FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Owen Glendower
Seal of Owain Glyndŵr
Seal of Owain Glyndŵr
The Banner of the Arms of Owain Glyndŵr showing his parentage
The Banner of the Arms of Owain Glyndŵr showing his parentage

Owain Glyndŵr, sometimes anglicised as Owen Glendower (1359–c. 1416) and crowned as Owain IV of Wales, was the last Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales, and was a descendant of the princes of Powys from his father and of Deheubarth from his mother. Image File history File links Owain_Glyndwr_Siegel_1. ... Image File history File links Owain_Glyndwr_Siegel_1. ... Image File history File links Glyndwr. ... Image File history File links Glyndwr. ... To anglicise (or in North American English anglicize) is to adapt a foreign word into the English language, often modifying its form to correspond to standard English French demoiselle, meaning little lady. Another common type of anglicisation is the inclusion of a foreign article as part of a noun (eg. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Events May 30 - The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English and Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... The Kingdom of Powys was one of several kingdoms that ruled a part of modern Wales. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ...


He instigated an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against English rule of Wales. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location relative to the some of the British Isles (other parts of the UK shown on the map are in pink). ...

Contents


Biography

Early Life

Glyndŵr was born in the 1350s to a prosperous landed family in North-East Wales. He was part of the Anglo-Welsh gentry of the Marches (the border between England and Wales). This group moved easily between Welsh and English societies occupying important offices for the Marcher lords while maintaining their position as “uchelwyr” – nobles descended from the pre-conquest royal dynasties – in traditional Welsh society. His father, Gruffydd Fychan II Hereditary Tywysog of Powys Fadog and Lord of Glyndyfrdwy died some time before 1370 leaving his mother Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn of Deheubarth a widow. Owain probably had an elder brother called Madog but he may have died young. The young Owain ap Gruffydd was fostered at the home of Sir David Hanmer. Owain is thought to have been sent to London to study law at the Inns of Court. He probably studied as a legal apprentice for seven years; enough to get a good grasp of the law but not enough to be known as a "Man of Law". He was probably in London to see the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1300s 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s - 1350s - 1360s 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s Years: 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 Events and Trends Categories: 1350s ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... -1... Powys Fadog or Powys Maelor was the northern portion of the former princely realm of Powys which split in two following the death of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys in 1160. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... David Hanmer was an English judge who lived in Wales, and is best-known as the father-in-law of Owain Glyndwr. ... The Inns of Court, in London, are where barristers train and practise. ... Law (a loanword from Old Norse lagu), in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, intended to provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments of/for those who... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... [[Image:DeathWatTylerFull. ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ...


By 1383 he had returned to Wales. He married Sir David's daughter, Margaret, and established himself as the Squire of Sycharth and Glyndyfrdwy. In 1385 enlisted under the Earl of Arundel in Richard II’s Scottish War. In 1387, Owain was in the South East and saw action on the high-seas at the Battle of Cadzand. Then Sir David died and as his executor, Owain returned to Wales to deal with the estate. Furthermore, Arundel fell from power (as Richard II regained power) and was executed in 1388. Sir Gregory Sais’s death three years later further limited his opportunities. Faced with these disappointments he returned to his estates in North Wales. For the next ten years he lived quietly. The bard Iolo Goch ("Red Iolo") visited him throughout the 1390s and wrote a number of odes to Owain. He praises Owain's liberality, and writes of Sycharth "Rare was it there/to see a latch or a lock". Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Sycharth, is the birth place of Owain Glyndwr, site of the Sycharth Castle one of the noblest houses of Wales. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born at Bordeaux and became his fathers heir when his elder brother died in infancy. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Iolo Goch (1320-98), (English Iolo the Red), was a Welsh poet who wrote poems addressed to Owain Glyndwr among others. ... Events and Trends 1392 Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General Yi Seonggye led a coup détat, overthrowing the kingdom of Goryeo and founding the kingdom of Joseon End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan 1394 Expulsion of Jews from France 1395 End of reign of...


