FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. It has branches all over the world including India, Pakistan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore, Nigeria and the Republic of South Africa. OUP USA, established circa 1891 and incorporated in 1896, is a private limited company affiliated to the parent body and was the Press's first international venture. The Indian Branch, set up in 1912, was the second. OUP as a whole is managed by a body of elected representatives called the Delegates of the Press, who are all members of Oxford University. Today it has two main imprints: Oxford University Press, under which the bulk of its reference, educational, and scholarly publications appear, and the Clarendon Press, which is its 'prestige' scholarly imprint. Most of the major branches function as local publishers as well as distribute and sell titles from OUP headquarters. Image File history File links OUP_logo. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... The University of Oxford (often called Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A Limited liability company (denoted by L.L.C. or LLC) is a type of legal entity which has only relatively recently been made possible to establish in the United States and many other, mainly anglophone, countries. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


As a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products. The Press today transfers 30% of its annual surplus to the rest of the University, with a commitment to a minimum transfer of £12 million per annum. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 4,500 new books every year and employing some 4,000 people. OUP publishes many reference, professional, and academic works including the Oxford English Dictionary, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, the Oxford World's Classics and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. A number of its most important titles are now available electronically in a package called "Oxford Reference Online", and are offered free to holders of a reader's card from many public libraries in the UK. A charitable organization (also known as a charity) is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ... Concise Oxford English Dictionary (until 2002 officially entitled The Concise Oxford Dictionary, and widely known by the abbrevation COD) is probably the best-known of the smaller Oxford dictionaries. ... Oxford Worlds Classics is an imprint of Oxford University Press. ... The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ...


In 2003, OUP acquired from Macmillan Publishers the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and the Dictionary of Art. Of late, the Press has been acquiring specialty publishers such as Oceana Publications. [1] Unfortunately, some years ago it also closed down the much-loved Oxford Poets series. Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... Oceana Publications publishes a variety of international law publications. ...


Books published by Oxford have International Standard Book Numbers that begin with 0-19, making the Press one of a tiny number of publishers who have two-digit identification numbers in the ISBN system. The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN (sometimes pronounced is-ben), is a unique[1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially. ...

Oxford University Press on Walton Street.
Oxford University Press on Walton Street.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x706, 137 KB) Summary Photo of the Oxford University Press. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x706, 137 KB) Summary Photo of the Oxford University Press. ... The front of Oxford University Press on Walton Street. ...

Early History

William Caxton established the first printing press in England in 1476, following the invention of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg in 1450 and the subsequent spread of the technology across Europe. Two years later, in 1478, the first book was printed in the city of Oxford. This book caused something of a sensation among later historians as it carried the erroneous date of 1468, which would have placed it before Caxton in time. However its printing was only tenuously related to the existence of the university. For the next hundred years, books used by or produced for the University of Oxford would be printed by a succession of local independent printers. William Caxton (c. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Events Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia Births February 29 - Pope Paul III (died 1549) Juan del Encina, Spanish poet, dramatist and composer Charles I of Savoy John, Elector of Saxony (died 1532) Juan de Zumárraga, Spanish Franciscan prelate and first bishop of Mexico... The University of Oxford (often called Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


In 1586 a decree from the Star Chamber granted the privilege to print books to an Oxford printer who claimed to have the favour of the university; this was at that time the only such license issued to a press outside London. King Charles I increased the independence and latitude of the University Press when he entitled the University to print "all manner of books" by granting a Great Charter to the University in 1632 (The University of Cambridge received a similar charter at the same time.) The content of the charter was negotiated by Archbishop Laud, at the time Chancellor of the University, as part of his drive to establish a set of statutes (the Laudian Code) that were to govern the running of the University for the next two centuries. 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... The Star Chamber was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that began sessions in 1487 and ended them in 1641 when the court itself was abolished. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... The University of Cambridge, located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of Charles I of England whom he encouraged to believe in the Divine Right of Kings. ...


Delegates of the Press were briskly appointed from among the fellows of the university in 1633 to oversee the matters of this still theoretical entity, but in the absence of an actual press to print books on, the licence languished for a few more years. The Delegates appear to have met in 1668, but the lack of capital and enterprise stayed their hand and in 1672 the charismatic John Fell, Dean of Christ Church and Bishop of Oxford, leased the university's licence to print. Fell set about collecting sets of exotic and rare type founts in Hebrew, Greek and other classical languages for his learned press which he housed on somewhat dubious authority in the environs of the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford. On his death in 1690 the press and its furniture passed to the university, and with this there was at last the physical wherwithal to act on the charter to print books.[1] Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... John Fell is the name of more than one notable man: John Fell, (1625-1686), English clergyman and publisher John Fell, (1721-1798), U.S. delegate to Continental Congress for New Jersey This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... In religious terminology, a dean is a title accorded to persons holding cartain positions of authority within a religious heirarchy. ... Christ Church is the name of various churches and cathedrals, usually Protestant, named after Jesus Christ himself. ... A mitre is used as a symbol of the bishops ministry. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Sheldonian Theatre. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ...


