FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Ozone" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ozone
Ozone
IUPAC name Trioxygen
Identifiers
CAS number [10028-15-6]
Properties
Molecular formula O3
Molar mass 47.998 g·mol−1
Appearance bluish colored gas
Density 2.144 g·L−1 (0 °C), gas
Melting point

80.7 K, −192.5 °C Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x534, 17 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ozone User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 574 pixel Image in higher resolution (1100 × 789 pixel, file size: 105 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ozone ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (994 × 758 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ozone ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

161.3 K, −111.9 °C Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 0.105 g·100mL−1 (0 °C)
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
+142.3 kJ·mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
237.7 J·K−1.mol−1
Hazards
EU classification not listed
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic O2. Ground-level ozone is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals. Ozone in the upper atmosphere filters potentially damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface. It is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere. It has many industrial and consumer applications. Ozone, the first allotrope of a chemical element to be recognized by science, was proposed as a distinct chemical compound by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1840, who named it after the Greek word for smell (ozein), from the peculiar odor in lightning storms.[1][2] The formula for ozone, O3, was not determined until 1865 by Jacques-Louis Soret[3] and confirmed by Schönbein in 1867.[1] The odor from a lightning strike is from ions produced during the rapid chemical changes, not from the ozone itself.[4] Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under conditions of standard temperature and pressure. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Multiple uses exist for the word ozone: ozone, the molecule O-zone, the Moldavian pop group ozonolysis, the chemical process O-zone, the novel by Paul Theroux ozone hole, the health threat François Ozon the film director Ozone Park, the park Ozone Magazine, the magazine Doc Ozone, the photoshop... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Allotropy (Gr. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... A computer rendering of the Nitrogen Molecule, which is a diatomic molecule. ... Air redirects here. ... Christian Friedrich Schönbein (October 18, 1799 – August 29, 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is most well-known for his discovery of guncotton. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Jacques-Louis Soret was a Swiss chemist who co-discovered holmium in 1878 with Marc Delafontaine and indepdently in 1879 with Per Teodor Cleve Categories: Substubs | Discoverer of a chemical element | Swiss chemists ...

Contents

Physical properties

Ozone is a pale blue, poisonous gas with a sharp, cold, irritating odor. Most people can detect about 0.01 ppm in air. Exposure to 0.1 to 1 ppm produces headaches, burning eyes, and irritation to the respiratory passages.[5] The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ... The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ...


At -112 °C, it forms a dark blue liquid. At temperatures below -193 °C, it forms a violet-black solid.[6] For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ...


Ozone is diamagnetic, meaning that it will resist formation of a magnetic field, and will decrease the energy stored in the field once the field is established. Diamagnetism is a very weak form of magnetism that is only exhibited in the presence of an external magnetic field. ...


Structure

The structure of ozone, according to experimental evidence from microwave spectroscopy, is bent, with C2v symmetry (similar to the water molecule), O – O distance of 127.2 pm and O – O – O angle of 116.78°.[7] The central atom forms an sp² hybridization with one lone pair. Ozone is a polar molecule with a dipole moment of 0.5337 D.[8] The bonding is single bond on one side and double bond on the other side, and these bonds are blended to become known as resonance structures. The bond order is 1.5 for each side. Rotational spectroscopy studies the absorption of electromagnetic radiation (typically in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum) by molecules. ... Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes symmetry in molecules and the classification of molecules in groups based on symmetry. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Dipole moment refers to the quality of a system to behave like a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Resonance structures are diagrammatic tools in organic chemistry to symbolize resonant bonds between atoms in molecules. ... Bond order is the number of bonds between a pair of atoms. ...


Chemistry

Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, far better than dioxygen. It is also unstable at high concentrations, decaying to ordinary diatomic oxygen (in about half an hour in atmospheric conditions[9]):

2 O3 → 3 O2.

This reaction proceeds more rapidly with increasing temperature and decreasing pressure. Deflagration of ozone can be triggered by a spark, and can occur in ozone concentrations of 10 wt% or higher. Ozone will oxidize metals (except gold, platinum, and iridium) to oxides of the metals in their highest oxidation state: A log in a fire place. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ...

2 Cu2+(aq) + 2 H3O+(aq) + O3(g) → 2 Cu3+(aq) + 3 H2O(l) + O2(g)

Ozone also increases the oxidation number of oxides:

NO + O3NO2 + O2

The above reaction is accompanied by chemiluminescence. The NO2 can be further oxidized: R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in an erlenmeyer flask producing a large amount of light. ...

NO2 + O3 → NO3 + O2

The NO3 formed can react with NO2 to form N2O5: Dinitrogen pentoxide is the binary nitrogen oxide N2O5, also known as nitrogen pentoxide. ...

NO2 + NO3 → N2O5

Ozone reacts with carbon to form carbon dioxide, even at room temperature: For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

C + 2 O3 → CO2 + 2 O2

Ozone does not react with ammonium salts but it reacts with ammonia to form ammonium nitrate: This article is about common table salt. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of...

2 NH3 + 4 O3 → NH4NO3 + 4 O2 + H2O

Ozone reacts with sulfides to make sulfates: For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ...