The Fall of Richard II and the Welsh Revolt

In the late 1390s, a series of events arrived that began to push Owain towards rebellion. In the last decade of the 14th Century, Richard II had launched a bold plan to consolidate his hold on his kingdom and break the power of the magnates who constantly threatened his authority. As part of this plan, Richard began to shift his power base from the southeast toward the West. He established a new principality around the County of Cheshire and systematically built up his power in Wales. Wales was ruled through a patchwork of semi-autonomous feudal states, bishoprics, shires, and territory under direct Royal rule. Richard eliminated his rivals and took their land or gave it to his favourites. As he did so, he raised an entire class of Welshmen to fill the new posts created in his new fiefdoms. For these men, the final days of the reign of Richard II were full of opportunities. In contrast, to the English magnates, it was a sign that Richard was dangerously out of control. Events and Trends 1392 Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General Yi Seonggye led a coup détat, overthrowing the kingdom of Goryeo and founding the kingdom of Joseon End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan 1394 Expulsion of Jews from France 1395 End of reign of... For the Danish youth organization, see Rebel (Denmark) A rebellion is, in the most general sense, a refusal to accept authority. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... This article is about the English county. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service—usually fealty, military service, or security. ...


In 1399, the exiled Henry Bolingbroke, heir to the Dukedom of Lancaster, returned to reclaim his lands. Henry raised an army and marched to meet the King. Richard hurried back from Ireland to deal with Henry. They met in Wales at Conwy Castle to discuss the restitution of Henry’s lands. Whatever was intended, the meeting ended when Richard was arrested, deposed and imprisoned, first at Chester, then at Pontefract Castle in West Yorkshire. Parliament quickly made Henry regent and then King. Richard died under mysterious circumstances in Pontefract, but his death was not generally known for some time. In Wales, men like Owain were asked for the first time in their life to decide their loyalties. The Welsh were traditionally supporters of Richard, who had succeeded his father as Prince of Wales. With Richard removed the opportunities for advancement for Welshmen were suddenly severely limited. Many Welshmen seem to have been uncertain where this left them. Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolas Eymeric, Spanish theologian and... Henry IV (April 3, 1367 – March 20, 1413) was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence the other name by which he was known, Henry of Bolingbroke. His father, John of Gaunt was the third and oldest surviving son of King Edward III of England, and enjoyed a position of... Conwy Castle - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Conwy Castle (often spelled Conway Castle in English usage, although this is now discouraged) was built in Conwy as part of Edward Is second campaign in North Wales. ... This article is about Chester in England. ... Pontefract Castle in West Yorkshire near to the town of Pontefract, was constructed in approximately 1070 by a knight, Ilbert de Lacy (who is also responsible for the construction of Kirkstall Abbey), on land which had been granted to him by William the Conqueror as a reward for his support... The White Yorkshire rose. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ...


The Dispute With De Grey

The revolt began as an argument with Owain's neighbour. The De Greys of Dyffryn Clwyd were Norman landowners with a reputation for being anti-Welsh. Owain was locked in a long-running land dispute with them. In 1399, he appealed to Parliament to resolve the issues. Reynold de Grey — a good friend of the new King Henry — used his influence to have Owain’s appeal rejected. Furthermore, he deliberately withheld a summons for Owain to join the King’s Scottish campaign. Technically, as a tennant-in-chief to the King, Owain was obliged to provide troops. By not responding to the summons Owain had committed treason. In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ...