The Press’s initial fortunes were made on the publication in 1702 of the hugely popular (but historiographically suspect) History of the Great Rebellion by the Earl of Clarendon that charted the progress of the English Civil War and Oliver Cromwell’s rule of the country, and the proceeds went to build the Press a permanent home, Clarendon House. Clarendon’s name, too, came over time to be used, to the puzzlement of outsiders, for a variety of imprints and titles produced by the Press. The Press thus initially developed with two parts: the Learned (Clarendon) Press producing titles by scholars, and the Bible Press, which was set up circa 1690 to print the King James Bible first issued in 1611. The licence to print Bibles had been granted on paper to the King's Printers in London and by the two universities of Oxford and Cambridge. However, the Delegates of the Press at Oxford University soon found that catering to the enormous demand for Bibles was too exhausting for a group of scholars donating voluntary labour, and the privilege was leased out. In 1780, the bottom having fallen out of the American Bible market due to the American War of Independence of 1775, the Delegates of the Press created forty two shares in the Bible privilege and farmed them out to a set of commercial printers in London. Much permutation and combination followed as the shares were subdivided and inherited by this motley crew, until in the 1880s the shares were once again brought under the university's control.[2] Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The title Earl of Clarendon was created in 1776 for the politician and diplomat Thomas Villiers, second son of William Villiers, 2nd Earl of Jersey. ... The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599 – September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader, considered by some critics to be a dictator, best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... 1775 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Reorganisation in the Nineteenth Century

From the 1850s onward the University of Oxford underwent a protracted and painful programme of modernisation, under the aegis of William Gladstone among others. The Delegacy of the Press ceased to be ‘perpetual’ in 1856. It now had five perpetual and five junior posts filled by appointment from the University, with the Vice Chancellor a Delegate ex officio. 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... William Ewart Gladstone (December 29, 1809 - May 19, 1898) was a British Liberal politician and Prime Minister (1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886 and 1892-1894). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... // Universities A Vice-Chancellor (commonly called the VC) of a university in the United Kingdom, other Commonwealth countries, and some universities in Hong Kong, is the de facto head of the university. ...


As the reform of the University got under way, the Delegates were split into two groups. One, epitomized by Mark Pattison, a classicist whom Mrs Humphrey Ward once described as looking ‘like a discontented lizard with a cold’,[3] believed scholarship was the sole purpose for the Press’s existence; the other, that of Benjamin Jowett, saw it first as a commercial venture intended to sponsor the University’s scholarly pursuits through selling books which the public were ready and willing to buy for hard cash. What was needed was a happy mean between these two, but the nature of the politics and the personalities involved meant that a Manichaean opposition was perceived and fought out between the two camps in true epic style. [4] Mark Pattison (October 10, 1813 - July 30, 1884) was an English author and rector of Lincoln College, Oxford. ... Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ...


The reformist group's first step was to appoint a London agent to act for them in the business of selling books. John Murray III declined, but Alexander Macmillan, who had just moved to London from Cambridge, agreed eagerly and was appointed around 1863. Macmillan and Bartholomew Price began between them to concoct a scheme to be known as the Clarendon Press series, a collection of schoolbooks meant to be cheap, elementary and profitable. This appears to have been thefirst major use of 'Clarendon' as an imprint, a surprising start to the style that became the Press’s prestige scholarly flagship.[5] Macmillan allowed the Press to take up the proposed New English Dictionary from the Philological Society, a prospective white elephant he did not regret, and he in turn got Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll). The New English Dictionary under the editorship of James Murray finally appeared as the Oxford English Dictionary, completed after much struggle in 1910, now the foundation of OUP’s fortunes.[6] London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... Alexander Macmillan, (October 3 1818 - January 26 1896), born in Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland was a co-founder, in 1843, with his brother Daniel of Macmillan Publishers. ... Shown within Cambridgeshire Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Bartholomew Price (1818 - 29 December 1898) was an English mathematician and educator. ... Photograph of Lewis Carroll taken by himself, with assistance Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was a British author, mathematician, Anglican clergyman, logician, and amateur photographer. ... Lewis Carroll. ... The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press. ... James Murray may refer to: James Murray, a British military officer and governor of Quebec in the 1700s James Murray, a British military officer and Chief of the Imperial General Staff in the 1900s James Murray, a Scottish lexicographer James Murray, lord of the Isle of Man from... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ...


