, For other uses, see Japan (disambiguation). 日本国 (Nippon/Nihon-koku) Dual status seal. See National and Imperial Seal for more of this issue. (Flag of Japan) Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377... Japan, For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand, the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts England, Wales and... United Kingdom, and the For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). The United States of America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A., U.S., US, America¹, or the States, is a federal republic of fifty states, mostly in central North America. The U.S. has three land... United States.


The exploitation of the Pacific's mineral wealth is hampered by the ocean's great depths. In shallow waters off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, petroleum and natural gas are extracted, and pearls are harvested along the coasts of Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of... Australia, For other uses, see Japan (disambiguation). 日本国 (Nippon/Nihon-koku) Dual status seal. See National and Imperial Seal for more of this issue. (Flag of Japan) Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377... Japan, Papua New Guinea is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). It is located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, north of Australia, and west of the Solomon Islands. Papua New Guinea (Flag) (Coat of... Papua New Guinea, Nicaragua is a republic in Central America. It is the largest Central American nation but the least densely populated. It is bordered on the north by Honduras and on south by Costa Rica. Its western coastline is on the Pacific Ocean, while the east side of the country is on... Nicaragua, Panama (Spanish: Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. It constitutes the last part of a natural land bridge between the North American and South American continents. It borders Costa Rica to the west and Colombia to the east. República de Panamá (In Detail) (Full size) National motto... Panama, and the The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. Spain (1565-1898) and the United States (1898-1946), colonized the country and have been the largest influences on... Philippines, although in sharply declining volume. The Pacific's greatest asset is its fish. The shoreline waters of the continents and the more temperate islands yield Lake Huron herring A herring is a type of small oily fish found in the temperate, shallow waters of the North Atlantic. A smaller variant lives in the Baltic Sea. Herring is one of various species of fishes of the genus Clupea especially the Atlantic herring (English herring) (Clupea harengus... herring, This article is about the fish. For the color, see salmon (color). The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow up to 58 long and 126 pounds. Salmon is the common name for several species of fish of the Salmonidae family. Several other... salmon, Sardines or pilchards are a group of several types of small oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae. The terms are not precise, and the usual meanings vary by region; for instance, to many people a sardine is a young European pilchard. (FishBases list of common names shows at... sardines, Snappers Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Lutjanidae Genera Aphareus Aprion Apsilus Etelis Hemilutjanus Hoplopagrus Lipocheilus Lutjanus Macolor Ocyurus Paracaesio Pinjalo Pristipomoides Randallichthys Rhomboplites Symphorus The Lutjanidae or snappers are a family of perciform fishes, mainly marine but with some members living in estuaries, and... snapper, This article is about a type of fish, for other uses see Swordfish (disambiguation) Swordfish Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Xiphiidae Genus: Xiphias Species: gladius Binomial name Xiphias gladius Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill... swordfish, and For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). Tuna Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Scombridae Genus: Thunnus Species Thunnus alalunga Thunnus albacares Thunnus atlanticus Thunnus maccoyii Thunnus obesus Thunnus orientalis Thunnus thynnus Thunnus tonggol Tuna are several species of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae... tuna, as well as Shellfish is a term used to describe molluscs and crustaceans used as food. Molluscs include the clam, mussel, oyster, and scallop; some crustaceans are the shrimp, lobster, crayfish, and crab. Snails, while similar to most shellfish biologically, are generally not considered to be shellfish. Lobster and crab are considered delicacies... shellfish. In 1986, the member nations of the The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental consultative process which aims to enhance cooperation between the countries of the Pacific Ocean and represent their interests. It was formerly known as the South Pacific Forum. Member states are: Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru... South Pacific Forum declared the area a nuclear-free zone in an effort to halt Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... nuclear testing and prevent the dumping of A Russian fissile material storage facility Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements which does not have a practical purpose. It is often the product of a nuclear process, such as nuclear fission. Waste can also be generated from the processing of fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear... nuclear waste there.


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  • Ridgell, R., Pacific Nations and Territories, 2d ed. (1988)
  • Soule, Gardner, The Greatest Depths (1970)
  • Spate, O.H., Paradise Found and Lost (1988)
  • Terrell, J.E., Prehistory in the Pacific Islands (1986).
Based on public domain text from US Naval Oceanographer (http://oceanographer.navy.mil/pacific.html)

External links

  • South Pacific Organizer (http://www.southpacific.org/)
  • Map South Pacific (http://www.mapsouthpacific.com/)
  • EPIC Pacific Ocean Data Collection (http://www.epic.noaa.gov/epic/ewb/) Viewable on-line collection of observational data
  • NOAA TAO El Nino data (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/jsdisplay/) Realtime Pacific Ocean El NIno buoy data
  • NOAA Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Realtime (OSCAR) (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/jsdisplay/) Near-realtime Pacific Ocean Surface Currents derived from satellite altimeter and scatterometer data
  • NOAA PMEL Argo profiling floats (http://floats.pmel.noaa.gov/floats/) Realtime Pacific Ocean data

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pacifism (0 words)
Pacifism also describes a stance under particular circumstances, in contrast with those who believe that the criteria have been met for the justification of violence under those same circumstances.
Pacifism may be adopted as a pragmatic political strategy, in which case its effectiveness is open to debate.
Non-pacifistic religions, including Judaism, many varients of Christianity and Islam, have usually made no pretense of meaning "pacifism" by their messages concerning the great obligation to pursue peace: typically constructing rules, sometimes very elaborately defined, under which the use of aggression for the establishment and maintenance of justice may be legitimate.
Pacifism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (0 words)
Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes.
Pacifism covers a spectrum of views ranging from the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, to absolute opposition to the use of violence, or even force, under any circumstances.
Pragmatic (or Consequential) pacifism does not hold to such an absolute principle but considers there to be better ways of resolving a dispute than war or considers the benefits of a war to be outweighed by the costs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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