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Encyclopedia > P.G.T. Beauregard
Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard
Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard

Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1053x1434, 408 KB)Gen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1053x1434, 408 KB)Gen. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The...

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Early life

Beauregard was born at the "Contreras" plantation in St. Bernard Parish, outside of New Orleans, Louisiana, to a white Creole family. His nickname to many of his army friends was The Little Creole (and also Bory, The Little Frenchman, Felix, and The Little Napoleon). He trained at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, graduating in 1838, and excelled both as an artilleryman and military engineer. He served as an engineer under Winfield Scott during the Mexican-American War. There, he was brevetted to captain for the battles of Contreras and Churubusco and again to major for Chapultepec, where he was wounded in the shoulder and thigh in 1847. Although little is known of his married life, he was the brother-in-law of future Confederate diplomat John Slidell. A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. ... St. ... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot Official website: http://www. ... The term Louisiana Creole refers to people of any race or mixture thereof who are descended from settlers in colonial Louisiana before it became part of the USA in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase, or to the culture and Creole cuisine typical of these people. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... West Point redirects here; for other uses, see West Point (disambiguation). ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 60,000 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 (Mexican government estimate) The Mexican-American War was fought... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Gabriel Valencia Strength 8,500 20,000 Casualties 60 killed and wounded 700 killed 843 surrendered Gen Frontera dead Gen Salas, Nicolas Mendoza captured The Battle of Contreras (also known, particularly in Mexico, as the Battle of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 killed 865 wounded 998 total total 263 dead 1,261 captured Gens Rincon & Anaya captured The Battles of Churubusco took place on August 20, 1847, in the... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo Strength 7,200 16,000 Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total {{{notes}}} The Battle of Chapultepec took place in September 1847 during the Mexican-American War, at... John Slidell John Slidell (1793 – 1871) was born in New York City. ...


Beauregard briefly entered into politics in his home town, and was narrowly defeated in the election for Mayor of New Orleans in 1858. He was chief engineer in charge of draining New Orleans from 1858 to 1861, and directed the building of the Federal customs house. He then returned to teach at West Point, where he rose to become the superintendent of the Military Academy in January 1861, but resigned after only a few days when Louisiana seceded from the Union. The post of Mayor of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana has been held by the following individuals: Etienne de Boré 1803-04 James Pitot 1804-05 John Watkins 1805-07 James Mather 1807-12 Charles Trudeau 1812 Nicholas Girod 1812 LeBreton Dorgenois 1812 Nicholas Girod 1812-15 Augustin Macarty... The commanding officer of the United States Military Academy is its Superintendent. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Largest city Baton Rouge New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ...


Civil War

Beauregard entered the Confederate Army as a brigadier general in March of 1861, but was promoted on July 21 to be one of the eventual eight full generals in the Confederate Army; his date of rank made him the fifth most senior general. He recommended stationing strong forces to protect New Orleans, but was overruled by President Jefferson Davis; this started friction between Beauregard and Davis that would only intensify as years progressed. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ...


Beauregard's first assignment from the Confederate Government was command of the forces in Charleston, South Carolina, where on April 12, 1861, he opened fire on the Union-held Fort Sumter, regarded as the start of the American Civil War. He and General Joseph E. Johnston led Confederate forces to victory in the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas), where they defeated Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell, one of Beauregard's West Point classmates. During the First Battle of Bull Run, he employed Quaker Guns, something he would use in numerous other battles. Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Official website: http://www. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 2 dead,5 injured 0 The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–13, 1861), a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, began... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 28,450 32,230 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing) 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing) The First Battle of Bull... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... Guns made from logs used to fool Union troops in such battles as the siege of Petersburg, they were used to fool the enemy into believing you have more troops then you do ...


Beauregard was transferred to Tennessee and assumed command of Confederate forces at the Battle of Shiloh when General Albert Sidney Johnston was killed. Although successful the first day of battle, April 6, 1862, Beauregard called off the attack prematurely, assuming that the Union army was defeated. He was forced to retreat the second day after Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was reinforced and counterattacked. Beauregard later was forced to retreat from his base of supplies, Corinth, Mississippi by forces under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Corinth is a city located in Alcorn County, Mississippi. ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ...


Beauregard successfully defended Charleston, South Carolina, from repeated Union attacks 1862–1864. In 1864, he assisted Robert E. Lee in the defense of Richmond, Virginia, defeating Benjamin Butler in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign near Drewry's Bluff. Success against Butler, his most impressive military victory, caused grandiose thoughts to fill his mind. He proposed to Lee and Jefferson Davis that he lead a great invasion of the North, defeating Grant and Butler, and win the war. Undoubtedly to remove him as an irritant to Lee in Virginia, Beauregard was appointed commander of Confederate forces in the West. Since all of his forces were engaged elsewhere (in Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi), he had insufficient resources to halt the superior Union forces under William T. Sherman in their march to the sea. He and Joseph E. Johnston surrendered to Sherman in North Carolina in April 1865. Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Official website: http://www. ... Robert E. Lee, 1863 Portrait by Julian Vannerson Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 10, 1872) was a career army officer and the most successful general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Official website: http://www. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... View of Fort Darling at Drewrys Bluff from James River in 1865, Drewrys Bluff is located in northeastern Chesterfield County, Virginia in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Montgomery Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,423 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 32nd 125,443 km² 275 km 545 km 3 30°13N to 35°N 88°7W to 91°41W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 31st 2,697,243 23. ... William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. ... Engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting Shermans March Shermans March to the Sea is the name commonly given to the Savannah Campaign, conducted in late 1864 by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Raleigh Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq. ...


Postbellum life

After the war, Beauregard spoke in favor of civil and voting rights for the recently freed slaves, an opinion not common among high-ranking Confederates. It has been suggested that Chattel slavery be merged into this article or section. ...


Beauregard's military writings include Principles and Maxims of the Art of War (1863), Report on the Defense of Charleston, and A Commentary on the Campaign and Battle of Manassas (1891). He was the uncredited co-author of The Military Operations of General Beauregard in the War Between the States (1884). Beauregard and Jefferson Davis published a series of bitter accusations and counter-accusations, blaming each other in retrospect for the defeat of the Confederacy.


General Beauregard declined offers to take command of the armies of Romania (1866) and Egypt (1869).


Beauregard became involved in promotion of railroads, both as a company director and a consulting engineer. He was the president of the New Orleans, Jackson & Mississippi Railroad from 1865 to 1870, and president of the New Orleans and Carrollton Street Railway, 1866 to 1876, for which he invented a system of cable-powered street railway cars. This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...


Beauregard served in the government of the State of Louisiana, first as adjutant general for the state militia, and then less successfully as manager of the Louisiana Lottery. Though considered personally honest, he failed to reform corruption in the Lottery system. Official language(s) English and French Capital Largest city Baton Rouge New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq. ... An adjutant general is the chief administrative officer to a military general. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A ticket from the February 12th, 1889 Louisiana State Lottery The Louisiana State Lottery Company was a private corporation that in the mid-19th century ran the Louisiana lottery. ...


P.G.T. Beauregard died in New Orleans. He is buried there in Metairie Cemetery. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Metairie Cemetery is a cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana. ...


References

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.

External links

  • P. G. T. Beauregard biography and timeline
Preceded by:
Richard Delafield
Superintendents of the United States Military Academy
1861
Succeeded by:
Richard Delafield

 
 

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