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Encyclopedia > POSIX

POSIX or "Portable Operating System Interface"[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. Originally, the name stood for IEEE Std 1003.1-1988, which as the name suggests, was released in 1988. The family of POSIX standards is formally designated as IEEE 1003 and the international standard name is ISO/IEC 9945. The standards emerged from a project that began near 1985. The term POSIX was suggested by Richard Stallman in response to an IEEE request for a memorable name[1]; before that the standards effort was called IEEE-IX. Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-e) is an international non-profit, professional organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity. ... A application programming interface (API) is the interface that a computer system, library or application provides in order to allow requests for services to be made of it by other computer programs, and/or to allow data to be exchanged between them. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards bodies. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (often abbreviated as RMS) (born March 16, 1953) is a software freedom activist, hacker, and software developer. ...

Contents

Overview

POSIX specifies the user and software interfaces to the OS in some 15 different documents. The standard user command line and scripting interface was based on the Korn shell. Other user-level programs, services and utilities include awk, echo, ed, and hundreds of others. Required program-level services include basic I/O (file, terminal, and network) services. POSIX also defines a standard threading library API which is supported by most modern operating systems. An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A command line interpreter is a computer program which reads lines of text that the user types and interprets them in the context of a given operating system or programming language. ... Korn shell logo. ... AWK is a general purpose computer language that is designed for processing text based data, either in files or data streams. ... echo is a command in Unix (and by extension, its descendants, such as Linux) and MS-DOS that places a string on the terminal. ... The text editor ed was the original standard on the Unix operating system. ... Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ... A computer file is a collection of information that is stored in a computer system and can be identified by its full path name. ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ... Computer networks redirects here. ... A thread in computer science is short for a thread of execution. ...


Currently POSIX documentation is divided in three parts:

  • POSIX Kernel APIs (which include extensions for POSIX.1, Real-time Services, Threads Interface, Real-time Extensions, Security Interface, Network File Access and Network Process-to-Process Communications)
  • POSIX Commands and Utilities (with User Portability Extensions, Corrections and Extensions, Protection and Control Utilities and Batch System Utilities)
  • POSIX Conformance Testing

A test suite for POSIX accompanies the standard. It is called PCTS or the POSIX Conformance Test Suite[2].


Since the IEEE charges very high rates for POSIX documentation and does not allow on-line publication of the standards, there has been a tendency toward the "Single UNIX Specification" standard, which is open, accepts input from anyone, and is freely available on the Internet. Beginning in 1998 a joint working group, the Austin Group, began to develop a combined standard that would be known as the Single UNIX Specification Version 3[3]. The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems to qualify for the name Unix. The SUS is developed and maintained by the Austin Group, based on earlier work by the IEEE and The Open Group. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Austin Group or the Austin Common Standards Revision Group is a joint technical working group formed to develop and maintain a common revision of POSIX.1 and parts of the Single UNIX Specification. ...


Although used mainly for Unix systems, the POSIX standard can apply to any operating system. Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...


Versions

POSIX has had various "upgrades":

  • POSIX.1, Core Services (incorporates Standard ANSI C)
    • Process Creation and Control
    • Signals
    • Floating Point Exceptions
    • Segmentation Violations
    • Illegal Instructions
    • Bus Errors
    • Timers
    • File and Directory Operations
    • Pipes
    • C Library (Standard C)
    • I/O Port Interface and Control
  • POSIX.1b, Real-time extensions
    • Priority Scheduling
    • Real-Time Signals
    • Clocks and Timers
    • Semaphores
    • Message Passing
    • Shared Memory
    • Asynch and Synch I/O
    • Memory Locking
  • POSIX.1c, Threads extensions
    • Thread Creation, Control, and Cleanup
    • Thread Scheduling
    • Thread Synchronization
    • Signal Handling

The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... The C standard library is a now-standardised collection of header files and library routines used to implement common operations, such as input/output and string handling, in the C programming language. ... Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ...

POSIX-oriented operating systems

Operating systems can be fully or partly POSIX compatible; they can conform to POSIX standards entirely or partially. Certified products can be found at IEEE's POSIX Certification website.


Fully POSIX-compliant

These are POSIX compatible, they conform to it fully.

