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Encyclopedia > Oxygen
8 nitrogenoxygenfluorine
-

O

S
General
Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8
Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens
Group, period, block 162, p
Appearance
Liquid Oxygen
Standard atomic weight 15.9994(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p4
Electrons per shell 2, 6
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.429 g/L
Melting point 54.36 K
(-218.79 °C, -361.82 °F)
Boiling point 90.20 K
(-182.95 °C, -297.31 °F)
Critical point 154.59 K, 5.043 MPa
Heat of fusion (O2) 0.444 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (O2) 6.82 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (O2)
29.378 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K       61 73 90
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic
Oxidation states 2, 1, −1, −2
(neutral oxide)
Electronegativity 3.44 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1313.9 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3388.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 5300.5 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 60 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 48 pm
Covalent radius 73 pm
Van der Waals radius 152 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 26.58x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 330 m/s
CAS registry number 7782-44-7
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of oxygen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
16O 99.76% 16O is stable with 8 neutrons
17O 0.039% 17O is stable with 9 neutrons
18O 0.201% 18O is stable with 10 neutrons
References
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Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, and is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with almost all other elements. At standard temperature and pressure two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and helium[1] and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust.[2] Oxygen constitutes 88.8% of the mass of water and 20.9% of the volume of air.[3] There are 4 known allotropes of oxygen: dioxygen, O2 - colorless ozone, O3 - blue tetraoxygen, O4 - red The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth, O2, is known as dioxygen. ... Oxygen can refer to: Oxygen – Chemical element In medical usage - oxygen therapy Oxygen Network – Womens television network O2 – Mobile phone network Newspapers sometimes say oxygen cylinders as an inaccurate reference to scuba gear. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... The chalcogens (with the ch pronounced with a hard c as in chemistry) are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The chalcogens are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Image File history File links Liquid_Oxygen. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... Oxygen difluoride is a chemical compound whose formula is OF2. ... Dioxygen difluoride, O2F2, has a density of 1. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... K value redirects here. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Oxygen (O) Standard atomic mass: 15. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... The chalcogens (with the ch pronounced with a hard c as in chemistry) are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... A space-filling model of the diatomic molecule dinitrogen, N2. ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... The abundance of a chemical element measures how relatively common the element is, or how much of the element there is by comparison to all other elements. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... << Chemical elements data references // Earth bulk continental crust and upper continental crust C1 — Crust: CRC Handbook C2 — Crust: Kaye & Laby C3 — Crust: Greenwood C4 — Crust: Ahrens (Taylor) C5 — Crust: Ahrens (Wänke) C6 — Crust: Ahrens (Weaver) U1 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Taylor) U2 — Upper crust: Ahrens (Shaw) Mass fraction, in kg... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Air redirects here. ...


All major classes of structural molecules in living organisms, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, contain oxygen, as do the major inorganic compounds that comprise animal shells, teeth, and bone. Oxygen in the form of O2 is produced from water by cyanobacteria, algae and plants during photosynthesis and is used in cellular respiration for all complex life. Oxygen is toxic to anaerobic organisms, which were the dominant form of early life on Earth until O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere 2.5 billion years ago.[4] Another form (allotrope) of oxygen, ozone (O3), helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation with the high-altitude ozone layer, but is a pollutant near the surface where it is a by-product of smog. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Traditionally, inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral, not biological, origin. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... There are 4 known allotropes of oxygen: dioxygen, O2 - colorless ozone, O3 - blue tetraoxygen, O4 - red The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth, O2, is known as dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ...


Oxygen was independently discovered by Joseph Priestley and Carl Wilhelm Scheele in the 1770s, but Priestley is usually given priority because he published his findings first. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier,[5] whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. Oxygen is produced industrially by fractional distillation of liquefied air, use of zeolites to remove carbon dioxide and nitrogen from air, electrolysis of water and other means. Uses of oxygen include the production of steel, plastics and textiles; rocket propellant; oxygen therapy; and life support in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving. Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Hoffman voltameter used to electrolyze water. ... Rocket propellants undergo exothermic chemical reactions which produce hot gas which is used by a rocket for propulsive purposes. ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. ... Edward White on a spacewalk during the Gemini 4 mission. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Professional diving. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Structure

Electron shell diagram of oxygen
Electron shell diagram of oxygen

At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a colorless, odorless gas with the molecular formula O2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration. This bond has a bond order of two, and is often over-simplified in description as a double bond.[6] Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... In physics, spin is the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... Bond order is the number of bonds between a pair of atoms. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ...


Triplet oxygen is the ground state of the O2 molecule.[7] The electron configuration of the molecule has two unpaired electrons occupying two degenerate molecular orbitals.[8] These orbitals are classified as antibonding (weakening the bond order from three to two), so the diatomic oxygen bond is weaker than the diatomic nitrogen triple bond in which all bonding molecular orbitals are filled, but some antibonding orbitals are not.[7] Triplet oxygen is the ground state of the oxygen molecule. ... In physics, the ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state. ... Degenerate orbitals for electrons in an atomic subshell are orbitals at identical energy levels (by definition). ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... Antibonding (or anti-bonding) is a type of chemical bonding. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


In normal triplet form, O2 molecules are paramagnetic—they form a magnet in the presence of a magnetic field—because of the spin magnetic moments of the unpaired electrons in the molecule, and the negative exchange energy between neighboring O2 molecules.[9] Liquid oxygen is attracted to a magnet to a sufficient extent that, in laboratory demonstrations, a bridge of liquid oxygen may be supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet.[10][11] Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... A bar magnet. ... Exchange interaction is the quantum mechanical effect of increasing or decreasing the energy of two or more fermions when their wave functions overlap. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ...


Singlet oxygen, a name given to several higher-energy species of molecular O2 in which all the electron spins are paired, is much more reactive towards common organic molecules. In nature, singlet oxygen is commonly formed from water during photosynthesis, using the energy of sunlight.[12] It is also produced in the troposphere by the photolysis of ozone by light of short wavelength,[13] and by the immune system as a source of active oxygen.[14] Carotenoids in photosynthetic organisms (and possibly also in animals) play a major role in absorbing energy from singlet oxygen and converting it to the unexcited ground state before it can cause harm to tissues.[15] Molecular orbital diagram for singlet oxygen. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ...


Allotropes

Main article: Allotropes of oxygen
Ozone is a rare gas on Earth found mostly in the stratosphere.
Ozone is a rare gas on Earth found mostly in the stratosphere.

The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth is called dioxygen, O2. It has a bond length of 121 pm and a bond energy of 498 kJ·mol-1.[16] This is the form that is used by complex forms of life, such as animals, in cellular respiration (see Biological role) and is the form that is a major part of the Earth's atmosphere (see Occurrence). Other aspects of O2 are covered in the remainder of this article. There are 4 known allotropes of oxygen: dioxygen, O2 - colorless ozone, O3 - blue tetraoxygen, O4 - red The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth, O2, is known as dioxygen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1089x1817, 228 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Oxygen ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1089x1817, 228 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Oxygen ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ...


Trioxygen (O3) is usually known as ozone and is a very reactive allotrope of oxygen that is damaging to lung tissue.[17] Ozone is produced in the upper atmosphere when O2 combines with atomic oxygen made by the splitting of O2 by ultraviolet (UV) radiation.[5] Since ozone absorbs strongly in the UV region of the spectrum, it functions as a protective radiation shield for the planet (see ozone layer).[5] Near the earth's surface, however, it is a pollutant formed as a by-product of automobile exhaust.[18] For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Earths atmosphere is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ...


