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Encyclopedia > Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage. All forms of life maintain a reducing environment within their cells. This reducing environment is preserved by enzymes that maintain the reduced state through a constant input of metabolic energy. Disturbances in this normal redox state can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... This article is about life in general. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Some common lipids. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


In humans, oxidative stress is involved in many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but it may also be important in prevention of aging by induction of a process named mitohormesis. Reactive oxygen species can be beneficial, as they are used by the immune system as a way to attack and kill pathogens. Reactive oxygen species are also used in cell signaling. This is dubbed redox signaling. Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... A very low dose of a chemical agent may trigger from an organism the opposite response to a very high dose. ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. ... Redox signaling is the concept that free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other electronically-activated species act as messengers in biological systems. ...

Contents

Chemical and biological effects

In chemical terms, oxidative stress is a large increase (becoming less negative) in the cellular reduction potential, or a large decrease in the reducing capacity of the cellular redox couples, such as glutathione.[1] The effects of oxidative stress depend upon the size of these changes, with a cell being able to overcome small perturbations and regain its original state. However, more severe oxidative stress can cause cell death and even moderate oxidation can trigger apoptosis, while more intense stresses may cause necrosis.[2] It has been suggested that Electrode potential be merged into this article or section. ... Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (/̩æ.pəpˈto. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


A particularly destructive aspect of oxidative stress is the production of reactive oxygen species, which include free radicals and peroxides. Some of the less reactive of these species (such as superoxide) can be converted by oxidoreduction reactions with transition metals or other redox cycling compounds (including quinones) into more aggressive radical species that can cause extensive cellular damage.[3] Most of these oxygen-derived species are produced at a low level by normal aerobic metabolism and the damage they cause to cells is constantly repaired. However, under the severe levels of oxidative stress that cause necrosis, the damage causes ATP depletion, preventing controlled apoptotic death and causing the cell to simply fall apart.[4][5] Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A quinone (or benzoquinone) is either one of the two isomers of cyclohexadienedione or a derivative thereof. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...

Oxidant Description
•O2-, superoxide anion One-electron reduction state of O2, formed in many autoxidation reactions and by the electron transport chain. Rather unreactive but can release Fe2+ from iron-sulfur proteins and ferritin. Undergoes dismutation to form H2O2 spontaneously or by enzymatic catalysis and is a precursor for metal-catalyzed •OH formation.
H2O2, hydrogen peroxide Two-electron reduction state, formed by dismutation of •O2- or by direct reduction of O2. Lipid soluble and thus able to diffuse across membranes.
•OH, hydroxyl radical Three-electron reduction state, formed by Fenton reaction and decomposition of peroxynitrite. Extremely reactive, will attack most cellular components
ROOH, organic hydroperoxide Formed by radical reactions with cellular components such as lipids and nucleobases.
RO•, alkoxy and ROO•, peroxy radicals Oxygen centred organic radicals. Lipid forms participate in lipid peroxidation reactions. Produced in the presence of oxygen by radical addition to double bonds or hydrogen abstraction.
HOCl, hypochlorous acid Formed from H2O2 by myeloperoxidase. Lipid soluble and highly reactive. Will readily oxidize protein constituents, including thiol groups, amino groups and methionine.
OONO-, peroxynitrite Formed in a rapid reaction between •O2- and NO•. Lipid soluble and similar in reactivity to hypochlorous acid. Protonation forms peroxynitrous acid, which can undergo homolytic cleavage to form hydroxyl radical and nitrogen dioxide.

Table adapted from.[6][7][8] Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... The Electron Transport Chain. ... Ferritin is a globular protein found mainly in the liver, which can store about 4500 iron (Fe3+)ions in a hollow protein shell made of 24 subunits. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... Fentons reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. ... Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a strong oxidant and nitrating agent,which damages DNA, proteins and other cellular structures. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ... Some common lipids. ... Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... Mechanism of lipid peroxidation. ... Hypochlorous acid is a weak, unstable acid with chemical formula HOCl. ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme (EC 1. ... In organic chemistry, a sulfhydryl group or thiol group is a functional group composed of a sulfur and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a strong oxidant and nitrating agent,which damages DNA, proteins and other cellular structures. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Production and consumption of oxidants

The most important source of reactive oxygen under normal conditions in aerobic organisms is probably the leakage of activated oxygen from mitochondria during normal oxidative respiration. In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ...