The greatly enhanced volume of business produced by the Macmillan agency began to put pressure on the Oxford administration. G.W. Kitchin, Secretary of both the School Book Committee and of the Board of Delegates as a whole, had no taste for the routine of office, and in 1868 he stepped down in favour of Bartholomew Price. Price declared that he was not to be the Delegates’ clerk but their executive officer, and all the heads of the various departments, the Printing Works, the Bible Warehouse, the bindery and the Wolvercote paper mill, were to report directly to him. He quickly acquired a reputation for moderation and level-headedness and had a knack for settling debate with a few well-chosen words. Factions had no effect on him, and even Mark Pattison, who was constitutionally disposed to dislike everybody, found him tolerable. The ruin of Godstow Nunnery. ...


The association with Macmillan ended in 1880. This was part of Price’s master plan to end all outside influence, including the Bible partnership, and bring all aspects of the Press’s business more directly under the administration of the Delegates. He cast about for a suitable replacement and soon heard through the Bible trade grapevine that the contract of Henry Frowde, the young assistant to a trader named Mr Stock, was about to expire, and that Frowde was looking for other employment. Stock in fact did business in the name of ‘Henry Frowde’, so by the time Frowde came to the Delegates his name carried valuable goodwill in the Bible trade. Price dropped hints in the right places and on 5 February 1874 Frowde wrote requesting to see him.[7] February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The London Business

Frowde had no doubt that the Press’s business in London could be very largely increased and was appointed on contract with a commission on sales. Seven years later, as Publisher to the University, Frowde was using his own name as an imprint as well as 'Oxford University Press'. This style persisted till recent times, with two kinds of imprints emenating from the Press's London offices. The last man to be known as ‘Publisher to the University’ was John Brown, known to his colleagues as ‘Bruno’.


The distinctions implied by the imprints were subtle but important. Books which were issued by London on commission (paid for by their authors of by some learned body) were styled ‘Henry Frowde’, or ‘Humphrey Milford’ with no mention of OUP, as if the Publisher were issuing them himself, while books that the Publisher issued under the rubric of the University bore the imprint ‘Oxford University Press’. Both these categories were mostly handled by London, while Oxford (in practice the Secretary) looked after the Clarendon Press books. Commission books were intended to be cash cows to fund the London Business’s overheads, since the Press did not lay aside any resources for this purpose. Nevertheless Frowde was especially careful to see that all commission books he published met with the Delegates' approval. This was not an uncommon arrangement for scholarly or antiquarian presses.[8]


Price quickly primed Frowde for the imminent publication jointly with Cambridge University Press of the Revised Version of the Bible, which promised to be a ‘bestseller’ on a scale that would require the employment of all the Press’s resources to keep up with the demand. This was to be a complete retranslation of the text of the Bible from the oldest original Greek and Hebrew versions, superseding the Authorized Version of 1611. Frowde’s agency was set up just in time, for the Revised Version, published on 17 May 1881, sold a million copies before publication and at a breakneck rate thenceforth, though overproduction ultimately made a dent in the profits.[9] A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on a list of top-sellers. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...


Though Frowde was by no means an Oxford man and had no social pretensions of being one, he was a sound businessman who was able to strike the magic balance between caution and enterprise. From quite early on he had ideas of advancing the Press’s overseas trade, at first in Europe and increasingly in America, Canada, India and Africa. He was more or less singlehandedly responsible for setting up the American Branch as well as depots in Edinburgh, Toronto and Melbourne. Frowde dealt with most of the logistics for books carrying the OUP imprint, including handling authors, binding, dispatching, and advertizing, and only editorial work and the printing itself were carried out at or supervised from Oxford.[10] Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Melbournes Yarra River is popular area for walking, jogging, cycling and relaxing on the banks with a picnic Melbourne (pronounced either or [1]) is the second most populous city in Australia with a metropolitan area population of approximately 3. ...