The metastable molecule tetraoxygen (O4) was discovered in 2001,[19][20] and was assumed to exist in one of the six phases of solid oxygen. It was proven in 2006 that that phase, created by pressurizing O2 to 20 GPa, is in fact a rhombohedral O8 cluster.[21] This cluster has the potential to be a much more powerful oxidizer than either O2 or O3 and may therefore be used in rocket fuel.[19][20] A metallic phase was discovered in 1990 when solid oxygen is subjected to a pressure of above 96 GPa[22] and it was shown in 1998 that at very low temperatures, this phase becomes superconducting.[23] Metastability in molecules is the ability of a non-equilibrium chemical state to persist for a long period of time. ... Tetraoxygen, also called red oxygen (O4), is an allotrope of oxygen occuring in extremely high pressures (in order of 20 GPa). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oxygen. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... In crystallography, the rhombohedral (or trigonal) crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid. ... European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ...


Physical properties

See also: Liquid oxygen and solid oxygen

Oxygen is more soluble in water than nitrogen; water contains approximately 1 molecule of O2 for every 2 molecules of N2, compared to an atmospheric ratio of approximately 1:4. The solubility of oxygen in water is temperature-dependent, and about twice as much (14.6 mg·L−1) dissolves at 0 °C than at 20 °C (7.6 mg·L−1).[24][25] At 25 °C and 1 atm of air, freshwater contains about 6.04 milliliters (mL) of oxygen per liter, whereas seawater contains about 4.95 mL per liter.[26] At 5 °C the solubility increases to 9.0 mL (50% more than at 25 °C) per liter for water and 7.2 mL (45% more) per liter for sea water. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oxygen. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


Oxygen condenses at 90.20 K (−182.95 °C, −297.31 °F), and freezes at 54.36 K (−218.79 °C, −361.82 °F).[27] Both liquid and solid O2 are clear substances with a light sky-blue color caused by absorption in the red (in contrast with the blue color of the sky, which is due to Rayleigh scattering of blue light). High-purity liquid O2 is usually obtained by the fractional distillation of liquefied air;[28] Liquid oxygen may also be produced by condensation out of air, using liquid nitrogen as a coolant. It is a highly-reactive substance and must be segregated from combustible materials.[29] For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oxygen. ... Spectrum of blue sky clearly showing solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric water absorption band. ... Rayleigh scattering causing the blue hue of the sky and the reddening at sunset Rayleigh scattering (named after Lord Rayleigh) is the scattering of light, or other electromagnetic radiation, by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ...


Isotopes and stellar origin

Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell.
Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell.
Main article: Isotopes of oxygen

Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes, 16O, 17O, and 18O, with 16O being the most abundant (99.762% natural abundance).[30] Oxygen isotopes range in mass number from 12 to 28.[30] Image File history File links Evolved_star_fusion_shells. ... Image File history File links Evolved_star_fusion_shells. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Oxygen (O) Standard atomic mass: 15. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number (not to be confused with atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus) or nucleon number, is the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in an atomic nucleus. ...


Most 16O is synthesized at the end of the helium fusion process in stars but some is made in the neon burning process.[31] 17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle, making it a common isotope in the hydrogen burning zones of stars.[31] Most 18O is produced when 14N (made abundant from CNO burning) captures a 4He nucleus, making 18O common in the helium-rich zones of stars.[31] Nucleosynthesis is the process of creating new atomic nuclei from preexisting nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Helium fusion is a kind of nuclear fusion, with the nuclei involved being helium. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... Neon burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 MSun). ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nitrogen-14 is a stable, non-radioactive isotope of the nitrogen element. ... Helium-4 is a non-radioactive and light isotope of helium. ...


Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds (s) and 14O with a half-life of 70.606 s.[30] All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 27 s and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 83 milliseconds.[30] The most common decay mode of the isotopes lighter than 16O is electron capture to yield nitrogen, and the most common mode for the isotopes heavier than 18O is beta decay to yield fluorine.[30] A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ...


Occurrence

See also: Silicate minerals and Category:Oxide minerals

Oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.[1] About 0.9% of the Sun's mass is oxygen.[3] Oxygen constitutes 49.2% of the Earth's crust by mass[2] and is the major component of the world's oceans (88.8% by mass).[3] It is the second most common component of the Earth's atmosphere, taking up 21.0% of its volume and 23.1% of its mass (some 1015 tonnes).[32][3][33] Earth is unusual among the planets of the Solar System in having such a high concentration of oxygen gas in its atmosphere: Mars (with 0.1% O2 by volume) and Venus have far lower concentrations. However, the O2 surrounding these other planets is produced solely by ultraviolet radiation impacting oxygen-containing molecules such as carbon dioxide. The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... Sol redirects here. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

Cold water holds more dissolved O2.
Cold water holds more dissolved O2.

The unusually high concentration of oxygen on Earth is the result of the oxygen cycle. This biogeochemical cycle describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs on Earth: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for modern Earth's atmosphere. Because of the vast amounts of oxygen gas available in the atmosphere, even if all photosynthesis were to cease completely, it would take all the oxygen-consuming processes at the present rate at least another 5,000 years to strip all the O2 from the atmosphere.[34][35] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1525x1075, 296 KB) Summary Annual mean sea surface dissolved oxygen (O2) from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1525x1075, 296 KB) Summary Annual mean sea surface dissolved oxygen (O2) from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... the oxygen cycle The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit where a nutrient moves back and forth between both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


Free oxygen also occurs in solution in the world's water bodies. The increased solubility of O2 at lower temperatures (see Physical properties) has important implications for ocean life, as polar oceans support a much higher density of life due to their higher oxygen content.[36] Polluted water may have reduced amounts of O2 in it, depleted by decaying algae and other biomaterials (see eutrophication). Scientists assess this aspect of water quality by measuring the water's biochemical oxygen demand, or the amount of O2 needed to restore it to a normal concentration.[37] Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Biological role

Main article: Dioxygen in biological reactions

Photosynthesis and respiration

Oxygen evolution by water oxidation during photosynthesis. The jagged lines represent four photons oxidizing the central cluster of the oxygen evolving complex by exciting and removing four electrons through a cycle of S-states.
Oxygen evolution by water oxidation during photosynthesis. The jagged lines represent four photons oxidizing the central cluster of the oxygen evolving complex by exciting and removing four electrons through a cycle of S-states.

In nature, free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis. Green algae and cyanobacteria in marine environments provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on earth and the rest is produced by terrestrial plants.[38] Image File history File links Oxygen_evolving_complex. ... Image File history File links Oxygen_evolving_complex. ... Oxygen evolving complex. ... Photolysis refers to any chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down by light. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ...


A simplified overall formula for photosynthesis is:[39]

6CO2 + 6H2O + photonsC6H12O6 + 6O2 (or simply carbon dioxide + water + sunlight → glucose + dioxygen)

Photolytic oxygen evolution occurs in the thylakoid membranes of photosynthetic organisms and requires the energy of four photons.[40] Many steps are involved, but the result is the formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP via photophosphorylation.[41] The O2 remaining after oxidation of the water molecule is released into the atmosphere.[42] In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Oxygen evolution is the process of generating molecular oxygen through chemical reaction. ... A thylakoid is a phospholipid bilayer membrane internal to chloroplasts. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... The production of ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation. ...


Molecular dioxygen, O2, is essential for cellular respiration in all aerobic organisms. Oxygen is used in mitochondria to help generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during oxidative phosphorylation. The reaction for aerobic respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis and is simplified as: Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. ...