PbS + 4 O3PbSO4 + 4 O2

Sulfuric acid can be produced from ozone, starting either from elemental sulfur or from sulfur dioxide: Lead sulfide (British/Commonwealth English sulphide) is a chemical compound PbS, most often purified from the mineral galena. ... Lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) is a white crystal or powder. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

S + H2O + O3 → H2SO4
3 SO2 + 3 H2O + O3 → 3 H2SO4

All three atoms of ozone may also react, as in the reaction with tin(II) chloride and hydrochloric acid and NaCl along with Ammonium Nitrate: For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...

3 SnCl2 + 6 HCl + O3 → 3 SnCl4 + 3 H2O

In the gas phase, ozone reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide: In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...

H2S + O3 → SO2 + H2O

In an aqueous solution, however, two competing simultaneous reactions occur, one to produce elemental sulfur, and one to produce sulfuric acid: Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ...

H2S + O3 → S + O2 + H2O
3 H2S + 4 O3 → 3 H2SO4

Iodine perchlorate can be made by treating iodine dissolved in cold anhydrous perchloric acid with ozone: Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid (HClO4). ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Perchloric acid has the formula HClO4 and is a colorless liquid soluble in water. ...

I2 + 6 HClO4 + O3 → 2 I(ClO4)3 + 3 H2O

Solid nitryl perchlorate can be made from NO2, ClO2, and O3 gases: The nitryl group is NO2, a nitrogen atom plus two oxygen atoms. ...

2 NO2 + 2 ClO2 + 2 O3 → 2 NO2ClO4 + O2

Ozone can be used for combustion reactions and combusting gases in ozone provides higher temperatures than combusting in dioxygen (O2). Following is a reaction for the combustion of carbon subnitride which can also cause lower temperatures: This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Dioxygen, O2, is the most common form of the element oxygen in normal conditions. ... Carbon subnitride or dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) is a compound of carbon and nitrogen. ...

3 C4N2 + 4 O3 → 12 CO + 3 N2

Ozone can react at cryogenic temperatures. At 77 K (-196 °C), atomic hydrogen reacts with liquid ozone to form a hydrogen superoxide radical, which dimerizes:[10] This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ...

H + O3 → HO2 + O
2 HO2 → H2O4

Ozonides can be formed, which contain the ozonide anion, O3-. These compounds are explosive and must be stored at cryogenic temperatures. Ozonides for all the alkali metals are known. KO3, RbO3, and CsO3 can be prepared from their respective superoxides: Ozonide is an unstable, reactive polyatomic anion O3-, derived from ozone, or an organic compound similar to organic peroxide formed by a reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ...

KO2 + O3 → KO3 + O2

Although KO3 can be formed as above, it can also be formed from potassium hydroxide and ozone:[11] The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ...

2 KOH + 5 O3 → 2 KO3 + 5 O2 + H2O

NaO3 and LiO3 must be prepared by action of CsO3 in liquid NH3 on an ion exchange resin containing Na+ or Li+ ions:[12] Ion exchange resin beads An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. ...

CsO3 + Na+ → Cs+ + NaO3

Treatment with ozone of calcium dissolved in ammonia leads to ammonium ozonide and not calcium ozonide:[13] For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...

3 Ca + 10 NH3 + 6 O3 → Ca•6NH3 + Ca(OH)2 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2 NH4O3 + 2 O2 + H2

Ozone can be used to remove manganese from the water, forming a precipitate which can be filtered: General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Precipitation is the condensation of a solid from a solution during a chemical reaction. ...

2 Mn2+ + 2 O3 + 4 H2O → 2 MnO(OH)2 (s) + 2 O2 + 4 H+

Ozone will also turn cyanides to the one thousand times less toxic cyanates: This article is about the chemical compound. ... The cyanate ion is an anion consisting of one oxygen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom (OCN−), in that order, and possesses 1 unit of negative charge, borne mainly by the nitrogen atom. ...

CN- + O3 → CNO- + O2

Finally, ozone will also completely decompose urea:[14] Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...

(NH2)2CO + O3 → N2 + CO2 + 2 H2O

Ozone in Earth's atmosphere

The distribution of atmospheric ozone in partial pressure as a function of altitude.
The distribution of atmospheric ozone in partial pressure as a function of altitude.
Concentration of ozone as measured by the Nimbus-7 satellite.
Concentration of ozone as measured by the Nimbus-7 satellite.
Total ozone concentration in June 2000 as measured by EP-TOMS satellite instrument.
Total ozone concentration in June 2000 as measured by EP-TOMS satellite instrument.

The standard way to express total ozone levels (the volume of ozone in a vertical column) in the atmosphere is by using Dobson units. Concentrations at a point are measured in parts per billion (ppb) or in μg/m³. Image File history File links Atmospheric_ozone. ... Image File history File links Atmospheric_ozone. ... Brewer-Dobson circulation in the ozone layer. ... Brewer-Dobson circulation in the ozone layer. ... The Nimbus satellites were second-generation U.S. unmanned spacecraft for meteorological research and development. ... Image File history File links IM_ozavg_ept_200006. ... Image File history File links IM_ozavg_ept_200006. ... Dobson units (DU) are the standard way to express ozone amounts in the atmosphere. ... Parts-per notation is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


Ozone layer

Main article: Ozone layer

The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere, in a region also known as the ozone layer between about 10 km and 50 km above the surface (or between 6.21 and 31.1 miles). Here it filters out photons with shorter wavelengths (less than 320 nm) of ultraviolet light, also called UV rays, (270 to 400 nm) from the Sun that would be harmful to most forms of life in large doses. These same wavelengths are also among those responsible for the production of vitamin D, which is essential for human health. Ozone in the stratosphere is mostly produced from ultraviolet rays reacting with oxygen: The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... In physics, the photon (from Greek φως, phōs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... For other uses, see Health (disambiguation). ...

