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Encyclopedia > Oxygen mask
Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask
Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask

An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. Oxygen masks may cover the nose and mouth (oral nasal mask ) or the entire face (full face mask). They may be made of plastic, silicone, or rubber. Image File history File links Oxymask. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Household items made out of plastic. ... Silicone caulking can be used as a basic sealant against water and air penetration. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ...

Contents

Medical plastic masks

Plastic masks are used primarily by medical care providers for oxygen therapy as they are disposable and reduce cleaning costs. As they are light in weight they are accepted by many patients who may feel uncomfortable wearing an oxygen mask. Plastic masks also allow medical care providers to see through the mask to the face of a patient and determine if they are in distress. See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. ...


Silicone and rubber masks

Silicone and rubber oxygen masks designed to provide a tight fit without leakage are used by aviators, medical researchers, and hyperbaric chamber or other patients that require administration of 100% oxygen such as carbon monoxide poisoning victims. An aviator is a person who flies aircraft for pleasure or as a profession. ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the medical use of oxygen at a higher than atmospheric pressure. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ...


Hoses and tubing / regulators

Hoses or tubing connect an oxygen mask to the oxygen supply. When hose is used it may have a ribbed or corrugated design to prevent twisting and cutting off the oxygen flow. The quantity of oxygen delivered from the storage tank to the oxygen mask is controlled by a valve called a regulator. Some types of oxygen masks have a breathing bag made of plastic or rubber attached to the mask or oxygen supply hose to store a supply of oxygen to allow deep breathing without waste of oxygen with use of simple fixed flow regulators. Valves inside tight fitting oxygen masks control the flow of oxygen into the mask and exhalation from the mask so that rebreathing of exhalation gas is not possible thus insuring inhalation of 100% oxygen.


Aviators masks

Aviators pressure demand oxygen mask showing sponge rubber facial seal and inhalation valves, the exhalation valve is to the bottom of the mask center
Aviators pressure demand oxygen mask showing sponge rubber facial seal and inhalation valves, the exhalation valve is to the bottom of the mask center

Three main kinds of oxygen masks are used by pilots and crews who fly at high altitudes. Image File history File links Tightlysealedmask. ... Image File history File links Tightlysealedmask. ... Aviators are people who fly aircraft either for pleasure or for a job. ...


Continuous flow masks supply a continuous flow of oxygen to the mask. The mask is usually equipped with a "rebreather bag" (recognizeable from airline demonstrations), which recycles part of the exhaled air and saves oxygen. This type of mask is used by general aviation aircraft flying above 12'500 feet MSL (up to about 25'000 MSL) and for airline passengers.


"Diluter demand" and "Pressure demand" masks supply oxygen only when the user inhales. They both require an airtight seal between the mask and the user's face (which is why airline pilots cannot wear beards).


Diluter demand oxygen masks supply oxygen on demand. As the user inhales a demand oxygen regulator opens a valve and supplies the amount of oxygen required for the altitude. As the altitude increases the amount of oxygen delivered by the regulator also increases to 100 percent oxygen. Duliter demand oxygen mask systems are used up to 32 thousand feet altitude.


With a pressure demand system , 100 percent oxygen can be forced by a pressure demand regulator into the lungs of aviators using these masks above 32 thousand feet altitude, as continuous flow or diluter demand oxygen regulators cannot provide enough oxygen at this altitude even though they may supply 100 percent oxygen. Inhalation of oxygen from a mask fitted to a pressure demand regulator is easy but exhalation requires more effort. Aviators are trained on the pressure demand breathing method in an altitude chamber. Because of their tight fit, pressure demand type aviator oxygen masks are often used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers and for oxygen breathing research projects with standard oxygen regulators. The altitude chamber is used during aerospace physiology training to simulate the effects of high altitude on the human body. ...


Aviation passenger oxygen masks

Oxygen masks dropping
Oxygen masks dropping
In-flight safety demonstration video frame, showing the use of oxygen masks.
In-flight safety demonstration video frame, showing the use of oxygen masks.