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + 2880 kJ·mol-1

In vertebrates, O2 is diffused through membranes in the lungs and into red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds O2, changing its color from bluish red to bright red.[43][17] Other animals use hemocyanin (molluscs and some arthropods) or hemerythrin (spiders and lobsters).[32] A liter of blood can dissolve 200 cc of O2.[32] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Single Oxygenated Hemerythrin protein Trimeric Hemerythrin Protein Complex Hemerythrin (also spelled haemerythrin; from Greek words αίμα = blood and ερυθρός = red) is an oligomeric protein responsible for oxygen (O2) transportation in the marine invertebrate phyla of sipunculids, priapulids, brachiopods, and in a single annelid worm, magelona. ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ...


Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide ion (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are dangerous by-products of oxygen use in organisms.[32] Parts of the immune system of higher organisms, however, create peroxide, superoxide, and singlet oxygen to destroy invading microbes. Reactive oxygen species also play an important role in the hypersensitive response of plants against pathogen attack.[41] Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... The hypersensitive response (HR) is a mechanism, used by plants, to prevent the spread of infection by microbial pathogens. ...


Build-up in the atmosphere

O2 build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no O2 produced; 2) O2 produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3) O2 starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4-5) O2 sinks filled and the gas accumulates
O2 build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no O2 produced; 2) O2 produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3) O2 starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4-5) O2 sinks filled and the gas accumulates

Free oxygen gas was almost nonexistent in Earth's atmosphere before photosynthetic archaea and bacteria evolved. Free oxygen first appeared in significant quantities during the Paleoproterozoic era (between 2.5 and 1.6 billion years ago). At first, the oxygen combined with dissolved iron in the oceans to form banded iron formations. Free oxygen started to gas out of the oceans 2.7 billion years ago, reaching 10% of its present level around 1.7 billion years ago.[44] Air redirects here. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The Paleoproterozoic is the first of the three sub-divisions of the Proterozoic occurring between 2500 to 1600 million years ago. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... 2. ...


The presence of large amounts of dissolved and free oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere may have driven most of the anaerobic organisms then living to extinction during the oxygen catastrophe about 2.4 billion years ago. However, cellular respiration using O2 enables aerobic organisms to produce much more ATP than anaerobic organisms, helping the former to dominate Earth's biosphere.[45] Photosynthesis and cellular respiration of O2 allowed for the evolution of eukaryotic cells and ultimately complex multicellular organisms such as plants and animals. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... The Oxygen Catastrophe was a massive environmental change believed to have happened during the Siderian period at the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic era. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ...


Since the beginning of the Cambrian era 540 million years ago, O2 levels have fluctuated between 15% and 30% per volume.[46] Towards the end of the Carboniferous era (about 300 million years ago) atmospheric O2 levels reached a maximum of 35% by volume,[46] allowing insects and amphibians to grow much larger than today's species. Human activities, including the burning of 7 billion tonnes of fossil fuels each year have had very little effect on the amount of free oxygen in the atmosphere.[9] At the current rate of photosynthesis it would take about 2,000 years to regenerate the entire O2 in the present atmosphere.[47] For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ...


History

Early experiments

Philo's experiment inspired later investigators.
Philo's experiment inspired later investigators.

One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the second century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle and surrounding the vessel's neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck.[48] Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries later Leonardo da Vinci built on Philo's work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration.[49] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Philo of Byzantium, a Greek writer on mechanics, (born about 280 BCE) flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century B.C. (according to some, a century earlier). ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...


In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion. English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus or just nitroaereus.[50] In one experiment he found that placing either a mouse or a lit candle in a closed container over water caused the water to rise and replace one-fourteenth of the air's volume before extinguishing the subjects.[51] From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both respiration and combustion. Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... John Mayow John Mayow (May, 1643 - September, 1679), English chemist and physiologist, was born in London. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...


Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, and inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it.[50] He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body.[50] Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract "De respiratione".[51] This article is about the element. ...


Phlogiston theory

Georg Ernst Stahl helped develop and popularize the phlogiston theory.
Georg Ernst Stahl helped develop and popularize the phlogiston theory.

Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all also produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th century but none of them recognized it as an element.[24] This may in part be due to the prevalence of a philosophy of combustion and corrosion called phlogiston theory, which was then the favored explanation of those processes. Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... Ole Borch (1626 – 1690) (latinized to Olaus Borrichius) was a Danish scientist, physician, grammarian, and poet, most famous today for being the teacher at the Vor Frue Skole in Copenhagen of Nicholas Steno. ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ...


Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. J. Becher, and modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731,[52] phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts. One part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx.[49] J.J. Becher Johann Joachim Becher (May 6, 1635 – October 1682), was a German physician, alchemist, precursor of Chemistry, scholar and adventurer. ... Georg Ernst Stahl (October 21, 1660 - May 24, 1734), was a German chemist and physician. ... Calx is a residual substance, sometimes in the form of a fine powder, that is left when a metal or mineral combusts or is calcinated due to heat. ...


Highly combustible materials that leave little residuum, such as wood or coal, were thought to be made mostly of phlogiston; whereas non-combustible substances that corrode, such as iron, contained very little. Air did not play a role in phlogiston theory, nor were any initial quantitative experiments conducted to test the idea; instead, it was based on observations of what happens when something burns: that most common objects appear to become lighter and seem to lose something in the process.[49] The fact that a substance like wood actually gains overall weight in burning was hidden by the buoyancy of the gaseous combustion products. Indeed one of the first clues that the phlogiston theory was incorrect was that metals, too, gain weight in rusting (when they were supposedly losing phlogiston).


Discovery

Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.
Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.

An experiment conducted by the British clergyman Joseph Priestley on August 1, 1774 focused sunlight on mercuric oxide (HgO) inside a glass tube, which liberated a gas he named 'dephlogisticated air'.[3] He noted that candles burned brighter in the gas and that a mouse was more active and lived longer while breathing it. After breathing the gas himself, he wrote: "The feeling of it to my lungs was not sensibly different from that of common air, but I fancied that my breast felt peculiarly light and easy for some time afterwards."[24] Priestley published his findings in 1775 in a paper titled "An Account of Further Discoveries in Air" which was included in the second volume of his book titled Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air.[53][49] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide, has a formula of HgO and a formula weight of 216. ... Title page from Experiments and Observations Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1774–86) is a six-volume work published by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley which reports a series of his experiments on airs or gases, most notably his discovery of oxygen gas (which he called...

Carl Wilhelm Scheele beat Priestley to the discovery but published afterwards.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele beat Priestley to the discovery but published afterwards.

Unknown to Priestley, Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had already produced oxygen gas by heating mercuric oxide and various nitrates by about 1772.[49][3] Scheele called the gas 'fire air' because it was the only known supporter of combustion. He wrote an account of this discovery in a manuscript he titled Treatise on Air and Fire, which he sent to his publisher in 1775. However, that document was not published until 1777.[54] Because he had published his findings first, Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x692, 702 KB) Chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele from Svenska Familj-Journalen 1874. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x692, 702 KB) Chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele from Svenska Familj-Journalen 1874. ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ...


The noted French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier later claimed to have discovered the new substance independently. However, Priestley visited Lavoisier in October 1774 and told him about his experiment and how he liberated the new gas. Scheele also posted a letter to Lavoisier on September 30, 1774 that described his own discovery of the previously-unknown substance, but Lavoisier never acknowledged receiving it (a copy of the letter was found in Scheele's belongings after his death).[54] Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ...


Lavoisier's contribution

Antoine Lavoisier discredited the Phlogiston theory.
Antoine Lavoisier discredited the Phlogiston theory.

