FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Oxygen saturation

Oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium. It can be measured with a dissolved oxygen probe such as an oxygen sensor or an optode in liquid media, usually water.cd lh cm bm pm ef General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For the connotation of the term relating to chemistry, see Solvation. ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... An optode or optrode is an optical sensor device that optically measures a specific substance usually with the aid of a chemical transducer. ...


In medicine, oxygen saturation (SO2) measures the percentage of hemoglobin binding sites in the bloodstream occupied by oxygen. At low partial pressures of oxygen, most hemoglobin is deoxygenated. At around 90% (the value varies according to the clinical context) oxygen saturation increases according to an oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve and approaches 100% at partial oxygen pressures of >10 kPa. A pulse oximeter relies on the light absorption characteristics of saturated hemoglobin to give an indication of oxygen saturation. sm + cm + cd + bm + pm + lh + pm + ef +jk An SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) value below 90% is termed hypoxemia. This may be due to various medical conditions. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve plots the proportion of haemoglobin in its saturated form on the vertical axis against the prevailing oxygen tension on the horizontal axis. ... A portable saturometer (for emergencies) Measure by optic properties through the nail A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly measures the amount of oxygen in a patients blood. ... // Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia) is an abnormally low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in arterial blood (West J. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials p22). ...


The SvO2 (venous oxygen saturation) is measured to see how much oxygen the body consumes. Under clinical treatment, a SvO2 below 60%, indicates that the body is in lack of oxygen, and ischemic diseases occur. This measurement is often used under treatment with a heart-lung machine (Extra Corporal Circulation), and can give the perfusionist an idea of how much flow the patient needs to stay healthy.


Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) can be measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Although the measurements are still widely discussed, they give an idea of tissue oxygenation in various conditions. General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method utilising the near infra-red region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 1100nm to 2500nm). ...


Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen (SpO2) is an estimation of the oxygen saturation level usually measured with a pulse oximeter device. A portable saturometer (for emergencies) Measure by optic properties through the nail A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly measures the amount of oxygen in a patients blood. ...

Contents

Environmental sciences

Annual mean sea surface dissolved oxygen for the World Ocean. Data from the World Ocean Atlas 2001.

In aquatic environments, oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen (O2) dissolved in the water. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is measured in standard solution units such as millimoles O2 per liter (mmol/L), milligrams O2 Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1525x1075, 296 KB) Summary Annual mean sea surface dissolved oxygen (O2) from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1525x1075, 296 KB) Summary Annual mean sea surface dissolved oxygen (O2) from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a data product of the Ocean Climate Laboratory of the National Oceanographic Data Center (USA). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...

  • 20 °C, normal pressure, freshwater: 9.1 mg/L = 100% saturation

Solubility tables (based upon temperature) and corrections for different salinities and pressures can be found at the USGS web site.


Tables such as these of DO in milliliters per liter (ml/L) are based upon empirical equations that have been worked out and tested (e.g.,Weiss, 1970):

 ln(DO) = A1 + A2 * 100 / T + A3 * ln(T / 100) + A4 * T / 100 + S * [B1 + B2 * T / 100 + B3 * (T / 100)2] 
 A1 = − 173.4292 A2 = 249.6339 A3 = 143.3483 A4 = − 21.8492 B1 = − 0.033096 B2 = 0.014259 B3 = − 0.001700 

T = temperature in kelvins, and S = salinity in g/kg. DO = dissolved oxygen in ml/L. ln is the natural log. Multiply DO by 1.4276 to obtain mg/L. For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


Supersaturation can sometimes be harmful for organisms and cause decompression sickness.
oxygen is a very serious gas which can over rule every other gas DO - at least 4 - 6 mg/L (ppm).


References

  • Weiss, R. (1970) Deep-Sea Res. 17, 721-735
  • Interactive haemoglobin saturation graph

See also

Wastewater quality indicators such as the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the Chemical oxygen demand (COD) are essentially laboratory test measures of the amount of oxygen in a wastewater. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. ...

External links

  • Pulse Oximetry Glossary
  • Finger Pulse Oximeter Parameters

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oxygen Saturation at StorkNet's NICU Support Cubby (295 words)
Oxygen saturation tells us how much oxygen is bound to hemoglobin: when blood leaves the lungs it should be well-saturated with oxygen to deliver to the body.
In general, the oxygen saturation in a baby with no lung or heart problems is high (93-100%).
However, the ideal oxygen saturation is not the same for every baby, so be sure to ask your doctors and nurses about what the goal is for your own child.
Oxygen saturation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (468 words)
Oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium.
At around 90% (the value varies according to the clinical context) oxygen saturation increases according to an S curve and approaches 100% at partial oxygen pressures of >10 kPa.
However, as in the medical sense, oxygen saturation is calculated as the percent of DO relative to a theoretical maximum concentration given the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the water.
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