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Encyclopedia > Pécs
Pécs
County Baranya
Area 162,61 km²
Population  
  • 159 794
  • 983 /km²
Postal code 7600–7691, 9693
Area code 72

Pécs Sound listen? (Croatian: Pečuh, German: Fünfkirchen, Slovak: Päťkostolie, Turkish: Peçuy) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country, at 46° 4′ 60″ N 18° 13′ 60″ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=46_4_60_N_18_13_60_E_). It is the administrative and economical centre of Baranya county. It was known in the past by the German name Fünfkirchen; the Romans called it Sopianæ. Counties of Hungary Hungary is subdivided administratively into 42 regions. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Square kilometre ( U.S. spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... A postal code is a series of letters and/or digits appended to a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... To play the audio file do not click on the -image. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ...

Contents

History

The Ancient Roman and early medieval city

Enlarge
Pécs Main Square

The area has been inhabited since ancient times, the oldest archaeological findings are 6000 years old. Before the Roman era the place was inhabited by Celts. When Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire (named Pannonia), the Romans founded the city of Sopianae where now Pécs stands, in the early 2nd century. The name Sopianae possibly comes from the plural of the Celtic sop meaning marsh. Download high resolution version (600x800, 63 KB)Main Square of Pecs. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 63 KB)Main Square of Pecs. ... This article is about the European people. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ...


The centre of Sopianae was where now the Postal Palace stands. Some parts of the Roman aqueduct are still visible. When Pannonia province was divided into four administrative divisions, Sopianae was the capital of the division named Valeria. Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC, it is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ...


In the first half of the 4th century Sopianae became an important Christian city. The first Christian cemeteries date back to this age, one of them was where now the cathedral stands. (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


By the end of the century Roman rule weakened in the area, mostly due to attacks by Barbarians and Huns. When Charlemagne arrived in the area, it was ruled by Avars and Slavs. Charlemagne, after conquering the area, annexed it to the Holy Roman Empire. It belonged to the Diocese of Salzburg. Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... A Frankish king, like Charlemagne, (center) depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870) Charlemagne (c. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ...


A document written in Salzburg in 871 is the first document mentioning the early mediaeval city, under the name Quinque Basilicae ("five cathedrals".) The name refers to the fact that when constructing the churches of the city, the builders used material from five old Christian chapels. Flag of Salzburg Salzburg (population 145,000 in 2003) is a city in western Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg (population 520,000 in 2003). ... Events Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex. ...


The Hungarian city in the Middle Ages

After the Hungarians conquered the area of modern-day Hungary (late 9th–early 10th century) and founded the comitatus Baranya, the capital of the comitatus was not Pécs but a nearby castle, Baranyavár ("Baranya Castle".) Pécs, however, became an important religious centre and episcopal seat. In Latin documents the city was mentioned as Quinque Ecclesiae ("five churches", a name identical in meaning to the German name Fünfkirchen.) This is the history of Hungary. ... ( 8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The... ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


In 1064 when King Solomon made peace with his cousin, the later King Géza I, they celebrated Easter in Pécs. Shortly after the cathedral burnt down. The cathedral that stands today was built after this, in the 11th century. Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... Géza I (Slovak: Gejza) (c. ... Easter is the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed in March, April, or May each year to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus from the dead after his death by crucifixion (see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year around AD 30-33. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


The name Pécs appears in documents in 1235 in the word Pechyut (with modern spelling: pécsi út, means "road to Pécs".) Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ...


Several religious orders settled down in Pécs. The Benedictine order was the first in 1076. In 1181 there was already a hospital in the city. The first Dominican monastery of the country was built in Pécs in 1238. The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ... Events February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Jayavarman VII assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ...