Frowde regularly remitted money back to Oxford, but he privately felt that the business was undercapitalized and would pretty soon become a serious drain on the university's resources unless put on a sound commercial footing. He himself was authorized to invest money up to a limit in the business but was prevented from doing so by family troubles. Hence his interest in overseas sales, for by the 1880s and 1890s there was money to be made in India, while the European book market was in the doldrums. But Frowde’s distance from the Press’s decision-making meant he was incapable of influencing policy unless a Delegate spoke for him. Most of the time Frowde did whatever he could within the mandate given him by the Delegates. In 1905 when applying for a pension he wrote to J.R. Magrath, the then Vice Chancellor, that during the seven years when he had served as manager of the Bible Warehouse the sales of the London Business had averaged about £20,000 and the profits £1,887 per year. By 1905, under his management as Publisher, the sales had risen to upwards of £200,000 per year and the profits in that 29 years of service averaged £8,242 per year. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Conflict Over the Secretaryship

Price, trying in his own way to modernize the Press against the resistance of its own historical inertia, had become overworked and by 1883 was so exhausted as to want to retire. Benjamin Jowett had become Vice Chancellor of the University in 1882. Impatient of the endless committees that would no doubt attend the appointment of a successor to Price, Jowett extracted what could be interpreted as permission from the Delegates and headhunted Philip Lyttelton Gell, a former student acolyte of his, to be the next Secretary to the Delegates. Gell was making a name for himself at the publishing firm of Cassell, Petter and Galpin, a firm regarded as scandalously commercial by the Delegates. Gell himself was a patrician who was unhappy with his work, where he saw himself as catering to the taste of 'one class: the lower middle', and he grasped at the chance of working with the kind of texts and readerships OUP attracted. 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Jowett promised Gell golden opportunities, little of which he actually had the authority to deliver. He timed Gell’s appointment to coincide with both the Long Vacation (from June to September) and the death of Mark Pattison, so potential opposition was prevented from attending the crucial meetings. Jowett knew the primary reason why Gell would attract hostility was that he had never worked for the Press nor been a Delegate, and he had sullied himself in the City with raw commerce. His fears were borne out. Gell immediately proposed a thorough modernising of the Press with a marked lack of tact, and earned himself enduring enemies. Nevertheless he was able to do a lot in tandem with Frowde, and expanded the publishing programmes and the reach of OUP until about 1898. Then his health broke down under the impossible work conditions he was being forced to endure by the Delegates' non-cooperation. The Delegates then served him with a notice of termination of service that violated his contract. However, he was persuaded not to file suit and to go quietly.[11]


The Delegates were not opposed primarily to his initiatives, but to his manner of executing them and his lack of sympathy with the academic way of life. In their view the Press was, and always would be, an association of scholars. Gell's idea of ‘efficiency’ appeared to violate that culture, although subsequently a very similar programme of reform was put into practice from the inside.


The Twentieth Century

Charles Cannan, who had been instrumental in Gell's removal, succeeded Gell in 1900, and Humphrey S. Milford, his younger colleague, effectively succeeded Frowde in 1907. Both were Oxford men who knew the system inside out, and the close collaboration with which they worked was a function of their shared background and worldview. Cannan was known for terrifying silences, and Milford had an uncanny ability, testified to by Amen House employees, to ‘disappear’ in a room rather like a Cheshire cat, from which obscurity he would suddenly address his subordinates and make them jump. Whatever their reasons for their style of working, both Cannan and Milford had a very hardnosed view of what needed to be done, and they proceeded to do it. Indeed Frowde knew within a few weeks of Milford’s entering the London office in [1904] that he would be replaced. Milford, however, always treated Frowde with courtesy, and Frowde remained in an advisory capacity till 1913. Milford rapidly teamed up with J.E. Hodder Williams of Hodder and Stoughton, setting up what was known as the Joint Account for the issue of a wide range of books in education, science, medicine and also fiction. Milford began putting in practice a number of initiatives, including the foundations of most of the Press’s global branches. 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... The Cheshire cat as John Tenniel envisioned it in the 1866 publication The Cheshire Cat is a fictional cat appearing in Lewis Carrolls Alice in Wonderland. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hodder Headline. ...


