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Encyclopedia > Owen Josephus Roberts

Owen Josephus Roberts (May 2, 1875May 17, 1955) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court for fifteen years. He also led the fact-finding commission that investigated the attack on Pearl Harbor. U.S. Supreme Court photograph of Owen Josephus Roberts File links The following pages link to this file: Owen Josephus Roberts Categories: United States government images ... U.S. Supreme Court photograph of Owen Josephus Roberts File links The following pages link to this file: Owen Josephus Roberts Categories: United States government images ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Justices of the United States Supreme Court, other than the Chief Justice, are termed Associate Justices. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines...


He was born in Philadelphia and attended Germantown Academy and the University of Pennsylvania, where he was awarded a law degree in 1895. Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D... Germantown Academy is Americas oldest nonsectarian day school, founded on December 6, 1759 (originally named the Germantown Union School). Germantown Academy (also referred to as GA) is now a K-12 school in the Fort Washington suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, having moved from its original Germantown campus in... The University of Pennsylvania (or Penn[3][4]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...


He first gained notice as an assistant district attorney in Philadelphia. He was appointed by President Harding to investigate oil reserve scandals, known as Teapot Dome Scandals. This led to the prosecution and conviction of Albert B. Fall, the former Secretary of the Interior, for bribe taking. Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the 29th (1921-1923) President of the United States and the sixth President to die in office. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Teapot Dome is the commonly used name applied to the scandal that rocked the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ...


He was appointed to the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover after Hoover's nomination of John J. Parker was defeated by the Senate. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933), was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. ... John Johnston Parker (November 20, 1885 - March 17, 1958) was an American federal judge and an unsuccessful nominee to the United States Supreme Court. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. ...


On the Court, Roberts was a swing vote between those, led by Justices Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and Harlan Fiske Stone, as well as Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who would allow a broader interpretation of the Commerce Clause to allow Congress to pass New Deal legislation that would provide for a more active federal role in the national economy, and the Four Horsemen (Justices James Clark McReynolds, Pierce Butler, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter) who favored a narrower interpretation of the Commerce Clause and believed that the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause protected a strong "liberty of contract." In 1936's United States v. Butler, Roberts sided with the Four Horsemen and wrote an opinion striking down the Agricultural Adjustment Act as beyond Congress's Commerce powers. Roberts switched his position on the constitutionality of the New Deal in late 1936, and the Supreme Court handed down West Coast Hotel v. Parrish in 1937, upholding the constitutionality of minimum wage laws. Subsequently, the Court would vote to uphold all New Deal programs. Since President Roosevelt's plan to appoint several new justices as part of his "Court-packing" plan of 1937 coincided with the Court's favorable decision in Parrish, many people called Roberts's vote in that case the "switch in time that saved nine." Roberts wrote the majority opinion in the landmark case New Negro Alliance v. Sanitary Grocery Co., 303 U.S. 552 (1938), safeguarding a right to boycott and in the struggle by African Americans against discriminatory hiring practices. He also wrote the majority opinion sustaining provisions of the second Agricultural Adjustment Act applied to the marketing of tobacco in Mulford v. Smith, 307 U.S. 38 (1939). Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. ... Justice Benjamin Nathan Cardozo (May 24, 1870–July 9, 1938) was a distinguished American jurist who is remembered not only for his landmark decisions on negligence but also his modesty and philosophy. ... Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as the dean of Columbia Law School, Attorney General of the United States, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and later Chief Justice of the United States. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, empowers the United States Congress To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... This page is about four conservative Supreme Court justices and four contemporary Washington powerbrokers. ... Justice McReynolds, c. ... Pierce Butler (March 17, 1866 – November 16, 1939) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1923 until his death in 1939. ... George Sutherland (March 25, 1862 – July 18, 1942) was an English-born U.S. jurist and political figure. ... Willis Van Devanter (April 17, 1859 - February 8, 1941), associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, January 3, 1911 to June 2, 1937. ... The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and it includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. ... Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ... A contract is a promise or an agreement made of a set of promises. ... In the case United States v. ... The Agricultural Adjustment Act (or AAA) (Public law 73-10 of May 12, 1933) restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... Holding Washingtons minimum wage law for women was a valid regulation of the right to contract freely because of the states special interest in protecting their health and ability to support themselves. ... Court packing is the name given to President Franklin Delano Roosevelts plan to create a judiciary more favorable to his New Deal policies. ... The switch in time that saved nine was the name given by the press to the apparent sudden shift by Justice Owen J. Roberts from the conservative wing of the Supreme Court (represented by the Four Horsemen) to the liberal wing (represented by Three Musketeers) in the case West Coast... Holding It was intended by the Congress that peaceful and orderly dissemination of information by those defined as persons interested in a labor dispute concerning terms and conditions of employment in an industry or a plant or a place of business should be lawful. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or EEOC, is a U.S. federal agency tasked with ending employment discrimination in the United States. ...