Other enzymes capable of producing superoxide are xanthine oxidase, NADPH oxidases and cytochromes P450. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by a wide variety of enzymes including several oxidases. Reactive oxygen species play important roles in cell signalling, a process termed redox signaling. Thus, to maintain proper cellular homeostasis, a balance must be struck between reactive oxygen production and consumption. Xanthine Oxidase The enzyme xanthine oxidase, or XO, (bovine milk enzyme is PDB 1FIQ, EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ... Redox signaling is the concept that free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other electronically-activated species act as messengers in biological systems. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ...


The best studied cellular antioxidants are the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Less well studied (but probably just as important) enzymatic antioxidants are the peroxiredoxins and the recently discovered sulfiredoxin. Other enzymes that have antioxidant properties (though this is not their primary role) include paraoxonase, glutathione-S transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Structure of the monomeric unit of human superoxide dismutase 2 The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms. ... Glutathione peroxidase (PDB 1GP1, EC 1. ...


Oxidative stress contributes to tissue injury following irradiation and hyperoxia. It is suspected (though not proven) to be important in neurodegenerative diseases including Lou Gehrig's disease (aka MND or ALS), Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Oxidative stress is thought to be linked to certain cardiovascular disease, since oxidation of LDL in the vascular endothelium is a precursor to plaque formation. Oxidative stress also plays a role in the ischemic cascade due to oxygen reperfusion injury following hypoxia. This cascade includes both strokes and heart attacks. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Neurodegenerative disease (Greek νέυρο-, néuro-, nerval and Latin dēgenerāre, to decline or to worsen) is a condition in which cells of the brain and spinal cord are lost. ... Motor neuron disease (MND) is a term used to cover a number of illnesses of the motor neurone; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), progressive bulbar palsy (PBP), and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are all forms of MND. MND is the term used internationally... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... An Atheroma (plural: atheromata) is an unhealthy tissue growth which develops within the walls of arteries over time. ... The ischemic cascade is a series of biochemical reactions that take place in the brain after seconds to minutes of ischemia (inadequate blood supply) (Arnold, 2003). ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... The Strokes are an American rock and roll band who formed in New York City and gained fame for their live shows. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ...


Antioxidants as supplements

The use of antioxidants to prevent disease is controversial.[9] In a high-risk group like smokers, high doses of beta carotene increased the rate of lung cancer.[10] In less high-risk groups, the use of vitamin E appears to reduce the risk of heart disease.[11] In other diseases, such as Alzheimer's, the evidence on vitamin E supplementation is mixed.[12][13] However, AstraZeneca's radical scavenging nitrone drug NXY-059 shows some efficacy in the treatment of stroke.[14] An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... AstraZeneca PLC (LSE: AZN, OMX: AZN), is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group PLC. Zeneca was part of Imperial Chemical Industries prior to a demerger in 1993. ... A nitrone is the N-oxide of an imine and a functional group in organic chemistry. ... NXY-059 is the disulfonyl derivative of the neuroprotective spintrap phenylbutynitrone or PBN. It was under development at the drug company AstraZeneca. ...


Oxidative stress (as formulated in Harman's free radical theory of aging) is also thought to contribute to the aging process. While there is good evidence to support this idea in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans,[15][16] recent evidence from Michael Ristow's laboratory suggests that oxidative stress may also promote life expectancy of Caenorhabditis elegans by inducing a secondary response to initially increased levels of reactive oxygen species.[17] This process was previously named mitohormesis or mitochondrial hormesis on a purely hypothetical basis.[18] The situation in mammals is even less clear.[19][20][21] Recent epidemiological findings support the process of mitohormesis, and even suggest that antioxidants may increase disease prevalence in humans.[22] Denham Harman (February 14, 1916 - ), MD, PhD, FACP, FAAA biogerontologist is Professor emeritus at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. ... The free-radical theory of aging (FRTA) is that organisms age because protein, lipid and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) accumulate free radical damage with the passage of time. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Michael Ristow (b April 24, 1967, in Lübeck) is a physician and researcher who is currently professor of nutritional medicine at the University of Jena, Germany. ... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... A very low dose of a chemical agent may trigger from an organism the opposite response to a very high dose. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... A very low dose of a chemical agent may trigger from an organism the opposite response to a very high dose. ... A hypothesis (= assumption in ancient Greek) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. ... Epidemiology (Greek epi = upon, among; demos = people, district; logos = word, discourse), defined literally, is the study of epidemics in humans. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ...