What Lavoisier did indisputably do (although this was disputed at the time) was to conduct the first adequate quantitative experiments on oxidation and give the first correct explanation of how combustion works.[3] He used these and similar experiments, all started in 1774, to discredit the phlogiston theory and to prove that the substance discovered by Priestley and Scheele was a chemical element. Image File history File links Antoine_lavoisier. ... Image File history File links Antoine_lavoisier. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


In one experiment, Lavoisier observed that there was no overall increase in weight when tin and air were heated in a closed container.[3] He noted that air rushed in when he opened the container, which indicated that part of the trapped air had been consumed. He also noted that the tin had increased in weight and that increase was the same as the weight of the air that rushed back in. This and other experiments on combustion were documented in his book Sur la combustion en général, which was published in 1777.[3] In that work, he proved that air is a mixture of two gases; 'vital air', which is essential to combustion and respiration, and azote (Gk. ἄζωτον "lifeless"), which did not support either. This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...


Lavoisier renamed 'vital air' to oxygène in 1777 from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp," from the taste of acids) and -γενής (-genēs) (producer, literally begetter), because he mistook oxygen to be a constituent of all acids.[5] Azote later became nitrogen in English, although it has kept the name in French.[3] For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Oxygen entered the English language despite opposition by English scientists and the fact that Priestley had priority. This is partly due to a poem praising the gas titled "Oxygen" in the popular book The Botanic Garden (1791) by Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin.[54] The frontispiece to The Botanic Garden, designed by Henry Fuseli The Botanic Garden (1791) is a set of two poems by Erasmus Darwin on botany: Economy of Vegetation and the more popular and well-known The Loves of the Plants, which had originally been published in 1789. ... This article is about Erasmus Darwin who lived 1731–1802; for his descendants with the same name see Erasmus Darwin (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Later history

Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket
Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket

John Dalton's original atomic hypothesis assumed that all elements were monoatomic and that the atoms in compounds would normally have the simplest atomic ratios with respect to one another. For example, Dalton assumed that water's formula was HO, giving the atomic mass of oxygen as 8 times that of hydrogen, instead of the modern value of about 16.[55] In 1805, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Alexander von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen; and by 1811 Amedeo Avogadro had arrived at the correct interpretation of water's composition, based on what is now called Avogadro's law and the assumption of diatomic elemental molecules.[56][57] Download high resolution version (512x628, 229 KB)First Flight of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Full Description Dr. Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline bipropellant rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. ... Download high resolution version (512x628, 229 KB)First Flight of a Liquid Propellant Rocket Full Description Dr. Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline bipropellant rocket in the frame from which it was fired on March 16, 1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... This article focuses on the historical models of the atom. ... Stylized lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons & 3 electrons (~1800 times smaller than protons/neutrons). ... Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Avogadro redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By the late 19th century scientists realized that air could be liquefied, and its components isolated, by compressing and cooling it. Using a cascade method, Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pierre Pictet evaporated liquid sulfur dioxide in order to liquefy carbon dioxide, which in turn was evaporated to cool oxygen gas enough to liquefy it. He sent a telegram on December 22, 1877 to the French Academy of Sciences in Paris announcing his discovery of liquid oxygen.[58] Just two days later, French physicist Louis Paul Cailletet announced his own method of liquefying molecular oxygen.[58] Only a few drops of the liquid were produced in either case so no meaningful analysis could be conducted. In chemical engineering, a cascade is a plant consisting of several similar stages with each processing the output from the previous stage. ... Raoul-Pierre Pictet (4 April 1846 - 27 July 1929) was a physicist, who first created liquid oxygen. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis-Paul Cailletet (1832 - 1913) was a French physicist and inventor. ...


In 1891 Scottish chemist James Dewar was able to produce enough liquid oxygen to study.[9] The first commercially-viable process for producing liquid oxygen was independently developed in 1895 by German engineer Carl von Linde and British engineer William Hampson. Both men lowered the temperature of air until it liquefied and then distilled the component gases by boiling them off one at a time and capturing them.[59] Later, in 1901, oxyacetylene welding was demonstrated for the first time by burning a mixture of acetylene and compressed O2. This method of welding and cutting metal later became common.[59] For other persons named James Dewar, see James Dewar (disambiguation). ... Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (born 11 June 1842 in Berndorf (Oberfranken); died 16 November 1934 in Munich) was a German engineer who developed the basics of modern refrigeration technology. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. ...


In 1923 the American scientist Robert H. Goddard became the first person to develop a rocket engine; the engine used gasoline for fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Goddard successfully flew a small liquid-fueled rocket 56 m at 97 km/h on March 16, 1926 in Auburn, Massachusetts, USA.[59][60] Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945), U.S. professor and scientist, was a pioneer of controlled, liquid-fueled rocketry. ... RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet... Petrol redirects here. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Auburn is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Industrial production

See also: Oxygen evolution and fractional distillation

Two major methods are employed to produce the 100 million tonnes of O2 extracted from air for industrial uses annually.[54] The most common method is to fractionally-distill liquefied air into its various components, with nitrogen N2 distilling as a vapor while oxygen O2 is left as a liquid.[54] Oxygen evolution is the process of generating molecular oxygen through chemical reaction. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...

Hoffman electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water.

The other major method of producing O2 gas involves passing a stream of clean, dry air through one bed of a pair of identical zeolite molecular sieves, which absorbs the nitrogen and delivers a gas stream that is 90% to 93% O2.[54] Simultaneously, nitrogen gas is released from the other nitrogen-saturated zeolite bed, by reducing the chamber operating pressure and diverting part of the oxygen gas from the producer bed through it, in the reverse direction of flow. After a set cycle time the operation of the two beds is interchanged, thereby allowing for a continuous supply of gaseous oxygen to be pumped through a pipeline. This is known as pressure swing adsorption. Oxygen gas is increasingly obtained by these non-cryogenic technologies (see also the related vacuum swing adsorption).[61] Image File history File links Hoffman_voltameter. ... Image File history File links Hoffman_voltameter. ... Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) is a technology that is used to separate some species from a gas under pressure according to these species molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Vacuum Swing Adsorption (VSA) is a non-cryogenic gas separation technology. ...


Oxygen gas can also be produced through electrolysis of water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen. A similar method is the electrocatalytic O2 evolution from oxides and oxoacids. Chemical catalysts can be used as well, such as in chemical oxygen generators or oxygen candles that are used as part of the life-support equipment on submarines, and are still part of standard equipment on commercial airliners in case of depressurization emergencies. Another air separation technology involves forcing air to dissolve through ceramic membranes based on zirconium dioxide by either high pressure or an electric current, to produce nearly pure O2 gas.[37] Hoffman voltameter used to electrolyze water. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... An oxoacid is an acid which contains oxygen. ... A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen created by a chemical reaction. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), sometimes known as zirconia, is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. ...


In large quantities, the price of liquid oxygen in 2001 was approximately $0.21/kg.[62] Since the primary cost of production is the energy cost of liquefying the air, the production cost will change as energy cost varies.


For reasons of economy oxygen is often transported in bulk as a liquid in specially-insulated tankers, since one litre of liquefied oxygen is equivalent to 840 liters of gaseous oxygen at atmospheric pressure and 20 °C.[54] Such tankers are used to refill bulk liquid oxygen storage containers, which stand outside hospitals and other institutions with a need for large volumes of pure oxygen gas. Liquid oxygen is passed through heat exchangers, which convert the cryogenic liquid into gas before it enters the building. Oxygen is also stored and shipped in smaller cylinders containing the compressed gas; a form that is useful in certain portable medical applications and oxy-fuel welding and cutting.[54] The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... An oxygen tank is a storage vessel for oxygen, which is either held under pressure in gas cylinders or as liquid oxygen in a cryogenic storage tank. ... “Oxyacetylene” redirects here. ...


Applications

See also: Breathing gas, Redox, and Combustion

Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ...