The Revolt, 1400-15

On September 16, 1400, Owain acted, and was proclaimed Prince of Wales by a small band of followers. This was a revolutionary statement in itself. Owain’s men quickly spread through North-East Wales. By September 19, the de Grey stronghold of Ruthin was attacked and almost destroyed. Denbigh, Rhuddlan, Flint, Hawarden, and Holt followed quickly afterward. On September 22 the town of Oswestry was so badly damaged by Owain’s raid that it had to be rechartered. By the 24th, Owain was moving south and sacked Welshpool. Simultaneously, the Tudor brothers from Anglesey launched a guerrilla war against the English. The Tudors were a prominent Anglesey family who were closely associated with Richard. Gwilym and Rhys ap Tudor had been captains of archers in Richard’s campaigns in Ireland. They quickly switched allegiance to their cousin, Owain Glyndŵr. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Ruthin (Welsh: Rhuthun), pronounced RITH-in (IPA ), is the county town of Denbighshire in North Wales located at UK National grid reference SJ127584, approx. ... This article is about a town in Wales. ... Rhuddlan is a town in the administrative county of Denbighshire, traditional county of Flintshire, north Wales, lying on the River Clwyd. ... Arms of Flint Flint (Welsh: Y Fflint) is located in Flintshire, north Wales, lying on the estuary of the River Dee. ... Hawarden (pronounced Harden; Welsh: Penarlâg) is a small town in North Wales a few miles from the city of Chester. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... Map sources for Oswestry at grid reference SJ2929 Oswestry (Welsh: Croesoswallt; pop. ... Welshpool (Welsh: Y Trallwng) is a town in eastern-mid Wales, only 4 miles (6 km) from the border with England. ... Anglesey (Welsh: Ynys Môn, pronounced (IPA), roughly unniss mawn), is an island and county at the north western extremity of north Wales. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ...


Henry IV, on his way north to invade Scotland, turned his army around and by September 26 he was in Shrewsbury ready to invade Wales. In a lightning campaign, Henry led his army around North Wales. He was harassed constantly by bad weather and the attacks of Welsh guerrillas. By October 15, he was back in Shrewsbury with little to show for his efforts. September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... Map sources for Shrewsbury at grid reference SJ4912 Porthill Bridge crossing the Severn at Shrewsbury Shrewsburys Old Market Hall and The Square Market Street, behind the Old Market Hall, with the Music Hall on the left Shrewsbury (pronounced either /ˈʃɹuːzbɹiː/ or /ˈʃɹəʊzbɹiː/) is a town of... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ...

Memorial to the slain of the Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen
Memorial to the slain of the Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen

In 1401, the revolt began to spread. The whole of northern and central Wales went over to Owain. Multiple attacks were recorded on English towns, castles, and manors throughout the North. Even in the South in Brecon and Gwent reports began to come in of banditry and lawlessness by groups calling themselves the Plant Owain — the Children of Owain. In May Gwilym and Rhys ap Tudor easily took Conwy castle while the garrison was at church. They were to hold out for more than six months until they negotiated its return for a sizable payment and free passage. Owain also scored his first major victory in the field. In June, at Mynydd Hyddgen in West Wales, Owain and his army of four hundred were camped at the bottom of the Hyddgen valley when fifteen hundred English and Flemish settlers from Pembrokeshire charged down on them. Owain rallied his army and fought back, killing 200 and making prisoners of the rest. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1936 KB) Summary Creator: Lyn Léwis Dafis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1936 KB) Summary Creator: Lyn Léwis Dafis. ... Events The Lollards, a religious sect taught by John Wycliffe, were persecuted for their beliefs. ... Brecon is a historic market town in mid Wales, with a population of roughly 8,000 with around 6,000 in the surrounding area. ... Conwy (formerly anglicised as Conway) is a town in Conwy county borough, north Wales, UK, which faces the resort of Llandudno across the Conwy Estuary. ...


The situation was sufficiently serious for the King to assemble another punitive expedition. This time he attacked through central Wales. From Shrewsbury and Hereford, Henry IV’s forces drove through Powys toward the Abbey of Strata Florida. The Cistercian house was known to be sympathetic towards Owain and Henry intended to remind them of their loyalties and prevent the revolt from spreading any further south. After terrible weather and constant harassment by the Plant Owain he reached Strata Florida. Henry was in no mode to be merciful. After a two-day drinking session, he partially destroyed the Abbey and executed monks suspected of pro-Owain loyalties. However, he failed to engage Owain’s forces in any large numbers. Plant Owain harassed him and engaged in hit-and-run tactics on his supply chain but refused to fight in the open. Henry was forced to retreat. As he did so the weather turned. The army was nearly washed away in floods and Henry almost died when his tent was blown down. Wet, starving, and dejected, they returned to Hereford with nothing to claim for their efforts. Hereford Cathedral Hereford (pronounced hÄ›r-É™-füd or hÄ›r-i-füd) Welsh: Henffordd (pronounced Henforth) is a city in the west of England, close to the border with Wales and on the River Wye. ... Powys is an administrative county in Wales, over 2000 sq. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... The remains of Strata Florida Abbey as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book Strata Florida (in Welsh: Ystrad Fflur) is a former Cistercian abbey situated just outside Pontrhydfendigaid, near Tregaron in the county of Ceredigion, Wales. ...