A/UX (from Apple Unix) is Apple Computers implementation of the Unix operating system for some of their Macintosh computers. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. The scalable AIX 5L 5. ... BSD/OS (originally called BSD/386 and commonly known as BSDi) was a commercial version of the BSD Unix operating system developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc. ... Cygwin is a collection of free software tools originally developed by Cygnus Solutions to allow various versions of Microsoft Windows to act somewhat like a Unix system. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). ... INTEGRITY is a real-time operating system (RTOS) manufactured and marketed by Green Hills Software. ... IRIX is a computer operating system developed by Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... The LynxOS RTOS is a Unix-like real-time operating system from LynuxWorks (formerly Lynx Real-Time Systems). Sometimes known as the Lynx Operating System, LynxOS features POSIX compliance and, more recently, Linux compatibility. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Windows Services for UNIX Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) is a software package produced by Microsoft which provides a Unix subsystem and other parts of a full Unix environment on Windows NT and its successors. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... MINIX is an open source, Unix-like operating system (OS) based on a microkernel architecture. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... QNX (pronounced either Q-N-X or Q-nix) is a commercial POSIX-compliant Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market. ... RTEMS (Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems) is a free open source real-time operating system designed for embedded systems. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around the Solaris Operating System technology. ... UnixWare is a flavor of the Unix operating system. ... VxWorks is a Unix-like real-time operating system made and sold by Wind River Systems of Alameda, California, USA. Like most RTOSes, VxWorks includes a multitasking kernel with pre-emptive scheduling and fast interrupt response, extensive inter-process communications and synchronization facilities, and a file system. ... The Windows NT operating system familys architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode), with many different modules within both of these layers. ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptible, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows XP is a line of proprietary operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Server Longhorn is the codename for the next server operating system from Microsoft. ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptible, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows Services for UNIX Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) is a software package produced by Microsoft which provides a Unix subsystem and other parts of a full Unix environment on Windows NT and its successors. ... Windows XP is a line of proprietary operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Windows Services for UNIX Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) is a software package produced by Microsoft which provides a Unix subsystem and other parts of a full Unix environment on Windows NT and its successors. ... Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... Interix is the name of an optional, full-featured POSIX and Unix environment subsystem for Microsofts Windows NT-based operating systems. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Interix is the name of an optional, full-featured POSIX and Unix environment subsystem for Microsofts Windows NT-based operating systems. ...

Mostly POSIX-compliant

These are not officially certified as POSIX compatible, but they conform to it mostly. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

Nucleus RTOS is a real-time operating system (RTOS) and full featured toolset created by Accelerated Technology, the Embedded Systems Division of Mentor Graphics for various CPU platforms. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system family. ... The Linux Standard Base, or LSB, is a joint project by several GNU/Linux distributions under the organizational structure of The Free Standards Group to standardize the internal structure of Linux-based operating systems. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... OpenBSD is a freely available Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... SkyOS is an operating system developed by Robert Szeleney. ... Syllable is a free software hobby operating system for Intel x86 Pentium and compatible processors. ... VSTa is an operating system with a microkernel architecture, with all drivers and filesystems residing in userspace mode. ...

Compliant via compatibility feature

These are not officially certified as POSIX compatible, but they conform to it mostly, by implementing POSIX support via some sort of compatibility feature, usually translation libraries, or a layer atop the kernel. Without this feature, they are usually noncompliant.

  • eCos - POSIX is part of standard distribution, and used by many applications. 'external links' section below has more information.
  • Plan 9 from Bell Labs APE - ANSI/POSIX Environment [8]
  • Symbian OS with PIPS (PIPS Is POSIX on Symbian)

The correct title of this article is . ... Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... Symbian OS is an operating system with associated libraries, user interface frameworks and reference implementations of common tools, produced by Symbian. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ POSIX® 1003.1 FAQ Version 1.12 (2006-02-02). Retrieved on 2006-07-16.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ...

See also

  • TRON Project - alternative OS standard to POSIX
  • Interix - a full-featured POSIX and Unix environment subsystem for Microsoft's Windows NT-based operating systems

TRON is an open real-time operating system kernel, and is an acronym for The Real-time Operating System Nucleus. The project was begun by Prof. ... Interix is the name of an optional, full-featured POSIX and Unix environment subsystem for Microsofts Windows NT-based operating systems. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
POSIX - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (421 words)
POSIX is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system.
The term POSIX was suggested by Richard Stallman (not as a compliment) in response to an IEEE request for a memorable name; before that the standards effort was called IEEE-IX.
POSIX also defines a standard threading library API which is supported by most modern operating systems.
Embedded.com - POSIX in Real-Time (5470 words)
POSIX 1003.1a defines the interface to basic operating system functions, and was the first to be adopted in 1990.1,[6] Real-time extensions are defined in the standards 1003.1b, 1003.1d, 1003.1j, and 1003.21.
In POSIX, threads are implemented in an independent specification, which means that their specification is independent of the other real-time features.1,[14] Because of this, a number of features from the real-time specification are carried over to the thread specification.
Table 3 shows the level of compliance to POSIX 1003.1a and the 3.1 release is compliant with all three standards.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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