Metal catalysts

Metals such as iron, copper, chromium, vanadium and cobalt are capable of redox cycling in which a single electron may be accepted or donated by the metal. This action catalyzes reactions that produce reactive radicals and can produce reactive oxygen species. The most important reactions are probably Fenton's reaction and the Haber-Weiss reaction, in which hydroxyl radical is produced from reduced iron and hydrogen peroxide. The hydroxyl radical then can lead to modifications of amino acids (e.g. meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine formation from phenylalanine), carbohydrates, initiate lipid peroxidation, and oxidize nucleobases. Most enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species contain one of these metals. The presence of such metals in biological systems in an uncomplexed form (not in a protein or other protective metal complex) can significantly increase the level of oxidative stress. In humans, hemochromatosis is associated with increased tissue iron levels, Wilson's disease with increased tissue levels of copper. and chronic manganism with exposure to manganese ores. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Catalyst redirects here. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... H.J.H. Fenton was a chemical engineer who, in the 1890s invented Fentons reagent[1], a solution of hydrogen peroxide and an iron catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. ... Wilsons disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, with an incidence of about 1 in 30,000 in most parts of the world and a male preponderance. ... Manganism or manganese poisoning is a toxic condition resulting from chronic exposure to manganese and first identified in 1837 by J. Couper. ...


Non-metal redox catalysts

Certain organic compounds in addition to metal redox catalyts can also produce reactive oxygen species. One of the most important classes of these are the quinones. Quinones can redox cycle with their conjugate semiquinones and hydroquinones, in some cases catalyzing the production of superoxide from dioxygen or hydrogen peroxide from superoxide. Oxidative stress generated by the reducing agent uric acid may be involved in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, stroke, and metabolic syndrome. Likewise, production of reactive oxygen species in the presence of homocysteine may figure in homocystinuria, as well as atherosclerosis, stroke, and Alzheimers. A quinone (or benzoquinone) is either one of the two isomers of cyclohexadienedione or a derivative thereof. ... A semiquinone is a free radical resulting from the removal of one hydrogen atom with its electron during the process of dehydrogenation of a hydroquinone to quinone or alternatively the addition of a single H atom to a quinone. ... Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol, is an aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase ones risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. ... Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... Homocystinuria, also known as Cystathionine beta synthase deficiency, is inherited disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ...


Immune defence

The immune system uses the lethal effects of oxidants by making production of oxidizing species a central part of its mechanism of killing pathogens; with activated phagocytes producing both ROS and reactive nitrogen species. These include superoxide (•O2-), nitric oxide (•NO) and their particularly reactive product, peroxynitrite (OONO-).[23] Although the use of these highly reactive compounds in the cytotoxic response of phagocytes causes damage to host tissues, the non-specificity of these oxidants is an advantage since they will damage almost every part of their target cell.[8] This prevents a pathogen from escaping this part of immune response by mutation of a single molecular target. A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis. ...


External links

  • Oxidative Stress - Relationship with Exercise and Training

See also

Acatalasia (or Takaharas disease) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by a catalase deficiency. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... Denham Harman (February 14, 1916 - ), MD, PhD, FACP, FAAA biogerontologist is Professor emeritus at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. ... Harry B. Demopoulos, MD, is an important pioneer in the medical aspects of Free radicals, especially in the areas of ischaemic injury, the toxicity of anticancer drugs, and in spinal cord injury. ... Michael Ristow (b April 24, 1967, in Lübeck) is a physician and researcher who is currently professor of nutritional medicine at the University of Jena, Germany. ... Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting antioxidant systems. ... Redox signaling is the concept that free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other electronically-activated species act as messengers in biological systems. ... A very low dose of a chemical agent may trigger from an organism the opposite response to a very high dose. ...