King Louis the Great founded a university in Pécs in 1367 following the advice of William, the bishop of Pécs, who was also the king's chancellor. It was the first university in Hungary. The founding document is almost word by word identical with that of the University of Vienna, stating that the university has the right to teach all arts and sciences, with the exception of theology. Louis the Great Louis I (the Great), Lajos, Ludwik Węgierski (1326 - 1382) became king of Hungary in 1342 at the death of his father. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ... University of Vienna Main Building The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Austria was founded in 1365 by Rudolph IV and hence named Alma mater Rudolphina. ... Theology is literally reasonable discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


In 1459 Janus Pannonius, the most important mediaeval poet of Hungary became the bishop of Pécs. He strengthened the cultural importance of Pécs. Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ...


Pécs under Ottoman rule

After the Battle of Mohács (1526) in which the invading Ottoman army defeated the armies of King Louis II, the armies of Suleiman occupied and pillaged Pécs, killed the citizens and burnt the city. The Battle of Mohács was fought on August 29, 1526 between the Hungarian army led by Louis II and the Ottoman army led by Suleiman the Magnificent. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Louis Jagellion was born in 1506 as the son of (V)Ladislaus Jagiello, who died in 1516. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman, (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at...


Not only was a large part of the country occupied by Ottomans, the public opinion of who should be the king of Hungary was divided, too. One party supported Ferdinand of Habsburg, the other party crowned John Zápolya in Székesfehérvár. The citizens of Pécs supported Emperor Ferdinand, but the rest of Baranya county supported King John. In the summer of 1527 Ferdinand defeated the armies of Zápolya and was crowned king on November 3. Ferdinand favoured the city because of their support, and exempted Pécs from paying taxes. Pécs was rebuilt and fortified. Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (March 10, 1503 – July 27, 1564) was one of the Habsburg emperors that at various periods during his life ruled over Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary. ... John Zápolya refers to a father and son who were kings of Hungary in the 16th century. ... Székesfehérvár  listen (in Latin: Alba Regia; in colloquial speech Fehérvár) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ...


In 1529 the Ottomans captured Pécs again, and went on a campaign against Vienna. The Ottomans made Pécs to accept King John (who was allied with them) as their ruler. John died in 1540. In 1541 the Ottomans occupied the castle of Buda, and ordered Isabella, the widow of John to give Pécs to them, since the city was of strategical importance. The citizens of Pécs defended the city against the Ottomans, and swore loyalty to Ferdinand. The emperor helped the city and defended it from further Ottoman attacks, but his advisors persuaded him into focusing more on the cities of Székesfehérvár and Esztergom instead of Pécs. The citizens of Pécs knew that without the emperor's support they won't be able to hold the city from the Ottomans, and in June 1543 they opened the city gates before the Ottoman army. Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Buda is the western part of Budapest on the bank of the Danube. ... Esztergom (German Gran, Slovak Ostrihom) is a small city in northern Hungary, about 70 km north-west of Budapest. ... Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ...


After occupying the city the Ottomans fortified it and turned it into a real Ottoman city. The Christian churches were turned into mosques; Turkish baths and minarets were built, Quran schools were founded, there was a bazaar in place of the market. The city was ruled by Muslim officials according to the Sharia law. For a hundred years the city was an island of peace in a land of war. A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... A Turkish bath is a method of cleansing the body and relaxation that was particularly popular during the Victorian era. ... Mosque in Aswan, Egypt, with minarets. ... A bazaar is a market, often covered, typically found in areas of Muslim culture. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Sharia (Arabic: also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law also known as Allahs Law. ...


In 1664 Nicholas Zrínyi arrived to Pécs. Since the city was well into the Ottoman territories, they knew that even if the occupy it, they couldn't keep it for long, so they planned only to pillage it. They ravaged and burned the city but couldn't occupy the castle. Mediaeval Pécs was destroyed forever. Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Portrait of Miklós Zrínyi by Viktor Madarász Nicholas Zrinski (Nikola Zrinski in Croatian, Zrínyi Miklós in Hungarian) (1620-1664) was a Croatian and Hungarian warrior, statesman and poet, member of the noble family which is called Zrinski in Croatian and Zrínyi in Hungarian. ...