Development of Overseas Trade

Milford took responsibility for overseas trade almost at once, and by 1906 he was making plans to send a traveller to India and the Far East jointly with Hodder and Stoughton. N. Graydon (first name unknown) was the first such traveller in 1907, and again in 1908 when he represented OUP exclusively in India, the Straits and the Far East. A.H. Cobb replaced him in 1909, and in 1910 Cobb functioned as a travelling manager semi-permanently stationed in India. In 1911 E.V. Rieu went out to East Asia via the Trans-Siberian Railway, had several adventures in China and Russia, then came south to India and spent most of the year meeting educationists and officials all over India. In 1912, he arrived again in Bombay, now known as Mumbai. There he rented an office in the dockside area and set up the first overseas Branch. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Dr. E.V. Rieu— in full Emile Victor Rieu (1887–1972)— is best known for his lucid translations of Homer, as editor of Penguin Classics, and for a modern translation of the Gospels, which evolved from his role as editor of a projected Penguin translation of the Bible. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... MumbaÄ« (Marathi: मुंबई, IPA: ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India and the world, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on the west coast of Maharashtra. ...


In 1914 Europe was plunged into turmoil. The first effects of the war were paper shortages and losses and disturbances in shipping, then quickly a dire lack of hands as the staff were called up and went to serve on the field. Many of the staff including two of the pioneers of the Indian branch were killed in action. Curiously, sales through the years 1914 to 1917 were good and it was only towards the end of the war that conditions really began pinching. 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Rather than bringing relief from shortages the 1920s saw skyrocketing prices of both materials and labour. Paper especially was hard to come by and had to be imported from South America through trading companies. Economies and markets slowly recovered as the 1920s progressed. In 1928 the Press’s imprint read ‘London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leipzig, Toronto, Melbourne, Capetown, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Shanghai’. Not all of these were full-fledged branches: in Leipzig there was a depot run by H. Bohun Beet, and In Canada and Australia there were small, functional depots in the cities and an army of educational representatives penetrating the rural fastnesses to sell the Press’s stock as well as books published by firms whose agencies were held by the Press, very often including fiction and light reading. In India, the Branch depots in Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta were imposing establishments with sizable stock inventories, for the Presidencies themselves were large markets, and the educational representatives there dealt mostly with upcountry trade. The Depression of 1929 dried profits from the Americas to a trickle, and India became 'the one bright spot' in an otherwise dismal picture. Bombay was the nodal point for distribution to the africas and onward sale to Australasia, and people who trained at the three major depots moved later on to pioneer branches in Africa and South East Asia.[12] 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the Federal State (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope Cape Town (Afrikaans, Dutch: Kaapstad; Xhosa: eKapa or SaseKapa), is one of South Africas three capital cities serving as the legislative capital (executive capital and Bloemfontein the judicial capital). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ...


The Press’s experience of World War II was similar to World War I except that Milford was now close to retirement and ‘hated to see the young men go’. The London blitz this time was much more intense and the London Business was shifted temporarily to Oxford. Milford, now extremely unwell and reeling under a series of personal bereavements, was prevailed upon to stay till the end of the war and keep the business going. As before, everything was in short supply, but the U-boat threat made shipping doubly uncertain, and the letterbooks are full of doleful records of consignments lost at sea. Occasionally an author, too, would be reported missing or dead, as well as staff who were now scattered over the battledfields of the globe. DORA, the Defense of the Realm Act required the surrender of all nonessential metal for the manufacture of armaments, and many valuable electrotype plates were melted down by government order. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Conrad von... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage) The Blitz was the sustained bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 16 May 1941. ... The Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) was passed in the United Kingdom on 8th August 1914, during the early weeks of World War I. It gave the government wide-ranging powers during the war period, such as censorship and the power to requisition buildings or land needed for the...


With the end of the war Milford's place was taken by Geoffrey Cumberlege. This period saw consolidation in the face of the breakup of the Empire and the post-war reorganisation of the so-called Commonwealth. In tandem with institutions like the British Council, OUP began to reposition itself in the education market. Ngugi wa Thiongo in his book Moving the Centre: The Struggle for Cultural Freedom records how the Oxford Readers for Africa with their heavily Anglo-centric worldview struck him as a child in Kenya.[13] The Press has evolved since then to be one of the largest players in a globally expanding scholarly and reference book market.


The Indian Branch

When OUP arrived on Indian shores, it was preceded by the immense prestige of the Sacred Books of the East, edited by Friedrich Max Müller, which had at last reached completion in 50 ponderous volumes. While actual purchase of this series was beyond most Indians, libraries usually had a set, generously provided by the government of India, available on open reference shelves, and the books had been widely discussed in the Indian media. Although there had been plenty of criticism of them, the general feeling was that Max Muller had done India a favour by popularising ancient Asian (Persian, Arabic, Indian and Sinic) philosophy in the West.[14] The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental, 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910. ... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Geography of China and geographic region labels China (Traditional Chinese: 中國; Simplified Chinese: 中国; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Gwoyeu Romatzyh: Jonggwo) is a cultural region and ancient civilization in East Asia. ...