References

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  2. ^ Lennon SV, Martin SJ, Cotter TG (1991). "Dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in human tumour cell lines by widely diverging stimuli". Cell Prolif. 24 (2): 203–14. PMID 2009322. 
  3. ^ Valko M, Morris H, Cronin MT (May 2005). "Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress". Curr. Med. Chem. 12 (10): 1161–208. doi:10.2174/0929867053764635. PMID 15892631. 
  4. ^ Lelli JL, Becks LL, Dabrowska MI, Hinshaw DB (1998). "ATP converts necrosis to apoptosis in oxidant-injured endothelial cells". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 25 (6): 694–702. PMID 9801070. 
  5. ^ Lee YJ, Shacter E (1999). "Oxidative stress inhibits apoptosis in human lymphoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (28): 19792–8. PMID 10391922. 
  6. ^ Sies, H. (1985). "Oxidative stress: introductory remarks", in H. Sies, (Ed.): Oxidative Stress. Academic Press, 1-7. 
  7. ^ Docampo, R. (1995). "Antioxidant mechanisms", in J. Marr and M. Müller, (Eds.): Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Parasites. London: Academic Press, 147-160. 
  8. ^ a b Rice-Evans CA, Gopinathan V (1995). "Oxygen toxicity, free radicals and antioxidants in human disease: biochemical implications in atherosclerosis and the problems of premature neonates". Essays Biochem. 29: 39–63. PMID 9189713. 
  9. ^ Meyers DG, Maloley PA, Weeks D (1996). "Safety of antioxidant vitamins". Arch. Intern. Med. 156 (9): 925–35. PMID 8624173. 
  10. ^ Ruano-Ravina A, Figueiras A, Freire-Garabal M, Barros-Dios JM (2006). "Antioxidant vitamins and risk of lung cancer". Curr. Pharm. Des. 12 (5): 599–613. PMID 16472151. 
  11. ^ Pryor WA (2000). "Vitamin E and heart disease: basic science to clinical intervention trials". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28 (1): 141–64. PMID 10656300. 
  12. ^ Boothby LA, Doering PL (2005). "Vitamin C and vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease". Ann Pharmacother 39 (12): 2073–80. doi:10.1345/aph.1E495. PMID 16227450. 
  13. ^ Kontush K, Schekatolina S (2004). "Vitamin E in neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer's disease". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1031: 249–62. doi:10.1196/annals.1331.025. PMID 15753151. 
  14. ^ Fong JJ, Rhoney DH (2006). "NXY-059: review of neuroprotective potential for acute stroke". Ann Pharmacother 40 (3): 461–71. doi:10.1345/aph.1E636. PMID 16507608. 
  15. ^ Larsen PL (1993). "Aging and resistance to oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (19): 8905–9. PMID 8415630. 
  16. ^ Helfand SL, Rogina B (2003). "Genetics of aging in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster". Annu. Rev. Genet. 37: 329–48. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.37.040103.095211. PMID 14616064. 
  17. ^ Publication demonstrating that oxidative stress is promoting life span
  18. ^ Tapia PC (2006). "Sublethal mitochondrial stress with an attendant stoichiometric augmentation of reactive oxygen species may precipitate many of the beneficial alterations in cellular physiology produced by caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, exercise and dietary phytonutrients: "Mitohormesis" for health and vitality". Med. Hypotheses 66 (4): 832–43. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2005.09.009. PMID 16242247. 
  19. ^ Sohal RS, Mockett RJ, Orr WC (2002). "Mechanisms of aging: an appraisal of the oxidative stress hypothesis". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33 (5): 575–86. PMID 12208343. 
  20. ^ Sohal RS (2002). "Role of oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the aging process". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33 (1): 37–44. PMID 12086680. 
  21. ^ Rattan SI (2006). "Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals". Free Radic. Res. 40 (12): 1230–8. doi:10.1080/10715760600911303. PMID 17090411. 
  22. ^ Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C (2007). "Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA 297 (8): 842–57. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.842. PMID 17327526. 
  23. ^ Nathan C, Shiloh MU (2000). "Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in the relationship between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (16): 8841–8. PMID 10922044. 
A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
OXIDATIVE STRESS, (4330 words)
Oxidative stress results from the metabolic reactions that use oxygen, and it has been defined as a disturbance in the equilibrium status of pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems in intact cells.
The most effective anti-oxidant in oxidative stress is dependent on the specific molecules causing the stress, i.e., superoxide anion, lipid peroxides, iron-generated hydroxyl radical, etc., and the cellular or extracellular location of the source of these molecules.
During oxidative stress, a large family of proteins that contain reactive sulfhydryls are modified by oxidation to mixed-disulfides with attached glutathione (S- thiolation).
Oxidative stress - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (601 words)
Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide.
Oxidative stress is thought to be linked to certain cardiovascular disease, since oxidation of LDL in the endothelium is a precursor to plaque formation.
Oxidative stress (as formulated in Harman's free radical theory of aging) is also thought to contribute to the aging process.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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