O2 + photon(radiation< 240 nm) → 2 O
O + O2 → O3

It is destroyed by the reaction with atomic oxygen: In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 2 , p Density, Hardness 1. ...

O3 + O → 2 O2

(See Ozone-oxygen cycle for more detail.) Ozone-oxygen cycle in the ozone layer. ...


The latter reaction is catalysed by the presence of certain free radicals, of which the most important are hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and atomic chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br). In recent decades the amount of ozone in the stratosphere has been declining mostly due to emissions of CFCs and similar chlorinated and brominated organic molecules, which have increased the concentration of ozone-depleting catalysts above the natural background. Ozone only makes up 0.00006% of the atmosphere. See ozone depletion for more information. Catalyst redirects here. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths...


Low level ozone

Low level ozone (or tropospheric ozone) is regarded as a pollutant by the World Health Organization.[15] It is not emitted directly by car engines or by industrial operations. It is formed by the reaction of sunlight on air containing hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides that react to form ozone directly at the source of the pollution or many kilometers down wind. For more details of the complex chemical reactions that produce low level ozone see tropospheric ozone. Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ... Photochemical smog is the term to represent a multitude of chemical agents which are considered to be detrimental to the environment and health. ... WHO redirects here. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ...


Ozone reacts directly with some hydrocarbons such as aldehydes and thus begins their removal from the air, but the products are themselves key components of smog. Ozone photolysis by UV light leads to production of the hydroxyl radical OH and this plays a part in the removal of hydrocarbons from the air, but is also the first step in the creation of components of smog such as peroxyacyl nitrates which can be powerful eye irritants. The atmospheric lifetime of tropospheric ozone is about 22 days and its main removal mechanisms are being deposited to the ground, the above mentioned reaction giving OH, and by reactions with OH and the peroxy radical HO2· (Stevenson et al, 2006).[16] An aldehyde. ... Photochemical smog is the term to represent a multitude of chemical agents which are considered to be detrimental to the environment and health. ... Photolysis refers to any chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down by light. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... peroxyacetyl nitrate, the most common PAN Peroxyacyl nitrates, or PANs, are powerful respiratory and eye irritants present in photochemical smog. ...


As well as having an impact on human health (see below) there is also evidence of significant reduction in agricultural yields due to increased ground-level ozone and pollution which interferes with photosynthesis and stunts overall growth of some plant species.[17][18] Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


Certain examples of cities with elevated ozone readings are Houston and Mexico City. Houston has a reading of around 41 ppb, while Mexico City is far more hazardous, with a reading of about 125 ppb.[19]


Ozone as a greenhouse gas

Although ozone was present at ground level before the industrial revolution, peak concentrations are now far higher than the pre-industrial levels and even background concentrations well away from sources of pollution are substantially higher.[20][21] This increase in ozone is of further concern as ozone present in the upper troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing some of the infrared energy emitted by the earth. Quantifying the greenhouse gas potency of ozone is difficult as it is not present in uniform concentrations across the globe. However, the most recent scientific review on the climate change (the IPCC Third Assessment Report[22]) suggests that the radiative forcing of tropospheric ozone is about 25% that of carbon dioxide. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all... The IPCC Third Assessment Report is a product of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which is based in Geneva Switzerland, and was established in 1988 by two United Nations organisations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). ... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Ozone cracking

Ozone gas attacks any polymer possessing olefinic or double bonds within its chain structure, such materials including natural rubber, nitrile rubber, and Styrene-butadiene rubber. Products made using these polymers are especially susceptible to attack, which causes cracks to grow longer and deeper with time, the rate of crack growth depending on the load carried by the product and the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere. Such materials can be protected by adding anti-ozonants, such as waxes, which bond to the surface to create a protective film or blend with the material and provide long term protection. Ozone cracks used to be a serious problem in car tires for example, but the problem is now seen only in very old tires. A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ... Nitrile rubber is a synthetic rubber co-polymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene. ... Styrene Butadiene SBR (SBR) is a polymeride consisting of styrene and butadiene. ...


Ozone and health

Ozone in air pollution

There is a great deal of evidence to show that high concentrations (ppm) of ozone, created by high concentrations of pollution and daylight UV rays at the earth's surface, can harm lung function and irritate the respiratory system.[15][23] A connection has also been shown to exist between increased ozone caused by thunderstorms and hospital admissions of asthma sufferers.[24] Air quality guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization are based on detailed studies of what levels can cause measurable health effects. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... WHO redirects here. ... Health effects, health impacts or health risks are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. ...