Most commercial aircraft are pressurized at a maximum cabin altitude of 8,000 feet, where it is possible to breathe normally without an oxygen mask. If the cabin altitude reaches 14,000 feet or higher, or a decompression occurs and hypoxia is imminent, compartments containing the oxygen masks will open automatically, either above or in front of the passenger and crew seats, and in the lavatories. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (511x745, 61 KB) Oxygen mask for passengers (dropped off accidentally aboard a Olympic Airways flight) Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oxygen mask... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (511x745, 61 KB) Oxygen mask for passengers (dropped off accidentally aboard a Olympic Airways flight) Copyright © 2004 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oxygen mask... Image File history File links DeltaSafetyDemo1996Masks. ... Image File history File links DeltaSafetyDemo1996Masks. ... Still frame from a Delta Air Lines safety video. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft whose primary function is the transportation of paying passengers. ... Cabin pressurization is the active pumping of air into the cabin of an aircraft to increase the air pressure within the cabin. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Decompresion has several meanings: in physics, decompression is the release of pressure and is the opposition of compression in medicine, scuba diving and aviation, decompression can refer to a sickness in scuba diving, decompression can refer to a stop, a chamber, a buoy, a trapeze, tables or a computer in... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ...


Most oxygen masks have a yellow facial cup with elastic bands for securing the mask to the passenger's face. The mask may also have a concentrator bag that may or may not inflate depending on the cabin altitude. Passenger oxygen masks cannot deliver enough oxygen for sustained periods at high altitudes. This is why the flight crew needs to place the aircraft in a controlled emergency dive to a lower altitude where it is possible to breathe without emergency oxygen. If there is a fire on board the aircraft, masks are not deployed, as the production of oxygen may further fuel the fire.


There are two systems that are typically found on aircraft:

  • A gaseous manifold system, which connects all oxygen masks to a central oxygen supply, usually in the cargo hold area. Pulling down on one oxygen mask starts the oxygen supply for that mask only. The entire system can be reset in the cockpit.
  • A chemical oxygen generator system connected to all masks in the compartment.

Pulling down on one oxygen mask removes the firing pin of the generator, opening the oxygen supply for all the masks in the compartment. Oxygen production cannot be shut off once a mask is pulled, and oxygen productions typically lasts for 12-15 minutes. During the production of oxygen, the generator becomes extremely hot and should not be touched. A burning smell may be noted and cause alarm among passengers, but is otherwise normal. Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ... A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen created by a chemical reaction. ...


Aircraft safety cards and in-flight safety demonstrations explain their location and use of oxygen masks. An aircraft safety card is a document instructing passengers on an aircraft about the procedures for dealing with various emergency conditions that might arise while on the airplane. ... Still frame from a Delta Air Lines safety video. ...


Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)

Firefighters and emergency service workers use full face masks that provide breathing air and eye and face protection. These masks are typically attached to a tank carried upon the back of the wearer and are called self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Because oxygen breathing is hazardous in areas where fires may be burning, SCBA units are normally filled with compressed breathing air rather than oxygen. It has been suggested that Firefighter Assist and Search Team be merged into this article or section. ... Emergency services are public services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ... A self contained breathing apparatus, or SCBA is a device worn by rescue workers, firefighters, and others to provide breathable air in a hostile environment. ...


Specialized masks

Specialized full face masks that supply oxygen or other breathing gases are used by divers and astronauts to remove nitrogen from their bloodstream prior to space walks (EVA) or underwater decompression. Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ... A diver is an person who practices scuba diving or surface supplied diving. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ...


Mask retention systems

Medical oxygen masks are held in place by medical personnel or the user by hand , or they may be fitted with a light weight elastic headband so the mask can be removed quickly. Full face masks are secured by head strap harnesses with several straps that create a web around the head.. Tight fitting oxygen masks are secured upon the face by the 4 point head strap system with two head straps securing the mask at 4 places upon the mask to the face. Aviators pressure breathing oxygen masks are often equipped with "quick don" head harnesses that allow pilots and crews flying in pressurized aircraft to rapidly don their oxygen masks in a emergency. Military aviators oxygen masks are secured to flight helments by quick release retention methods.


See also


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