Medical

An oxygen concentrator in an emphysema patient's house

Uptake of O2 from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation is used in medicine. Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, some heart disorders, and any disease that impairs the body's ability to take up and use gaseous oxygen.[63] Treatments are flexible enough to be used in hospitals, the patient's home, or increasingly by portable devices. Oxygen tents were once commonly used in oxygen supplementation, but have since been replaced mostly by the use of oxygen masks or nasal cannulas. Hyperbaric (high-pressure) medicine uses special oxygen chambers to increase the partial pressure of O2 around the patient and, when needed, the medical staff. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture I took on 2nd of July, 2007 showing a home oxygen concentrator. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture I took on 2nd of July, 2007 showing a home oxygen concentrator. ... An oxygen concentrator is a device used to provide oxygen to a patient at substantially higher concentrations than those of ambient air, used as an alternative to tanks of compressed oxygen. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... This article is about the medical term. ... An oxygen tent consists in a canopy placed over the head and shoulders or over the entire body of a patient to provide oxygen at a higher level than normal. ... Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ... The nasal cannula is a device used in the hospital or at home to delivery supplemental oxygen to a patient or person in need of extra oxygen. ... Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the medical use of oxygen at a higher than atmospheric pressure. ... Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the medical use of oxygen at a higher than atmospheric pressure. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ...


Carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene, and decompression sickness (the 'bends') are sometimes treated using these devices. Increased O2 concentration in the lungs helps to displace carbon monoxide from the heme group of hemoglobin. Oxygen gas is poisonous to the anaerobic bacteria that cause gas gangrene, so increasing its partial pressure helps kill them. Decompression sickness occurs in divers who decompress too quickly after a dive, resulting in bubbles of inert gas, mostly nitrogen and argon, forming in their blood. Increasing the pressure of O2 as soon as possible is part of the treatment.[63] Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues in gangrene. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a decrease (nearly always after a big increase) in the pressure around his body. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ...


Oxygen is also used medically for patients who require mechanical ventilation, often at concentrations above the 21% found in ambient air. mechanical or forced ventilation is the use of powered equipment, e. ...


Life support and recreational use

Low pressure pure O2 is used in space suits.

A notable application of O2 as a low-pressure breathing gas is in modern space suits, which surround their occupant's body with pressurized air. These devices use nearly pure oxygen at about one third normal pressure, resulting in a normal blood partial pressure of O2. This trade-off of higher oxygen concentration for lower pressure is needed to maintain flexible spacesuits. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x643, 274 KB) Description: Astronaut wearing space suit Source: NASA Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Space suit ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x643, 274 KB) Description: Astronaut wearing space suit Source: NASA Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Space suit ... Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ... Air is the most common and only natural breathing gas. ... Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ...


Scuba divers and submariners also rely on artificially-delivered O2, but most often use normal pressure, and/or mixtures of oxygen and air. Pure or nearly pure O2 use in diving at higher-than-sea-level pressures is usually limited to rebreather, decompression, or emergency treatment use at relatively shallow depths (~ 6 meters depth, or less). Deeper diving requires significant dilution of O2 with other gases, such as nitrogen or helium, to help prevent oxygen toxicity. Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ...


People who climb mountains or fly in non-pressurized fixed-wing aircraft sometimes have supplemental O2 supplies.[64] Passengers traveling in (pressurized) commercial airplanes have an emergency supply of O2 automatically supplied to them in case of cabin depressurization. Sudden cabin pressure loss activates chemical oxygen generators above each seat, causing oxygen masks to drop and forcing iron fillings into the sodium chlorate inside the canister.[37] A steady stream of oxygen gas is produced by the exothermic reaction.[65] Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen created by a chemical reaction. ... Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ... Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is an oxidizing agent. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ...


Oxygen, as a supposed mild euphoric, has a history of recreational use in oxygen bars and in sports. Oxygen bars are establishments, found in Japan, California and Las Vegas, Nevada since the late 1990s that offer higher than normal O2 exposure for a fee.[66] Professional athletes, especially in American football, also sometimes go off field between plays to wear oxygen masks in order to get a supposed "boost" in performance. However, the reality of a pharmacological effect is doubtful; a placebo or psychological boost being the most plausible explanation.[66] Available studies support a performance boost from enriched O2 mixtures only if they are breathed during actual aerobic exercise.[67] Other recreational uses include pyrotechnic applications, such as George Goble's five-second ignition of barbeque grills.[68] Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Oxygen bar in Tokyo, Japan The oxygen bar is a trend that started in the late 1990s in Japan, and quickly spread east to California and Las Vegas. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... The word pyrotechnic (literally meaning fire technology) refers to any chemical explosive device, but especially fireworks. ... A member of the Airpork Crew barbecue team prepares pork shoulder at the Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest. ...


Industrial

Most commercially-produced O2 is used to smelt iron into steel.
Most commercially-produced O2 is used to smelt iron into steel.

Smelting of iron ore into steel consumes 55% of commercially-produced oxygen.[37] In this process, O2 is injected through a high-pressure lance into molten iron, which removes sulfur impurities and excess carbon as the respective oxides, SO2 and CO2. The reactions are exothermic, so the temperature increases to 1700 °C.[37] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (825x616, 170 KB) Document publié avec laccord de lauteur (Jean-Pol Grandmont). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (825x616, 170 KB) Document publié avec laccord de lauteur (Jean-Pol Grandmont). ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat . ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...


Another 25% of commercially-produced oxygen is used by the chemical industry.[37] Ethylene is reacted with O2 to create ethylene oxide, which, in turn, is converted into ethylene glycol; the primary feeder material used to manufacture a host of products, including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics).[37] Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... For other uses, see Antifreeze (disambiguation). ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Fabric may mean: Cloth, a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres Fabric (club), a London dance club Fibre Channel fabric, a network of Fibre Channel devices enabled by a Fibre Channel switch using the FC-SW topology This is a disambiguation page, a...


Most of the remaining 20% of commercially-produced oxygen is used in medical applications, metal cutting and welding, as an oxidizer in rocket fuel, and in water treatment.[37] Oxygen is used in oxyacetylene welding burning acetylene with O2 to produce a very hot flame. In this process, metal up to 60 cm thick is first heated with a small oxy-acetylene flame and then quickly cut by a large stream of O2.[69] Rocket propulsion requires a fuel and an oxidizer. Larger rockets use liquid oxygen as their oxidizer, which is mixed and ignited with the fuel for propulsion. Oxy-Fuel Welding is a welding process commonly called Oxy-Acetylene Welding, since acetylene is the predominant choice for a fuel, or often simply Gas welding. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... A water treatment plant in northern Portugal. ... Compressed gas cylinders containing oxygen and MAPP gas. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... A remote camera captures a close-up view of a Space Shuttle Main Engine during a test firing at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites, or in short, to provide delta-v. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...


Scientific

500 million years of climate change vs 18O
500 million years of climate change vs 18O

Paleoclimatologists measure the ratio of oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 in the shells and skeletons of marine organisms to determine what the climate was like millions of years ago (see oxygen isotope ratio cycle). Seawater molecules that contain the lighter isotope, oxygen-16, evaporate at a slightly faster rate than water molecules containing the 12% heavier oxygen-18; this disparity increases at lower temperatures.[70] During periods of lower global temperatures, snow and rain from that evaporated water tends to be higher in oxygen-16, and the seawater left behind tends to be higher in oxygen-18. Marine organisms then incorporate more oxygen-18 into their skeletons and shells than they would in a warmer climate.[70] Paleoclimatologists also directly measure this ratio in the water molecules of ice core samples that are up to several hundreds of thousands of years old. Description This figure shows the long-term evolution of oxygen isotope ratios during the Phanerozoic eon as measured in fossils, reported by Veizer et al. ... Description This figure shows the long-term evolution of oxygen isotope ratios during the Phanerozoic eon as measured in fossils, reported by Veizer et al. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the mass of Oxygen with an atomic weight of 18 to the mass of Oxygen with an atomic weight of 16 present in calcite of the oceanic floor as determined by core samples. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ...