After the castle of Buda was freed from Ottoman rule in 1686, the armies went to free Pécs too. The advance guards could break into the city and pillaged it. The Ottomans saw that they cannot keep the city, and burnt it, moving themselves into the castle. The army led by Louis of Baden occupied the city on October 14, and destroyed the aqueduct leading to the castle. The Ottomans had no other choice but to surrender, which they did on October 22. Events The League of Augsburg is founded. ... Louis William, Margrave of Baden called the Türkenlouis or shield of the empire. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ...


The city was under martial law under the command of Karl von Thüngen. The Viennese court wanted to destroy the city first, but later they decided to keep it to conterbalance the importance of Szigetvár, which was still under Ottoman rule. Slowly the city started to prosper again, but in the 1690s two plague epidemics claimed many lives. In 1688 German settlers arrived. Only about one quarter of the city's population was Hungarian, the others were Germans or Southern Slavs. Because Hungarians were only a minority of the population, Pécs didn't support the revolution against Habsburg rule led by Francis II Rákóczi, and his armies pillaged the city in 1704. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice (and usually of the whole state). ... Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century Decades: 1640s 1650s 1660s 1670s 1680s - 1690s - 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s Years: 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 Events and Trends World Leaders King Christian V of Denmark (1670 - 1699). ... Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Prince Francis II Rákóczi (or in Hungarian) was a Hungarian noble who in 1703 rebelled against Austria, who had just taken over. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ...


Pécs in modern times

A more peaceful era started after 1710. Industry, trade and viticulture prospered, manufactures were founded, a new city hall was built. The feudal lord of the city was the Bishop of Pécs, but the city wanted to free itself from episcopal control. Bishop George Klimó, an enlightened man (who founded the first public library of the country) would have agreed to cede his rights to the city, but the Holy See forbade him to do so. When Klimó died in 1777, Queen Maria Theresa quickly elevated Pécs to free royal town status before the new bishop was elected. This cost 83,315 forints to the city. Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 4 - Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer (d. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library A public library is a library which is accessible by the public and is often operated by civil servants and funded from public sources. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an Imperial Free City (in German: Freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the Emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes and dukes of...


According to the first census (held in 1787 by the order of Joseph II) there were 1474 houses and 1834 families in Pécs, a total of 8853 residents, of which 133 were priests and 117 were noblemen. A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ...


In 1785 the Academy of Győr was moved to Pécs. This academy eventually evolved into a law school. The first stone-built theatre of the city was built in 1839. 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The industry developed a lot in the second half of the 19th century. By 1848 there were 1739 industrial workers. Some of the manufactures were nationally famous. The iron and paper factories were amond the most modern ones of the age. Coal mining was relevant. A sugar factory and beer manufactures were built, too. The city had 14,616 residents. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


During the revolution in 184849 Pécs was occupied by Croatian armies for a short time, but it was freed from them by Habsburg armies in January 1849. 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


After the Ausgleich (1867) Pécs developed, like all the other cities and towns of the country. From 1867 Pécs is connected to the nearby town Barcs by railway, and since 1882 it is also connected to Budapest. The German term Ausgleich (Hungarian kiegyezés) refers to the compromise or composition of February 1867 that established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which was signed by Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation led by Ferenc Deák. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Budapest (pronounced or ), the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre, has more than 1. ...


During World War I Baranya county was occupied by Serbian troops, and it was not until August 1921 that Pécs could be sure that it remains part of Hungary. The University of Pozsony (modern-day Bratislava, Slovakia) was moved to Pécs after Hungary lost Pozsony according to the Treaty of Trianon. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The word Serbian might be: an adjective, meaning: of Serbs (Serbian tradition, Serbian religion) of Serbia (Serbian government, Serbian president) both of the above (Serbian flag) a noun, meaning: a Serb a Serb from Serbia (as opposed to Serb who is not from Serbia) citizen of Serbia (regardless of nationality... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 430,000. ... The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing The Treaty of Trianon was an agreement that regulated the situation of the new Hungarian state that replaced the Kingdom of Hungary, part of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, after World War I. It was signed on June 4, 1920, at...