This prior reputation was useful, but the Indian Branch was not primarily in Bombay to sell Indological books, which OUP knew from prior experience sold well only in America. It was there to serve the vast educational market created by the rapidly expanding school and college network in British India. In spite of disruptions cause by war, it won a crucial contract to print textbooks for the Central Provinces in 1915 and this helped to stabilise its fortunes in this difficult phase. Rieu could not longer delay his callup and was drafted in 1917, the management now being under his wife Nellie Rieu, a former editor for the Athenaeum ‘with the assistance of her two British babies.’ It was too late to have important electrotype and stereotype plates shipped to India from Oxford, and the Oxford printing house itself was overburdened with government printing orders as the empire’s propaganda machine got to work. At one point non-governmental composition at Oxford was reduced to 32 pages a week. Madhya Pradesh (मध्य प्रदेश) is a state in central India. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Athenaeum can refer to any of: Athenaeum—a rock band from Greensboro, North Carolina—and their eponymous album. ...


By 1919 Rieu was very ill and had to be brought home. He was replaced by Geoffrey Cumberlege and Noel Carrington. Noel was the brother of Dora Carrington, the artist, and even got her to illustrate his Stories Retold edition of Don Quixote for the Indian market. Their father Charles Carrington had been a railway engineer in India in the nineteenth century. Noel Carrington's unpublished memoir of his six years in India is in the Oriental and India Office Collections of the British Library. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Dora de Houghton Carrington (March 29, 1893 – March 11, 1932) was a British painter and decorative artist. ... Don Quixote de la Mancha (now usually spelled Don Quijote by Spanish-speakers; Don Quixote is an archaic spelling) (IPA: ) or El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... The Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) form a significant part of the holdings of the British Library. ... British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ...


By 1915 there were makeshift depots at Madras and Calcutta. In 1920 Noel Carrington went to Calcutta to set up a proper branch. There he became friendly with Edward Thompson who involved him in the abortive scheme to produce the 'Oxford Book of Bengali Verse'. [15] In Madras, there was never a formal branch in the same sense as Bombay and Calcutta, as the management of the depot there seems to have rested in the hands of two local academics. Edward Thompson could refer to several people: Edward Thompson (engineer), Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London and North Eastern Railway in the United Kingdom 1941–1946 Edward Thompson (author) Edward Thompson (actor), film work 1937–1941. ...


East and South East Asia

OUP's interaction with this area was part of their mission to India, since many of their travellers took in East and South East Asia on their way out to or back from India. Graydon on his first trip in 1907 had travelled the 'Straits Settlements' (largely the Federated Malay States and Singapore), China, and Japan, but was not able to do much. In 1909 A. H. Cobb visited teachers and booksellers in Shanghai, and found that the main competition there was cheap books from America, often straight reprints of British books.[16]. The copyright situation at the time, subsequent to the Chace Act of 1891, was such that American publishers could publish such books with impunity although they were considered contraband in all British territories. To secure copyright in both territories publishers had to arrange for simultaneous publication, an endless logistical headache in this age of steamships. Prior publication in any one territory forfeited copyright protection in the other.[17] 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Cobb mandated Henzell & Co. of Shanghai (which seems to have been run by a professor) to represent OUP in that city. [18] The Press had problems with Henzell, who were irregular with correspondence. They also traded with Edward Evans, another Shanghai bookseller. Milford observed, ‘we ought to do much more in China than we are doing’ and authorized Cobb in 1910 to find a replacement for Henzell as their representative to the educational authorities.[19] That replacement was to be Miss M. Verne McNeely, a redoubtable lady who was a member of the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, and also ran a bookshop. She looked after the affairs of the Press very capably and occasionally sent Milford boxes of complimentary cigars. Her association with OUP seems to date from 1910, although she did not have exclusive agency for OUP's books. Bibles were the major item of trade in China, unlike India where educational books topped the lists, even if Oxford's lavishly produced and expensive Bible editions were not very competitive beside cheap American ones. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation. ...