A common British folk myth dating back to the Victorian era holds that the smell of the sea is caused by ozone, and that this smell has "bracing" health benefits.[25] Neither of these is true. The characteristic "smell of the sea" is not caused by ozone, but by the presence of dimethyl sulfide generated by phytoplankton, and dimethyl sulfide, like ozone, is toxic in high concentrations.[26] Dimethyl sulfide causes that distinctive smell from your St. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ...


The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed an Air Quality index to help explain air pollution levels to the general public. 8-hour average ozone concentrations of 85 to 104 ppbv are described as "Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups", 105 ppbv to 124 ppbv as "unhealthy" and 125 ppb to 404 ppb as "very unhealthy".[27] The EPA has designated over 300 counties of the United States, clustered around the most heavily populated areas (especially in California and the Northeast), as failing to comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. EPA redirects here. ... Parts-per notation is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ...


Ozone can also be present in indoor air pollution. This power plant in New Mexico releases sulfur dioxide and particulate matter into the air. ...


Physiology of ozone

Ozone, along with reactive forms of oxygen such as superoxide, singlet oxygen (see oxygen), hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite ions, is naturally produced by white blood cells and other biological systems (such as the roots of marigolds) as a means of destroying foreign bodies. Ozone reacts directly with organic double bonds. Also, when ozone breaks down to dioxygen it gives rise to oxygen free radicals, which are highly reactive and capable of damaging many organic molecules. Ozone has been found to convert cholesterol in the blood stream to plaque (which causes hardening and narrowing of arteries). Moreover, it is believed that the powerful oxidizing properties of ozone may be a contributing factor of inflammation. The cause-and-effect relationship of how the ozone is created in the body and what it does is still under consideration and still subject to various interpretations, since other body chemical processes can trigger some of the same reactions. A team headed by Dr. Paul Wentworth Jr. of the Department of Chemistry at the Scripps Research Institute has shown evidence linking the antibody-catalyzed water-oxidation pathway of the human immune response to the production of ozone. In this system, ozone is produced by antibody-catalyzed production of trioxidane from water and neutrophil-produced singlet oxygen.[28] See also trioxidane for more on this biological ozone-producing reaction. Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... Molecular orbital diagram for singlet oxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... Marigold can mean: Flowering plants in the family Asteraceae in the following genera: Calendula (Marigold or Pot Marigold) Tagetes (Mexican marigold, African marigold or French marigold) Glebionis segetum (syn. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... The Scripps Research Institute, in La Jolla, California is home to notable chemists such as K. Barry Sharpless and P. G. Schultz, as well as neurobiologist Gerald Edelman, and Nobel Laureate Kurt Wurtrich. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Trioxidane is dihydrogen trioxide, H2O3, an analogue of hydrogen peroxide having a chain of three oxygen atoms instead of two. ... Molecular orbital diagram for singlet oxygen. ... Trioxidane is dihydrogen trioxide, H2O3, an analogue of hydrogen peroxide having a chain of three oxygen atoms instead of two. ...


Ozone has also been proven to form specific, cholesterol-derived metabolites that are thought to facilitate the build-up and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaques (a form of heart disease). These metabolites have been confirmed as naturally occurring in human atherosclerotic arteries and are categorized into a class of secosterols termed “Atheronals”, generated by ozonolysis of cholesterol's double bond to form a 5,6 secosterol as well as a secondary condensation product via aldolization.[29] Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Atherosclerosis is a disease affecting arterial blood vessels. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... In ozonolysis ozone cleaves an alkene into carbonyl compounds. ...


Ozone has been implicated to have an adverse effect on plant growth, "...Ozone reduced total chlorophylls, carotenoid and carbohydrate concentration, and increased 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ethylene production. In treated plants, the ascorbate leaf pool was decreased, while lipid peroxidation and solute leakage were significantly higher than in ozone-free controls. The data indicated that ozone triggered protective mechanisms against oxidative stress in citrus." [30]


Use of ozone in medical therapy

See

Main article: Ozone therapy

Some people including a number of doctors of medicine and biochemists believe ozone has remarkable healing properties [1][2][3]. Others though dismiss these claims as quackery [4]. For many years Ozones medical value or non-value has been the subject of controversial and emotional debate [5]. Ozone therapy...

Preparation

Ozone often forms in nature under conditions where O2 will not react.[5] Ozone used in industry is measured in g/Nm³ or weight percent. The regime of applied concentrations ranges from 1 to 5 weight percent in air and from 6 to 13 weight percent in oxygen. This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Corona discharge method

This is the most popular type of ozone generator for most industrial and personal uses. While variations of the "hot spark" coronal discharge method of ozone production exist, including medical grade and industrial grade ozone generators, these units usually work by means of a corona discharge tube.[31] They are typically very cost-effective, and do not require an oxygen source other than the ambient air. However, they also produce nitrogen oxides as a by-product. Use of an air dryer can reduce or eliminate nitric acid formation by removing water vapor and increase ozone production. Use of an oxygen concentrator can further increase the ozone production and further reduce the risk of nitric acid formation due to removing not only the water vapor, but also the bulk of the nitrogen. In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor, which occurs when the potential gradient exceeds a certain value, in situations where sparking (also known as arcing) is not favoured. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... An air dryer is a device that is mounted directly after an air compressor and dries the air. ... An oxygen concentrator is a device used to provide oxygen to a patient at substantially higher concentrations than those of ambient air, used as an alternative to tanks of compressed oxygen. ...