Planetary geologists have measured different abundances of oxygen isotopes in samples from the Earth, the Moon, Mars, and meteorites, but were long unable to obtain reference values for the isotope ratios in the Sun, believed to be the same as those of the primordial solar nebula. However, analysis of a silicon wafer exposed to the solar wind in space and returned by the crashed Genesis spacecraft has shown that the Sun has a higher proportion of oxygen-16 than does the Earth. The measurement implies that an unknown process depleted oxygen-16 from the Sun's disk of protoplanetary material prior to the coalescence of dust grains that formed the Earth.[71] The inner planets. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Sol redirects here. ... A planetary disk forming in the Orion Nebula In this artists conception, of a planet spins through a clearing in a nearby stars dusty, planet-forming disc In cosmogony, the nebular hypothesis is the currently accepted argument about how Earths Solar System formed. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... In its collecting configuration, the Genesis spacecraft exposed collecting wafers to the solar wind. ... A protoplanetary disc (also protoplanetary disk, proplyd) is an accretion disc surrounding a T Tauri star. ...


Oxygen presents two spectrophotometric absorption bands peaking at the wavelengths 687 and 760 nm. Some remote sensing scientists have proposed using the measurement of the radiance coming from vegetation canopies in those bands to characterize plant health status from a satellite platform.[72] This approach exploits the fact that in those bands it is possible to discriminate the vegetation's reflectance from its fluorescence, which is much weaker. The measurement is technically difficult owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the physical structure of vegetation; but it has been proposed as a possible method of monitoring the carbon cycle from satellites on a global scale.
An absorption band is a range of wavelengths (or, equivalently, frequencies) in the electromagnetic spectrum within which electromagnetic energy is absorbed by a substance. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. ... In optics, reflectivity is the reflectance (the ratio of reflected power to incident power, generally expressed in decibels or percentage) at the surface of a material so thick that the reflectance does not change with increasing thickness; , the intrinsic reflectance of the surface, irrespective of other parameters such as the... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is an electrical engineering concept defined as the ratio of a signal power to the noise power corrupting the signal. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ...


Compounds

Main article: Compounds of oxygen
Water (H2O) is the most familiar oxygen compound.
Water (H2O) is the most familiar oxygen compound.

The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen. The oxidation state −1 is found in a few compounds such as peroxides.[73] Compounds containing oxygen in other oxidation states are very uncommon: −1/2 (superoxides), −1/3 (ozonides), 0 (elemental, hypofluorous acid), +1/2 (dioxygenyl), +1 (dioxygen difluoride), and +2 (oxygen difluoride). Image File history File links Stilles_Mineralwasser. ... Image File history File links Stilles_Mineralwasser. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... Ozonide is an unstable, reactive polyatomic anion O3-, derived from ozone, or an organic compound similar to organic peroxide formed by a reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound. ... There are 4 known allotropes of oxygen: dioxygen, O2 - colorless ozone, O3 - blue tetraoxygen, O4 - red The common allotrope of elemental oxygen on Earth, O2, is known as dioxygen. ... Hypofluorous acid is the chemical compound with the formula HOF. It is an intermediate in the oxidation of water by fluorine, which affords HF and oxygen. ... Dioxygenyl ion IUPAC Name Molecular oxygen CAS Number 58238-79-2 Molecular formula O2 ... Dioxygen difluoride, O2F2, has a density of 1. ... Oxygen difluoride is a chemical compound whose formula is OF2. ...


Oxides and other inorganic compounds

Water (H2O) is the oxide of hydrogen and the most familiar oxygen compound. Hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to oxygen in a water molecule but also have an additional attraction (about 23.3 kJ·mol−1 per hydrogen atom) to an adjacent oxygen atom in a separate molecule.[74] These hydrogen bonds between water molecules hold them approximately 15% closer than what would be expected in a simple liquid with just Van der Waals forces.[75][76] Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... In chemistry, the term van der Waals force originally referred to all forms of intermolecular forces; however, in modern usage it tends to refer to intermolecular forces that deal with forces due to the polarization of molecules. ...

Oxides, such as iron oxide or rust, Fe2O3, form when oxygen combines with other elements.

Due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other elements at elevated temperatures to give corresponding oxides. However, some elements readily form oxides at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the rusting of iron is an example. The surface of metals like aluminium and titanium are oxidized in the presence of air and become coated with a thin film of oxide that passivates the metal and slows further corrosion. Some of the transition metal oxides are found in nature as non-stoichiometric compounds, with a slightly less metal than the chemical formula would show. For example, the natural occurring FeO (wüstite) is actually written as Fe1−xO, where x is usually around 0.05.[77] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 131 KB) A rusty screw File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 131 KB) A rusty screw File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds with an elemental composition that cannot be represented by a ratio of well-defined natural numbers, and are therefore in violation of the law of definite proportions. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Iron(II) oxide, also called ferrous oxide, is a black-colored powder with the chemical formula FeO. It consists of the element iron in the oxidation state of 2 bonded to oxygen. ... Wüstite (FeO) is a rare mineral form of iron(II) oxide found with meteorites and native iron. ...


Oxygen as a compound is present in the atmosphere in trace quantities in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). The earth's crustal rock is composed in large part of oxides of silicon (silica SiO2, found in granite and sand), aluminium (aluminium oxide Al2O3, in bauxite and corundum), iron (iron(III) oxide Fe2O3, in hematite and rust) and other metals. Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Rock redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Alumina redirects here. ... This article is about the ore. ... Corundum (from Tamil kurundam) is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. ... Iron(III) oxide — also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply rust — is one of the several oxide compounds of iron, and has paramagnetic properties. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ...


The rest of the Earth's crust is also made of oxygen compounds, in particular calcium carbonate (in limestone) and silicates (in feldspars). Water-soluble silicates in the form of Na4SiO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2Si2O5 are used as detergents and adhesives.[78] Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ...


Oxygen also acts as a ligand for transition metals, forming metal–O2 bonds with the iridium atom in Vaska's complex,[79] with the platinum in PtF6,[80] and with the iron center of the heme group of hemoglobin. This article is about the chemical element. ... Vaskas complex is the trivial name for trans-chlorocarbonylbis(triphenylphosphine)iridium(I): trans-IrCl(CO)[P(C6H5)3]2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... Platinum hexafluoride is an extremely strong fluorinating agent. ... Structure of Heme b A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


Organic compounds and biomolecules

Acetone is an important feeder material in the chemical industry(oxygen is in red, carbon in black and hydrogen in white).
Acetone is an important feeder material in the chemical industry
(oxygen is in red, carbon in black and hydrogen in white).