The English saw that if the revolt prospered it would inevitably attract disaffected supporters of the deposed King. They were concerned about the potential for disaffection in Cheshire and were increasingly worried about the complaints of the military governor of North Wales, Henry "Hotspur" Percy. The legendary warrior–son of the powerful Earl of Northumberland–complained that he was not receiving sufficient support from the King and that the repressive policy of Henry was only encouraging revolt. He argued that negotiation and compromise could persuade Owain to end his revolt. In fact, as early as 1401, Hotspur may have been in secret negotiations with Owain and other leaders of the revolt to attempt to negotiate a settlement. The core Lancastrian supporters would have none of this. They struck back with anti-Welsh legislation designed to establish English dominance in Wales. The laws actually codified common practices that had been at work in Wales and along the Marches for many years. However, they sent a message to many of those who were wavering that the English viewed all the Welsh with equal suspicion. Many Welshmen who had tried to further their careers in English service now felt pushed into the rebellion as the middle ground between Owain and Henry disappeared. A carving of Henry Hotspur Percy Sir Henry Percy, also called Harry Hotspur (May 20, 1364/1366 – July 21, 1403) was the eldest son of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Lord Percy of Alnwick. ... The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerages of England and Great Britain. ...


In the same year, Owain captured his arch enemy, Reynald de Grey in an ambush at Ruthin. He was to hold him for a year until he received a substantial ransom from Henry. In June Owain’s forces encountered an army led by Sir Edmund Mortimer, the uncle of the Lord of the March, at Bryn Glas in central Wales. Mortimer's army was badly defeated and Mortimer was captured. It is reported that the Welsh women following Owain’s army killed the wounded English and mutilated the bodies of the dead, supposedly in revenge for plundering and rape by the English the previous year. Glyndwr offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom but, in sharp contrast to his attitude to de Grey, Henry IV refused to pay. In response, Sir Edmund negotiated an alliance with Owain and married one of Owain’s daughters, Catrin. The name Edmund Mortimer was held by several members of the powerful Marcher family of Mortimer, including Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March and his grandson Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, however, the best-known of the Edmund Mortimers was the second son of the 3rd Earl: Edmund Mortimer... Combatants Welsh English Commanders Owain Glyndwr Sir Edmund Mortimer Strength approx 5000 approx 8000 Casualties unknown army destroyed The Battle of Bryn Glas (sometimes referred to in English accounts as the Battle of Pilleth) was fought on June 22, 1402, near Presteigne in Herefordshire. ...


It is also in 1402 that mentions of the French and Bretons helping Owain were first heard. The French were certainly hoping to use Wales as they had used Scotland as a base from which to fight the English. French privateers began to attack English ships in the Irish Sea and provide weapons to the Welsh. French and Breton freebooters were also active in Owain’s attacks. Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Traditional coat of arms This article is about the historical duchy and French province, as well as the cultural area of Brittany. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ...


1403 marks the year when the revolt became truly national. Owain struck out to the West and the South. Recreating Llywelyn the Great's campaign in the West, Owain marched down the Tywi Valley. Village after village rose to join him. English manors and castles fell or their inhabitants surrendered. Finally, Carmarthen, one of the main English power-bases in the West, fell and was occupied by Owain. Owain then turned around and attacked Glamorgan and Gwent. The castle at Abergavenny in Gwent was attacked and burnt. Owain pushed on down to the coast and took Cardiff and Newport. Royal officials report that Welsh students at Oxford were leaving their studies for Owain and Welsh labourers and craftsmen were abandoning their employers and returning to Wales in droves. Owain could also draw on the seasoned troops from the English campaigns in France. Hundreds of Welsh archers and men-at-arms left English service to join the rebellion. Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Glamorgan or Morgannwg is a maritime traditional county of Wales, UK, and was previously a medieval kingdom or principality. ... This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. ... The Norman Keep, Cardiff Castle Aerial view of the Millennium Stadium The Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff Bay The Cardiff Indoor Market Cardiff (Welsh: Caerdydd) is the capital and largest city of Wales. ... Newport (Welsh: Casnewydd) is the third largest city in Wales (after Cardiff and Swansea). ...