Ultraviolet light

UV ozone generators employ a light source that generates a narrow-band ultraviolet light, a subset of that produced by the Sun. The Sun's UV sustains the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the Earth[32]. While standard UV ozone generators tend to be less expensive, they usually produce ozone with a concentration of about 0.5% or lower. Another disadvantage of this method is that it requires the air (oxygen) to be exposed to the UV source for a longer amount of time, and any gas that is not exposed to the UV source will not be treated. This makes UV generators impractical for use in situations that deal with rapidly moving air or water streams (in-duct air sterilization, for example). For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ...


Cold plasma

In the cold plasma method, pure oxygen gas is exposed to a plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge. The diatomic oxygen is split into single atoms, which then recombine in triplets to form ozone. This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... Dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) is the electrical discharge between two electrodes separated by an insulating dielectric barrier. ...


Cold plasma machines utilize pure oxygen as the input source, and produce a maximum concentration of about 5% ozone. They produce far greater quantities of ozone in a given space of time compared to ultraviolet production. However, because cold plasma ozone generators are very expensive, and still require occasional maintenance, they are found less frequently than the previous two types. For other uses, see Plasma. ...


The discharges manifest as filamentary transfer of electrons (micro discharges) in a gap between two electrodes. In order to evenly distribute the micro discharges, a dielectric insulator must be used to separate the metallic electrodes and to prevent arcing. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Some cold plasma units also have the capability of producing short-lived allotropes of oxygen which include O4, O5, O6, O7, etc. These anions are even more reactive than ordinary O3.


Special considerations

Ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site. Available ozone generators vary in the arrangement and design of the high-voltage electrodes. At production capacities higher than 20 kg per hour, a gas/water tube heat-exchanger may be utilized as ground electrode and assembled with tubular high-voltage electrodes on the gas-side. The regime of typical gas pressures is around 2 bar absolute in oxygen and 3 bar absolute in air. Several megawatts of electrical power may be installed in large facilities, applied as one phase AC current at 50 to 8000 Hz and peak voltages between 3000 and 20000 volts. Applied voltage is usually inversely related to the applied frequency. The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ...


The dominating parameter influencing ozone generation efficiency is the gas temperature, which is controlled by cooling water temperature and / or gas velocity. The cooler the water, the better the ozone synthesis. The lower the gas velocity, the higher the concentration (but the lower the net ozone produced). At typical industrial conditions, almost 90 percent of the effective power is dissipated as heat and needs to be removed by a sufficient cooling water flow.


Due to the high reactivity of ozone, only few materials may be used like stainless steel (quality 316L), titanium, aluminum (as long as no moisture is present), glass, polytetrafluorethylene, or polyvinylidene fluoride. Viton may be used with the restriction of constant mechanical forces and absence of humidity (humidity limitations apply depending on the formulation). Hypalon may be used with the restriction that no water come in contact with it, except for normal atmospheric levels. Fluoroelastomers usually depend on a single additive for their specific stiffness (durometer), and this additive is not ozone tolerant. So embrittlement or shirnkage is the common mode of failure of elastomers with exposure to ozone. Teflon is the brand name of a polymer compound discovered by Roy J. Plunkett (1910-1994) of DuPont in 1938 and introduced as a commercial product in 1946. ... PVDF, or PolyVinylidine DiFluoride, is a highly non-reactive and pure thermoplastic fluoropolymer. ... Viton® is a synthetic rubber and fluoropolymer elastomer commanly used in o-rings. ... Hypalon is a trademark for a kind of synthetic rubber noted for its resistance to chemicals, temperature extremes, and ultraviolet light. ... A durometer is a tool used to measure hardness. ...


Silicone rubbers are usually adequate for use as gaskets in ozone concentrations below 1 wt%, such as in equipment for accelerated aging of rubber samples.


Incidental production

Ozone may be formed from O2 by electrical discharges and by action of high energy electromagnetic radiation. Certain electrical equipment generate significant levels of ozone. This is especially true of devices using high voltages, such as ionic air purifiers, laser printers, photocopiers, and arc welders. Electric motors using brushes can generate ozone from repeated sparking inside the unit. Large motors that use brushes, such as those used by elevators or hydraulic pumps, will generate more ozone than smaller motors. This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... A piece of electrical equipment is a machine, powered by electricity and usually consists of an enclosure, a variety of electrical components and often a power switch. ... In electrical engineering High voltage refers to a voltage which is high. ... An air ioniser is a device which uses high voltage to ionise, or electrically charge, molecules of air. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Manual Metal Arc welding, also known as stick or MMA welding is one of the most common forms of welding. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... A pair of carbon brushes In electrical engineering, brushes conduct current between stationary wires and moving parts, most commonly in a rotating shaft. ... A spark plug. ...


Laboratory production

In the laboratory ozone can be produced by electrolysis using a 9 volt battery, a pencil graphite rod cathode, a platinum wire anode and a 3M sulfuric acid electrolyte.[33] The half cell reactions taking place are In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Some different battery sizes. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... A half cell is a structure that contains an electrode and a surrounding electrolyte. ...