Among the most important classes of organic compounds that contain oxygen are (where "R" is an organic group): alcohols (R-OH); ethers (R-O-R); ketones (R-CO-R); aldehydes (R-CO-H); carboxylic acids (R-COOH); esters (R-COO-R); acid anhydrides (R-CO-O-CO-R); and amides (R-C(O)-NR2). There are many important organic solvents that contain oxygen, including: acetone, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, furan, THF, diethyl ether, dioxane, ethyl acetate, DMF, DMSO, acetic acid, and formic acid. Acetone ((CH3)2CO) and phenol (C6H5OH) are used as feeder materials in the synthesis of many different substances. Other important organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic anhydride, and acetamide. Epoxides are ethers in which the oxygen atom is part of a ring of three atoms. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x942, 164 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetone User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x942, 164 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Acetone User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery User:Ben Mills/Gallery ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... Ketone group A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... An aldehyde. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Acid anhydrides are chemical compounds that look like, and sometimes are, the product resulting from dehydration of an acid. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... For other uses of THF, see THF (disambiguation) Tetrahydrofuran is a heterocyclic organic compound. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... 1,4-Dioxane, often just called dioxane, is a clear, colorless heterocyclic organic compound which is a liquid at room temperature and pressure. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , Flash point −4 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylate esters Methyl acetate, Butyl acetate Related compounds Acetic acid, ethanol Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Dimethylformamide is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H. Commonly abbreviated DMF, this colourless liquid is miscible with water and majority of organic liquids. ... Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point -53 °C Related Compounds Related aldehydes acetaldehyde benzaldehyde Related compounds ketones carboxylic acids Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Formaldehyde (methanal) is the chemical compound with the formula... Glutaraldehyde is a colourless liquid with a pungent odor used to sterilize medical and dental equipment. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... Acetic anhydride, also known as ethanoic anhydride, is one of the simplest of acid anhydrides. ... acetamide Acetamide (or Acetic acid amide or Ацетамид) CH3CONH2, the amide of acetic acid, is a white crystalline solid in pure form. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ...


Oxygen reacts spontaneously with many organic compounds at or below room temperature in a process called autoxidation.[81] Most of the organic compounds that contain oxygen are not made by direct action of O2. Organic compounds important in industry and commerce that are made by direct oxidation of a precursor include ethylene oxide and peracetic acid.[78] Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen and/or UV radiation and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ... Properties: CAS no 79-21-0 Synonyms peroxy acetic acid, acetylhydroperoxide, PAA Physical data Melting point: 0. ...

Oxygen represents more than 40% of the molecular mass of the ATP molecule.
Oxygen represents more than 40% of the molecular mass of the ATP molecule.

The element is found in almost all biomolecules that are important to (or generated by) life. Only a few common complex biomolecules, such as squalene and the carotenes, contain no oxygen. Of the organic compounds with biological relevance, carbohydrates contain the largest proportion by mass of oxygen. All fats, fatty acids, amino acids, and proteins contain oxygen (due to the presence of carbonyl groups in these acids and their ester residues). Oxygen also occurs in phosphate (PO43−) groups in the biologically important energy-carrying molecules ATP and ADP, in the backbone and the purines (except adenine) and pyrimidines of RNA and DNA, and in bones as calcium phosphate and hydroxylapatite. Image File history File links ATP_structure. ... Image File history File links ATP_structure. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Squalene is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though there are botanic sources as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring [1]. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ... Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ...


Precautions

Toxicity

Oxygen toxicity occurs when lungs take in a higher than normal O2 partial pressure, which can occur in deep scuba diving.
Oxygen toxicity occurs when lungs take in a higher than normal O2 partial pressure, which can occur in deep scuba diving.
Main article: Oxygen toxicity

Oxygen gas (O2) can be toxic at elevated partial pressures, leading to convulsions and other health problems.[82][83] Oxygen toxicity usually begins to occur at partial pressures more than 50 kilopascals (kPa), or 2.5 times the normal sea-level O2 partial pressure of about 21 kPa. Therefore, air supplied through oxygen masks in medical applications is typically composed of 30% O2 by volume (about 30 kPa at standard pressure).[24] At one time, premature babies were placed in incubators containing O2-rich air, but this practice was discontinued after some babies were blinded by it.[24] Image File history File links Scuba-diving. ... Image File history File links Scuba-diving. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... Oxygen toxicity or oxygen toxicity syndrome is severe hyperoxia caused by breathing oxygen at elevated partial pressures. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ...


Breathing pure O2 in space applications, such as in some modern space suits, or in early spacecraft such as Apollo, causes no damage due to the low total pressures used.[84] In the case of spacesuits, the O2 partial pressure in the breathing gas is, in general, about 30 kPa (1.4 times normal), and the resulting O2 partial pressure in the astronaut's arterial blood is only marginally more than normal sea-level O2 partial pressure (see arterial blood gas). Apollo 15 space suit A spacesuit is a complex system of garments, equipment, and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. ... Apollo Spacecraft: Command Module, Service Module, Lunar Module. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ...


Oxygen toxicity to the lungs and central nervous system can also occur in deep scuba diving and surface supplied diving.[24] Prolonged breathing of an air mixture with an O2 partial pressure more than 60 kPa can eventually lead to permanent pulmonary fibrosis.[85] Exposure to a O2 partial pressures greater than 160 kPa may lead to convulsions (normally fatal for divers). Acute oxygen toxicity can occur by breathing an air mixture with 21% O2 at 66 m or more of depth while the same thing can occur by breathing 100% O2 at only 6 m.[85][86] A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Surface supplied diver at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California Surface supplied diving refers to divers using equipment supplied with breathing gas using an umbilical cord from the surface, often from a diving support vessel but possibly, indirectly via a diving bell. ... Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), also known as interstitial lung disease, refers to a group of lung diseases, affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ...


Combustion and other hazards

0
0
0
OX

Highly-concentrated sources of oxygen promote rapid combustion. Fire and explosion hazards exist when concentrated oxidants and fuels are brought into close proximity; however, an ignition event, such as heat or a spark, is needed to trigger combustion.[87] Oxygen itself is not the fuel, but the oxidant. Combustion hazards also apply to compounds of oxygen with a high oxidative potential, such as peroxides, chlorates, nitrates, perchlorates, and dichromates because they can donate oxygen to a fire. Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3−. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid (HClO4). ... Chromates and Dichromates are salts of chromic acid. ...

Pure O2 at higher than normal pressure and a spark led to a fire and the loss of the Apollo 1 crew.
Pure O2 at higher than normal pressure and a spark led to a fire and the loss of the Apollo 1 crew.

Concentrated O2 will allow combustion to proceed rapidly and energetically.[87] Steel pipes and storage vessels used to store and transmit both gaseous and liquid oxygen will act as a fuel; and therefore the design and manufacture of O2 systems requires special training to ensure that ignition sources are minimized.[87] The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew on a test launch pad spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure O2 but at slightly more than atmospheric pressure, instead of the ⅓ normal pressure that would be used in a mission.[88][89] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x971, 464 KB)The Apollo 1 fire. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x971, 464 KB)The Apollo 1 fire. ... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the never-flown Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) mission. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Apollo 1 is the official name given to the never-flown Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) mission. ...


Liquid oxygen spills, if allowed to soak into organic matter, such as wood, petrochemicals, and asphalt can cause these materials to detonate unpredictably on subsequent mechanical impact.[87] On contact with the human body, it can also cause cryogenic burns to the skin and the eyes. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ...


See also

Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... The Winkler test is used to determine the level of dissolved oxygen in fresh water samples. ... An optode or optrode is an optical sensor device that optically measures a specific substance usually with the aid of a chemical transducer. ... The Oxygen Catastrophe was a massive environmental change believed to have happened during the Siderian period at the beginning of the Paleoproterozoic era. ... Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the mass of Oxygen with an atomic weight of 18 to the mass of Oxygen with an atomic weight of 16 present in calcite of the oceanic floor as determined by core samples. ...