Roberts was appointed by Roosevelt to head the commission investigating the attack on Pearl Harbor; his report was published in 1942 and was highly critical of the United States Military. Perhaps influenced by his work on the Pearl Harbor commission, Roberts dissented from the Court's decision upholding internment of Japanese-Americans along the West Coast in 1944's Korematsu v. United States. The Roberts Commission was a presidentially-appointed commission formed in December 1941, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in 1941, to investigate and report the facts relating to the attack. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Holding The exclusion order leading to Japanese American Internment was constitutional Court membership Chief Justice: Harlan Fiske Stone Associate Justices: Owen Josephus Roberts, Hugo Black, Stanley Forman Reed, Felix Frankfurter, William O. Douglas, Frank Murphy, Robert H. Jackson, Wiley Blount Rutledge Case opinions Majority by: Black Joined by: Stone, Reed...


In his later years on the bench, Roberts was the only Justice on the Supreme Court not appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roberts became frustrated with the liberalism of Roosevelt's nominees and their willingness to overturn precedent. He also became embroiled in a personal feud with Justice Hugo Black. Roberts resigned from the Court in 1945; Black refused to sign the customary letter acknowledging Roberts's service on his retirement. FDR redirects here. ... Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ...


He later served as the Dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School. The University of Pennsylvania (or Penn[3][4]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...


He died at his Pennsylvania farm after a four month illness. He was survived by his wife, Elizabeth Caldwell Rogers, and daughter, Elizabeth Hamilton.


His name was adopted as the name of a school district in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. Pottstown is a borough in Montgomery County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...


References

Preceded by:
Edward Terry Sanford
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
June 2, 1930July 31, 1945
Succeeded by:
Harold Hitz Burton
The Hughes Court Seal of the U.S. Supreme Court
June 1930–1932: O.W. Holmes | W. Van Devanter | J.C. McReynolds | L.D. Brandeis | Geo. Sutherland | P. Butler | H.F. Stone | O.J. Roberts
1932–1937: W. Van Devanter | J.C. McReynolds | L.D. Brandeis | Geo. Sutherland | P. Butler | H.F. Stone | O.J. Roberts | B.N. Cardozo
1937–1938: J.C. McReynolds | L.D. Brandeis | Geo. Sutherland | P. Butler | H.F. Stone | O.J. Roberts | B.N. Cardozo | H. Black
1938: J.C. McReynolds | L.D. Brandeis | P. Butler | H.F. Stone | O.J. Roberts | B.N. Cardozo | H. Black | S.F. Reed
1939: J.C. McReynolds | L.D. Brandeis | P. Butler | H.F. Stone | O.J. Roberts | H. Black | S.F. Reed | F. Frankfurter | Wm. O. Douglas
1940–1941: J.C. McReynolds | H.F. Stone | O.J. Roberts | H. Black | S.F. Reed | F. Frankfurter | Wm. O. Douglas | F. Murphy
February-July 1941: H.F. Stone | O.J. Roberts | H. Black | S.F. Reed | F. Frankfurter | Wm. O. Douglas | F. Murphy | (vacancy)
The Stone Court
1941–1942: O.J. Roberts | H. Black | S.F. Reed | F. Frankfurter | Wm. O. Douglas | F. Murphy | J.F. Byrnes | R.H. Jackson
1943–1945: O.J. Roberts | H. Black | S.F. Reed | F. Frankfurter | Wm. O. Douglas | F. Murphy | R.H. Jackson | W.B. Rutledge

  Results from FactBites:
 
Owen J. Roberts - A Short Biography (1064 words)
Roberts was not one to shy away from a difficult task, and his meticulousness and tireless efforts revealed a complex scheme of bribery and favoritism at the highest levels of government.
Roberts' national reputation was solidified during his investigation of the Teapot Dome scandal, and in 1930 he was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Hoover.
Roberts' reputation for conducting a fearless and thorough investigation, gained during his prosecutions in the Teapot Dome scandal, ensured that the commission's conclusions would be accepted in that politically and emotionally charged investigation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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