3 H2O → O3 + 6 H+ + 6 e; ΔEo = −1.53 V;
6 H+ + 6 e → 3 H2; ΔEo = 0 V;
2 H2O → O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e; ΔEo = −1.23 V;

so that in the net reaction three equivalents of water are converted into one equivalent of ozone and three equivalents of hydrogen. Oxygen formation is a competing reaction. The values below are standard electrode potentials taken at 25°C in aqueous solution. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... The values below are standard electrode potentials taken at 25°C in aqueous solution. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... The values below are standard electrode potentials taken at 25°C in aqueous solution. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


It can also be prepared by passing 10,000-20,000 volts DC through dry O2. This can be done with an apparatus consisting of two concentric glass tubes sealed together at the top, with in and and out spigots at the top and bottom of the outer tube. The inner core should have a length of metal foil inserted into it connected to one side of the power source. The other side of the power source should be connected to another piece of foil wrapped around the outer tube. Dry O2 should be run through the tube in one spigot. As the O2 is run through one spigot into the apparatus and 10,000-20,000 volts DC are applied to the foil leads, electricity will discharge between the dry dioxygen in the middle and form O3 in O2 out the other spigot. The reaction can be summarized as follows: [5] The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential and voltage (derived from the ampere and watt). ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential and voltage (derived from the ampere and watt). ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...

3 O2electricity → 2 O3

Applications

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Industrial applications

At present, the uses of ozone as an industrial chemical are somewhat limited.[5] The largest use of ozone is in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, synthetic lubricants, as well as many other commercially useful organic compounds, where it is used to sever carbon-carbon bonds.[5] It can also be used for bleaching substances and for killing microorganisms in air and water sources. Many municipal drinking water systems kill bacteria with ozone instead of the more common chlorine.[34] Ozone has a very high oxidation potential. Ozone does not form organochlorine compounds, nor does it remain in the water after treatment, so some systems introduce a small amount of chlorine to prevent bacterial growth in the pipes, or may use chlorine intermittently, based on results of periodic testing. Where electrical power is abundant, ozone is a cost-effective method of treating water, as it is produced on demand and does not require transportation and storage of hazardous chemicals. Once it has decayed, it leaves no taste or odor in drinking water. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, to bleach something generally means to whiten it or oxidize it. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... An organochlorine compound is an organic compound of chlorine. ... Bacterial growth is process in which two clone daughter cells are produced by the cell division of one bacterium. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ...


Low levels of ozone have been advertised to be of some disinfectant use in residential homes, however the concentration of ozone in dry air required to have a rapid, substantial effect on airborne pathogens exceeds safe levels recommended by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. Humidity control can vastly improve both the killing power of the ozone, and the rate at which it decays back to oxygen (more humidity allows more effectiveness). Spore forms of most pathogens are very tolerant of atmospheric ozone in concentrations where air-breathers start to have issues. OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... EPA redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Industrially, ozone is used to:

  • Disinfect laundry in hospitals, food factories, care homes etc;[35]
  • Water disinfectant in place of chlorine[5]
  • Deodorize air and objects, such as after a fire. This process is extensively used in Fabric Restoration;
  • Kill bacteria on food or on contact surfaces;[36]
  • Ozone swimming pool and spa sanitation
  • Scrub yeast and mold spores from the air in food processing plants;
  • Wash fresh fruits and vegetables to kill yeast, mold and bacteria;[36]
  • Chemically attack contaminants in water (iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites, and complex organics lumped together as "colour");
  • Provide an aid to flocculation (agglomeration of molecules, which aids in filtration, where the iron and arsenic are removed);
  • Manufacture chemical compounds via chemical synthesis [2]
  • Clean and bleach fabrics (the former use is utilized in Fabric Restoration)(the latter use is patented);
  • Assist in processing plastics to allow adhesion of inks;
  • Age rubber samples to determine the useful life of a batch of rubber;
  • Hospital operating rooms where air and surfaces needs to be sterile;
  • Eradicate water borne parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in surface water treatment plants.

Ozone is a reagent in many organic reactions in the laboratory and in industry. Ozonolysis is the cleavage of an alkene to carbonyl compounds. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Fabric Restoration - Not to be confused with retail dry cleaners and laundries, fabric restoration companies specialize in the restoration of fabric items after they have been affected by fire, smoke, water, or mold. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Fabric Restoration - Not to be confused with retail dry cleaners and laundries, fabric restoration companies specialize in the restoration of fabric items after they have been affected by fire, smoke, water, or mold. ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions between organic compounds. ... In ozonolysis ozone cleaves an alkene into carbonyl compounds. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ...