Notes and citations

  1. ^ a b Emsley 2001, p.297
  2. ^ a b Oxygen. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-12-16.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cook & Lauer 1968, p.500
  4. ^ NASA (2007-09-27). "NASA Research Indicates Oxygen on Earth 2.5 Billion Years Ago". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-03-13.
  5. ^ a b c d Mellor 1939
  6. ^ Molecular Orbital Theory. Purdue University. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
  7. ^ a b Jakubowski, Henry. Biochemistry Online. Saint John's University. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
  8. ^ An orbital is a concept from quantum mechanics that models an electron as a wave-like particle that has a spacial distribution about an atom or molecule.
  9. ^ a b c Emsley 2001, p.303
  10. ^ Demonstration of a bridge of liquid oxygen supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet. University of Wisconsin-Madison Chemistry Department DEMONSTRATION LAB. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.
  11. ^ Oxygen's paramagnetism can be used analytically in paramagnetic oxygen gas analysers that determine the purity of gaseous oxygen. (Company literature of Oxygen analyzers (triplet). Servomex. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.)
  12. ^ Krieger-Liszkay 2005, 337-46
  13. ^ Harrison 1990
  14. ^ Wentworth 2002
  15. ^ Hirayama 1994, 149-150
  16. ^ Chieh, Chung. Bond Lengths and Energies. University of Waterloo. Retrieved on 2007-12-16.
  17. ^ a b Stwertka 1998, p.48
  18. ^ Stwertka 1998, p.49
  19. ^ a b Cacace 2001, 4062
  20. ^ a b Ball, Phillip. "New form of oxygen found", Nature News, 2001-09-16. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. 
  21. ^ Lundegaard 2006, 201–04
  22. ^ Desgreniers 1990, 1117–22
  23. ^ Shimizu 1998, 767–69
  24. ^ a b c d e f Emsley 2001, p.299
  25. ^ Air solubility in water. The Engineering Toolbox. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  26. ^ Evans & Claiborne 2006, 88
  27. ^ Lide 2003, Section 4
  28. ^ Overview of Cryogenic Air Separation and Liquefier Systems. Universal Industrial Gases, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.
  29. ^ Liquid Oxygen Material Safety Data Sheet (PDF). Matheson Tri Gas. Retrieved on 2007-12-15.
  30. ^ a b c d e Oxygen Nuclides / Isotopes. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  31. ^ a b c Meyer 2005, 9022
  32. ^ a b c d Emsley 2001, p.298
  33. ^ Figures given are for values up to 50 miles (80 km) above the surface
  34. ^ Walker 1980
  35. ^ This is calculated by dividing all the free O2 in the atmosphere to the rate it is used for respiration by the entire biosphere. This is obviously an extreme calculation since most organisms would die well before the pressure of O2 fell to zero, and therefore the rate of consumption would decrease significantly from the present rate.
  36. ^ From The Chemistry and Fertility of Sea Waters by H.W. Harvey, 1955, citing C.J.J. Fox, "On the coefficients of absorption of atmospheric gases in sea water", Publ. Circ. Cons. Explor. Mer, no. 41, 1907. Harvey however notes that according to later articles in Nature the values appear to be about 3% too high.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h Emsley 2001, p.301
  38. ^ Fenical 1983, "Marine Plants"
  39. ^ Brown 2003, 958
  40. ^ Thylakoid membranes are part of chloroplasts in algae and plants while they simply are one of many membrane structures in cyanobacteria. In fact, chloroplasts are thought to have evolved from cyanobacteria that were once symbiotic partners with the progenerators of plants and algae.
  41. ^ a b Raven 2005, 115–27
  42. ^ Water oxidation is catalyzed by a manganese-containing enzyme complex known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) or water-splitting complex found associated with the lumenal side of thylakoid membranes. Manganese is an important cofactor, and calcium and chloride are also required for the reaction to occur.(Raven 2005)
  43. ^ CO2 is released from another part of hemoglobin (see Bohr effect)
  44. ^ Campbell 2005, 522–23
  45. ^ Freeman 2005, 214, 586
  46. ^ a b Berner 1999, 10955–57
  47. ^ Dole 1965, 5–27
  48. ^ Jastrow 1936, 171
  49. ^ a b c d e Cook & Lauer 1968, p.499.
  50. ^ a b c Britannica contributors 1911, "John Mayow"
  51. ^ a b World of Chemistry contributors 2005, "John Mayow"
  52. ^ Morris 2003
  53. ^ Priestley 1775, 384–94
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h Emsley 2001, p.300
  55. ^ DeTurck, Dennis; Gladney, Larry and Pietrovito, Anthony (1997). The Interactive Textbook of PFP96. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
  56. ^ Roscoe 1883, 38
  57. ^ However, these results were mostly ignored until 1860. Part of this rejection was due to the belief that atoms of one element would have no chemical affinity towards atoms of the same element, and part was due to apparent exceptions to Avogadro's law that were not explained until later in terms of dissociating molecules.
  58. ^ a b Daintith 1994, p.707
  59. ^ a b c How Products are Made contributors, "Oxygen"
  60. ^ Goddard-1926. NASA. Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  61. ^ Non-Cryogenic Air Separation Processes. UIG Inc. (2003). Retrieved on 2007-12-16.
  62. ^ Space Shuttle Use of Propellants and Fluids, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2001=09, <http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/kscpao/nasafact/ps/SSP.ps>. Retrieved on 16 December 2007
  63. ^ a b Cook & Lauer 1968, p.510
  64. ^ The reason is that increasing the proportion of oxygen in the breathing gas at low pressure acts to augment the inspired O2 partial pressure nearer to that found at sea-level.
  65. ^ Even this may pose a danger if inappropriately triggered: a ValuJet airplane crashed after use-date-expired O2 canisters, which were being shipped in the cargo hold, activated and caused fire. (They were mis-labeled as empty, and carried against dangerous goods regulations). (NTSB Summary report. National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved on 2007-12-16.)
  66. ^ a b Bren, Linda (November–December 2002). Oxygen Bars: Is a Breath of Fresh Air Worth It?. FDA Consumer magazine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 2007-12-23.
  67. ^ Ergogenic Aids. Peak Performance Online. Retrieved on 2008-01-04.
  68. ^ George Goble's extended home page (mirror).
  69. ^ Cook & Lauer 1968, p.508
  70. ^ a b Emsley 2001, p.304
  71. ^ Hand, Eric (2008-03-13). "The Solar System's first breath". Nature 452: 259. doi:10.1038/452259a.
  72. ^ Miller et al. 2003
  73. ^ Greenwood & Earnshaw 1997, 28
  74. ^ Maksyutenko et al. 2006
  75. ^ Chaplin, Martin (2008-01-04). Water Hydrogen Bonding. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  76. ^ Also, since oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, the charge difference makes it a polar molecule. The interactions between the different dipoles of each molecule cause a net attraction force.
  77. ^ Smart 2005, 214
  78. ^ a b Cook & Lauer 1968, p.507
  79. ^ Crabtree 2001, 152
  80. ^ Cook & Lauer 1968, p.505
  81. ^ Cook & Lauer 1968, p.506
  82. ^ Since O2's partial pressure is the fraction of O2 times the total pressure, elevated partial pressures can occur either from high O2 fraction in breathing gas or from high breathing gas pressure, or a combination of both.
  83. ^ Cook & Lauer 1968, p.511
  84. ^ Wade, Mark (2007). Space Suits. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved on 2007-12-16.
  85. ^ a b Wilmshurst, Peter (1998). ABC of oxygen: Diving and oxygen. British Medical Journal. Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  86. ^ Donald 1992
  87. ^ a b c d Werley 1991
  88. ^ No single ignition source of the fire was conclusively identified, although some evidence points to arc from an electrical spark). (Report of Apollo 204 Review Board NASA Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA HQ, Washington, DC)
  89. ^ Chiles 2001

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Oxygen evolving complex. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Oxyhaemoglobin Dissociation Curve. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chemical affinity results from electronic properties by which dissimilar substances are capable of forming chemical compounds. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ... ValuJet Flight 592 was a flight that crashed on May 11, 1996 en route from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida to Hartsfield International Airport (now known as Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport) in Atlanta, Georgia. ... A dangerous good is any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Angewandte Chemie or Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the chemistry journal of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Society of German Chemists). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ASTM International (ASTM) is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Physical properties... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

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