During World War II Pécs suffered only minor damages, even though a large tank-battle took place 20–25 km south of the city, close to the Villányi area late in the war, when the advancing Red Army fought its way towards Austria. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


After the war development became fast again, and the city grew, absorbing several nearby towns. In the 1980s Pécs already had 180,000 inhabitants. Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


After the end of Socialist era (19891990) Pécs and its county, like many other areas, were hit hard by the changes, the unemployment rate was high, the mines and several factories were closed, and the war in neighboring Yugoslavia in the 1990s affected the tourism. For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ...


Economy

Located in the midst of an agricultural area, Pécs is the natural hub of local products. Until some years ago, it had a coal mine and even a Uranium mine. Several factories exist, but since the fall of the Iron Curtain those have mostly not managed the transition. It does have a quite famous porcelain factory. The Zsolnay Porcelain has a special greenish colour — called "eozin". One of the walls of a local McDonald's franchise (the one on the Main Square) is decorated with Zsolnay Porcelain tiles. The Pécsi Sörfőzde (Pécs Brewery) is one of the four main Hungarian breweries. General Name, Symbol, Number Uranium, U, 92 Chemical series Actinides Period, Block 7, f Density, Hardness 19050 kg/m3, 6 Appearance silvery-white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 238. ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine Porcelain is a type of hard semi-translucent ceramic generally fired at a higher temperature than glazed earthenware, or stoneware pottery. ... McDonalds Corporation ( NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants [1]. Although McDonalds did not invent the hamburger or fast food, its name has become nearly synonymous with both. ... Pécs Brewery or Brewery of Pécs (Pécsi Sörfőzde) is a brewery located in Pécs, the capital of Baranya county in southwestern Hungary. ...


Education

The University of Pécs was founded by Louis I of Hungary in 1367. It is the oldest university of Hungary. It is divided into two Universities, one for Medicine and Odontology (POTE) ([1] (http://www.pote.hu/)) and one larger one for other studies — this being the JPTE (Janus Panonius Tudományegyetem). The POTE has a large English program (with students from America, Asia, and European countries - many Scandinavian) and a new German program. The duration of the course of course is six years. Louis the Great Louis I (the Great), Lajos, Ludwik Węgierski (1326 - 1382) became king of Hungary in 1342 at the death of his father. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ...


Famous people born in Pécs

Biography External Links Breuer at Saint Johns Categories: Stub | Furniture designers | Architects ... Dezső Lauber (May 23, 1879 - September 5, 1966) was a Hungarian all-round sportsman and architect. ... Kató Lomb (Pécs, February 8, 1909 - Budapest, June 9, 2003) was a Hungarian interpreter, translator, language genius and one of the first simultaneous interpreters of the world. ... László Sólyom is the current President of Hungary, having overcome the Hungarian Socialist Party leader Katalin Szili in the election on June 7, 2005. ... Victor Vasarely (9th April 1908 - 15th March 1997) was a Hungarian-born artist often acclaimed as the father of Op-art. ...

Source

  • History of Pécs (http://juventus.uno.hu/pecs/pecstortenet.htm) (in Hungarian)

External links

  • Official homepage (http://www.pecs.hu/english/index.php)
  • Wikitravel: Pécs (http://wikitravel.org/en/article/Pecs)
  • Pécs Photo Gallery (http://www.jeber.com/Members/Ali/Gallery/5/)


Counties of Hungary
Counties: Bács-Kiskun | Baranya | Békés | Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén | Csongrád | Fejér | Győr-Moson-Sopron | Hajdú-Bihar | Heves | Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok | Komárom-Esztergom | Nógrád | Pest | Somogy | Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg | Tolna | Vas | Veszprém | Zala
Capital: (usually treated as the 20th county) Budapest
Urban counties: Békéscsaba | Debrecen | Dunaújváros | Eger | Győr | Hódmezővásárhely | Kaposvár | Kecskemét | Miskolc | Nagykanizsa | Nyíregyháza | Pécs | Salgótarján | Sopron | Szeged | Szekszárd | Székesfehérvár | Szolnok | Szombathely | Tatabánya | Veszprém | Zalaegerszeg
See also: List of historic counties of Hungary

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