Many hospitals in the U.S. and around the world use large ozone generators to decontaminate operating rooms between surgeries. The rooms are cleaned and then sealed airtight before being filled with ozone which effectively kills or neutralizes all remaining bacteria. [3]


Ozone is used as an alternative to chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the bleaching of wood pulp[37] . It is often used in conjunction with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to completely eliminate the need for chlorine-containing compounds in the manufacture of high-quality, white paper[38] General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. ... Bleaching of wood pulp is the chemical processing carried out on various types of wood pulp to decrease the color of the pulp, so that it becomes whiter. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


Ozone can be used to detoxify cyanide wastes (for example from gold and silver mining) by oxidizing cyanide to cyanate and eventually to carbon dioxide.[39] This article is about the chemical compound. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... The cyanate ion is an anion consisting of one oxygen atom, one carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom (OCN−), in that order, and possesses 1 unit of negative charge, borne mainly by the nitrogen atom. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Consumer applications

Devices generating high levels of ozone, some of which use ionization, are used to sanitize and deodorize uninhabited buildings, rooms, ductwork, woodsheds, and boats and other vehicles.


In the US, air purifiers emitting lower levels of ozone have been sold. This kind of air purifier is sometimes claimed to imitate nature's way of purifying the air[40] without filters and to sanitize both it and household surfaces. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has declared that there is "evidence to show that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone is not effective at removing many odor-causing chemicals" or "viruses, bacteria, mold, or other biological pollutants." Furthermore, its report states that "results of some controlled studies show that concentrations of ozone considerably higher than these [human safety] standards are possible even when a user follows the manufacturer’s operating instructions."[41] The government successfully sued one company in 1995, ordering it to stop repeating health claims without supporting scientific studies. A Sharp FU-888SV Plasmacluster air purifier. ... EPA redirects here. ...


Ozonated water is used to launder clothes and to sanitize food, drinking water, and surfaces in the home. According to the FDA, it is "amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phases as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry." Studies at California Polytechnic University demonstrated that 0.3 ppm levels of ozone dissolved in filtered tapwater can produce a reduction of more than 99.99% in such food-borne microorganisms as salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, and Campylobacter.[42][36] Ozone can be used to remove pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables.[43][44] The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ...


New, patented technology uses ozone to disinfect and deodorize protective sports gear for football, hockey, and lacrosse by blowing it directly into the equipment to destroy bacteria within the padding. This has proven particularly useful in battling the spread of MRSA.[45] MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ...


Ozone is used in spas and hot tubs to kill bacteria in the water and to reduce the amount of chlorine or bromine required by reactivating them to their free state. As ozone does not remain in the water long enough, ozone by itself is ineffective at preventing cross-contamination among bathers and must be used in conjunction with these halogens. Gaseous ozone created by ultraviolet light or by corona discharge is injected into the water.[46] Hot tub at Big White Ski Resort A hot tub is a large manufactured tub or small pool full of heated water and used for soaking, relaxation, massage, or hydrotherapy. ...


Ozone is also widely used in treatment of water in aquariums and fish ponds. Its use can minimize bacterial growth, control parasites, eliminate transmission of some diseases, and reduce or eliminate "yellowing" of the water. Ozone must not come in contact with fish's gill structures. Natural salt water (with life forms) provides enough "instantaneous demand" that controlled amounts of ozone activate bromide ion to hypobromous acid, and the ozone entirely decays in a few seconds to minutes. If oxygen fed ozone is used, the water will be higher in dissolved oxygen, fish's gill structures will atrophy and they will become dependent on higher dissolved oxygen levels. Hypobromous acid is a weak, unstable acid with chemical formula HOBr. ...


Ozone therapy

See

Main article: Ozone therapy

Some people including a number of doctors of medicine and biochemists believe ozone has remarkable healing properties [1][2][3]. Others though dismiss these claims as quackery [4]. For many years Ozones medical value or non-value has been the subject of controversial and emotional debate [5]. Ozone therapy...