In the 1920s, once the Indian Branch was up and running, it became the custom for staff members going outor returning to take a tour of East and South East Asia. MIlford's nephew R. Christopher Bradby went out in 1928. He returned to Britan just in time, for on 18 October 1931 the Japanese invaded northeast China. Soon the entire country had been overrun. Miss M. Verne McNeely wrote a letter of protest to the League of Nations and one of despair to Milford, who tried to comfort her. [20]


Japan was a much less well-known market to OUP, and a small volume of trade was carried out largely through intermediaries. The Maruzen company was by far the largest customer, and had a special arrangement regarding terms. Other business was routed through H.L. Griffiths, a professional publishers’ representative based in Sannomiya, Kobe. Griffiths travelled for the Press to major Japanese schools and bookshops and took a 10 percent commission. Edmund Blunden had been briefly at the University of Tokyo and put the Press in touch with the University booksellers, Fukumoto Stroin.


One important acquisition did come from Japan, however: A. S. Hornby's Advanced Learner's Dictionary. The Advanced Learners Dictionary by A.S. Hornby started life as the Idiomatic and Syntactic Dictionary, published by Kaitakusha in Japan in 1942. ...


South America

In December of 1909 Cobb returned and rendered his accounts for his Asia trip that year. Cobb then proposed to Milford that the Press join a combination of firms to send commercial travellers around South America, to which Milford in principle agreed. Cobb obtained the services of a man called Steer (first name unknown) to travel through Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and possibly other countries as well, with Cobb to be responsible for Steer. Hodder & Stoughton opted out of this venture, but OUP went ahead and contributed to it.


Steer’s trip was a disaster, and Milford remarked gloomily that it ‘bid fair to be the most costly and least productive on record’ of all traveller’s trips. Steer returned before he had coverd more than half of his itinerary, and on returning failed to have his customs payments refunded, with the result that a hefty sum of £210 was lost to the Press. The Press was obliged to disburse 80 percent of the value of the books he had carried as ‘incidental expenses’, so even if they had got substantial orders they would still have made a loss. Few orders did in fact come out of the trip, and when Steer's box of samples returned, the London office found that they had not been opened further down than the second layer. [21]


Africa

Some trade with East Africa passed through Bombay.


Important Series and Titles

Dictionaries

The Oxford English Dictionary The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ...


The Concise Oxford English Dictionary Concise Oxford English Dictionary (until 2002 officially entitled The Concise Oxford Dictionary, and widely known by the abbrevation COD) is probably the best-known of the smaller Oxford dictionaries. ...


The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography


The Advanced Learner's Dictionary The Advanced Learners Dictionary by A.S. Hornby started life as the Idiomatic and Syntactic Dictionary, published by Kaitakusha in Japan in 1942. ...


Indology

The Religious Books of the Sikhs


Sacred Books of the East The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental, 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910. ...


Rulers of India This is a list of rulers and office-holders of India. ...


The Early History of India


(Greek and Roman) Classics

Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis, also know as the Oxford Classical Texts Oxford Classical Texts, or Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis, is a series of books published by Oxford University Press. ...


Scholarly Journals

OUP has also been a major publisher of academic journals, both in the sciences and the humanities An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ...


It has been noted as one of the first university presses to publish an open access journal (Nucleic Acids Research), and probably the first to introduce Hybrid open access journals. Open access (OA) is the free online availability of digital content. ... Nucleic Acids Research is a biological science journal published by Oxford University Press dedicated to publishing research on nucleic acids. ... A newly popular variation on open access journals is the Hybrid Open Access Journal. ...


OUP's Contribution to Typography and Presswork

Printer to the University Horace Hart. It has lent its name to the Oxford comma. Horace Hart (1840–1916) was an English printer and biographer, best known as the author of Harts Rules for Compositors and Readers, first published in 1893. ...


Clarendon Bursaries

Since 2001, Oxford University Press has financially supported the Clarendon Bursaries, which are graduate scholarships open to Oxford University students liable to pay tuition fees at the overseas rate. About 100 awards are made annually.