See also

September 16 was designated by the United Nations General Assembly as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Ozoneweb is an EEA website on near real-time ozone. ... Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Rubin, Mordecai B. (2001). "The History of Ozone. The Schönbein Period, 1839-1868". Bull. Hist. Chem. 26 (1). Retrieved on 2008-02-28. 
  2. ^ Today in Science History. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
  3. ^ Jacques-Louis Soret (1865). "Recherches sur la densité de l'ozone". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences 61: 941. 
  4. ^ Ozone FAQ. Global Change Master Directory. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Brown, Theodore L.; H. Eugene LeMay Jr., Bruce E. Bursten, Julia R. Burdge [1977] (2003). "22", in Nicole Folchetti: Chemistry: The Central Science, 9th Edition (in English), Pearson Education, pp. 882-883. ISBN 0-13-066997-0. 
  6. ^ Oxygen. WebElements. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  7. ^ Takehiko Tanaka; Yonezo Morino. Coriolis interaction and anharmonic potential function of ozone from the microwave spectra in the excited vibrational states Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1970, 33, 538–551.
  8. ^ Kenneth M. Mack; J. S. Muenter. Stark and Zeeman properties of ozone from molecular beam spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Physics 1977, 66, 5278–5283. doi:10.1063/1.433909
  9. ^ Earth Science FAQ: Where can I find information about the ozone hole and ozone depletion? Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, March 2008.
  10. ^ Horvath M., Bilitzky L., & Huttner J., 1985. "Ozone." pg 44–49
  11. ^ Housecroft & Sharpe, 2005. "Inorganic Chemistry." pg 439
  12. ^ Housecroft & Sharpe, 2005. "Inorganic Chemistry." pg 265
  13. ^ Horvath M., Bilitzky L., & Huttner J., 1985. "Ozone." pg 44–49
  14. ^ Horvath M., Bilitzky L., & Huttner J., 1985. "Ozone." pg 259, 269–270
  15. ^ a b WHO-Europe reports: Health Aspects of Air Pollution (2003) (PDF)
  16. ^ Stevenson et al (2006). Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone. American Geophysical Union. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
  17. ^ Rising Ozone Levels Pose Challenge to U.S. Soybean Production, Scientists Say. NASA Earth Observatory (2003-07-31). Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
  18. ^ Mutters, Randall (March 1999). Statewide Potential Crop Yield Losses From Ozone Exposure. California Air Resources Board. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
  19. ^ Mutters, Randall (March 1999). Statewide Potential Crop Yield Losses From Ozone Exposure. California Air Resources Board. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
  20. ^ Tropospheric Ozone in EU - The consolidated report. European Environmental Agency (1998). Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
  21. ^ Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
  22. ^ Climate Change 2001. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001). Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  23. ^ Answer to follow-up questions from CAFE (2004) (PDF)
  24. ^ Anderson, W.; G.J. Prescott, S. Packham, J. Mullins, M. Brookes, and A. Seaton (August 2001). "Asthma admissions and thunderstorms: a study of pollen, fungal spores, rainfall, and ozone". QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 94 (8): 429–433. Oxford Journals. Retrieved on 2006-09-23. 
  25. ^ Ashfield District Council: Monitored Air Pollutants, downloaded February 2, 2007
  26. ^ University of East Anglia press release, Cloning the smell of the seaside, February 2, 2007
  27. ^ Smog - Who does it hurt? What You Need to Know About Ozone and Your Health. AIRNow.gov. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  28. ^ Hoffmann, Roald (January 2004). "The Story of O". American Scientist 92 (1): 23. doi:10.1511/2004.1.23. Retrieved on 2006-10-11. 
  29. ^ Paul Wentworth (November 2003). Evidence for Ozone Formation in Human Atherosclerotic Arteries. Retrieved on 2006-08-03.
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 3, p.673 (1955); Vol. 26, p.63 (1946). (Article)
  32. ^ Dohan, J. M.; W. J. Masschelein (1987). "Photochemical Generation of Ozone: Present State-of-the-Art". Ozone Sci. Eng. 9: 315–334. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  33. ^ Ibanez, Jorge G.; Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon and M. T. Moran-Moran (October 2005). "Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone". Journal of Chemical Education 82: 1546. Retrieved on 2006-05-10. 
  34. ^ Hoigné, J. (1998). Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 5 part C, p83-141. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 
  35. ^ Decontamination: Ozone scores on spores. Hospital Development. Wilmington Media Ltd. (2007-04-01). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  36. ^ a b c Montecalvo, Joseph; Doug Williams. Application of Ozonation in Sanitizing Vegetable Process Washwaters. California Polytechnic State University. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  37. ^ Sjöström, Eero (1993). Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc.. ISBN 0-12-64748. 
  38. ^ Su, Yu-Chang & Chen, Horng-Tsai, "Enzone Bleaching Sequence and Color Reversion of Ozone-Bleached Pulps", Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 16 (2): 93-102, <http://www.tfri.gov.tw/enu/pub_science_in.aspx?pid=339&catid0=37&catid1=64&pg0=&pg1=1>
  39. ^ Bollyky, L. J. (1977). Ozone Treatment of Cyanide-Bearing Wastes, EPA Report 600/2-77-104. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 
  40. ^ The Unknown Truth Regarding Ozone!. Retrieved on 16-09-2006.
  41. ^ EPA report on consumer ozone air purifiers
  42. ^ Long, Ron (2008), POU Ozone Food Sanitation: A Viable Option for Consumers & the Food Service Industry, <http://www.purityintl.com/Article%20POU.pdf> (report also shows tapwater removes 99.95% of pathogens from lettuce; samples were first innoculated with pathogens before treatment)
  43. ^ Tersano Inc (2007), lotus Sanitises Food without Chemicals, <http://web.archive.org/web/20070211025555/http://www.tersano.com/sanitizing_system_food.shtml>. Retrieved on 11 February 2007
  44. ^ Jongen, W (2005). Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables. Boca Raton: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1855739569. 
  45. ^ Fresh Gear C40 uses ozone to disinfect and deodorize sports gear. (2005). Retrieved October 15, 2007.
  46. ^ Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidant Guidance Manual. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  • Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition, Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  • Series in Plasma Physics: Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure. Edited by K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, R.J. Barker; Bristol and Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd; ISBN 0-7503-0962-8; 2005

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Comptes rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1835. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The American Geophysical Union (or AGU) is a nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting (as of 2006) of over 49,000 members from over 140 countries. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... EPA redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ozone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2454 words)
This increase in ozone is of further concern as ozone present in the upper troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas, absorbing some of the infrared energy emitted by the earth.
Ozone photolysis by UV light leads to production of the hydroxyl radical and this plays a part in the removal of hydrocarbons from the air, but is again a step in the creation of components of smog such as peroxyacyl nitrates which are powerful eye irritants.
Ozone, along with hypochlorite ions, is naturally produced by white blood cells and the roots of marigolds as a means of destroying foreign bodies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m