Notes

  1. ^ Harry Carter, A History of the Oxford University Press (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975), pp 22-23.
  2. ^ Peter Sutcliffe, The Oxford University Press: An Informal History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978) p. 16
  3. ^ E. Huws Jones, Mrs Humphrey Ward, (London, 1973) quoted in Richard Symonds, Oxford and Empire: The Last Lost Cause? (London & Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1986) p. 10.
  4. ^ Sutcliffe, OUP: An Informal History p. 16
  5. ^ Peter Sutcliffe, An Informal History of the OUP (Oxford: OUP, 1972). p. 24
  6. ^ See for example Simon Winchester, The Surgeon of Crowthorne: A Tale of Murder, Madness, and the Love of Words (London: Viking, 1999).
  7. ^ OUP Archives housed at OUP Headquarters, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, UK. File headed 'Henry Frowde, late publisher'
  8. ^ H.S. Milford was to say that he could only explain the imprints with 'a good half hour's disquisition'. OUP Archives, Milford's Letterbooks Vol. 31 fol. 126, Milford to Sidney Lee, 17 June 1910.
  9. ^ OUP Archives, Delegates' File DUP/C/3/13
  10. ^ See 'Henry Frowde's Letterbooks' in the OUP Archives for details of the day to day running of the London Business.
  11. ^ See chapter two of Rimi B. Chatterjee, Empires of the Mind: A History of the Oxford University Press in India During the Raj (New Delhi: OUP, 2006) for the whole story of Gell's removal.
  12. ^ Milford's Letterbooks
  13. ^ Ngugi wa Thiongo, ‘Imperialism of Language’, in Moving the Centre: The Struggle for Cultural Freedom translated from the Gikuyu by Wangui wa Goro and Ngugi wa Thiong’o (London: Currey, 1993), p. 34.
  14. ^ For an account of the Sacred Books of the East and their handling by OUP, see chapter 7 of Rimi B. Chatterjee, Empires of the Mind: A History of the Oxford University Press in India During the Raj (New Delhi: OUP, 2006).
  15. ^ Rimi B. Chatterjee, 'Canon Without Consensus: Rabindranath Tagore and the "Oxford Book of Bengali Verse"'. Book History 4:303-33.
  16. ^ See Rimi B. Chatterjee, 'Pirates and Philanthropists: British Publishers and Copyright in India, 1880-1935'. In Print Areas 2: Book History in India edited by Swapan Kumar Chakravorty and Abhijit Gupta (New Delhi: Permanent Black, forthcoming in 2007)
  17. ^ See Simon Nowell-Smith, International Copyright Law and the Publisher in the Reign of Queen Victoria: The Lyell Lectures, University of Oxford, 1965-66 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968).
  18. ^ OUP Archives, Milford's Letterbooks Vol. 25 fol. 63, Milford to Professor Henzell, 21 October 1909.
  19. ^ OUP Archives, Milford's Letterbooks Vol. 27 fol. 44, Milford to Henzell, 11 January 1910, and noting.
  20. ^ OUP Archives, Milford's Letterbooks Vol. 141 fol. 623, Milford to McNeely, 19 November 1931.
  21. ^ OUP Archives, Milford's Letterbooks Vol. 27 fol. 215, Milford to Cobb, 21 January 1910.

Bibliography

Please note: Much of this article is based on Chapters 1 and 2 of Rimi B. Chatterjee's Empires of the Mind: A History of the Oxford University Press in India During the Raj (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006). The author has allowed this limited use of her work, but the book itself is of course protected by copyright.


Unpublished sources


OUP archives held at OUP Headquartes, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. File headed ‘Henry Frowde, late Publisher’, H.S. Milford’s Letterbooks, Henry Frowde’s Letterbooks, Secretary’s Letterbooks, File DUP/C/3/13


Noel L. Carrington, ‘Initiation into Publishing’, in ‘Ebb Tide of the Raj’, unpublished memoir in the holdings of the Oriental and India Office Collection, British Library.


Published sources


Harry Carter, A History of the Oxford University Press, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).


Peter Sutcliffe, The Oxford University Press: An Informal History, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978).


Peter Sutcliffe, An Informal History of the OUP (Oxford: OUP, 1972).


See also

Harts Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford is a reference book and style guide first published in 1893. ... The city of Oxford, England, has generated and attracted many authors, especially associated with the University. ...

External links

  • Main OUP website
  • UK and Europe website
  • USA website
  • Australia website
  • OUP India website
  • Pakistan website
  • Oxford Journals website from OUP
  • History of Oxford University Press
  • Blog from OUP-USA
  • Oxford Reference Online
  • Oxford Scholarship Online
  • Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oxford University Press: About Us (1006 words)
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
Oxford University Press had its origins in the information technology revolution of the late fifteenth century, which began with the invention of printing from movable type.
OUP is now one of the largest publishers in the UK, and the largest university press in the world.
Oxford University Press - OUP - UK Official Home Page of Oxford University Press - Oxford Books (152 words)
Oxford University Press - OUP - UK Official Home Page of Oxford University Press - Oxford Books
Humanities, Social Sciences, Law, Science, Medicine, Journals, Music, Oxford World's Classics, Very Short Introductions
English Dictionaries, Bilingual Dictionaries, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Reference, Children's/School Dictionaries and Reference, ELT Dictionaries, AskOxford
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m