In the North, Owain’s supporters launched a second attack on Caernarfon Castle (this time with French support) and almost captured it. In response, Henry of Monmouth (the son of Henry IV and the future King Henry V) attacked and burned Owain's homes at Glyndyfrdwy and Sycharth. The situation became much worse – Hotspur defected to Owain. Raising his standard of revolt in Cheshire – a bastion of support for Richard II – he challenged his cousin Henry’s right to the throne. His young protégé, Henry of Monmouth, then only 16, turned to the North to meet Hotspur. On July 21, Henry arrived in Shrewsbury just before Hotspur forcing the rebel army to camp outside the town. Henry forced the battle before the Earl of Northumberland had managed to reach Shrewsbury. Thus, Henry was able to fight before the full strength of the rebels was present and on ground of his own choosing. The battle lasted all day. When the cry went out that Hotspur had fallen, the rebels' resistance began to falter and crumble. By the end of the day, Hotspur’s rebellion was over. Over 300 knights had died and up to 20,000 men were killed or injured. The ward of Caernarfon Castle, showing (from left to right) the Black Tower, the Chamberlains Tower, and the Eagle Tower. ... Henry V, (August 9 or September 16, 1387 – August 31, 1422), King of England (1413-1422), son of Henry IV by Mary de Bohun, was born at Monmouth, Wales, in August or September 1386 or 1387. ... Henry V, (August 9 or September 16, 1387 – August 31, 1422), King of England (1413-1422), son of Henry IV by Mary de Bohun, was born at Monmouth, Wales, in August or September 1386 or 1387. ... Sycharth, is the birth place of Owain Glyndwr, site of the Sycharth Castle one of the noblest houses of Wales. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... The Battle of Shrewsbury was fought on July 21, 1403. ...


In 1404, Owain captured and garrisoned the great western castles of Harlech and Aberystwyth. Anxious to demonstrate his seriousness as a ruler, he held court at Harlech and appointed the devious and brilliant Gruffydd Yonge as his chancellor. Soon afterwards he called his first Parliament (or more properly a "Cynulliad" or "gathering") of all Wales at Machynlleth where he was crowned Owain IV of Wales and announced his national programme. He declared his vision of an independent Welsh state with a parliament and separate Welsh church. There would be two national universities (one in the South and one in the North) and return to the traditional law of Hywel Dda. Senior Churchmen and important members of society flowed to his banner. English resistance was reduced to a few isolated castles, walled towns, and fortified manors. Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... The main gatehouse of Harlech Castle. ... Aberystwyth Castle is a castle in Aberystwyth, Wales. ... Machynlleth is a town in the traditional county of Montgomeryshire, north Powys in Wales. ... // History Because of the above definition, the oldest universities in the world were all European, as the awarding of academic degrees was not a custom of older institutions of learning in Asia and Africa. ... Howell the Good (880?–950; Welsh: Hywel Dda or Hywel ap Cadell) is listed amongst the kings of Gwynedd. ...


Owain demonstrated his new status by negotiating the "Tripartite Indenture" with Edmund Mortimer and the Earl of Northumberland. The Indenture agreed to divide England and Wales between them. Wales would extend as far as the rivers Severn and Mersey including most of Cheshire, Shropshire, and Herefordshire. The Mortimer Lords of March would take all of southern and western England and Thomas Percy, the Earl of Northumberland, would take the north of England. Most historians have dismissed the Indenture as a flight of fantasy. However, it must be remembered that in early 1404 things still looked positive for Owain. Local English communities in Shropshire, Herefordshire and Montgomeryshire had ceased active resistance and were making their own treaties with the rebels. It was rumoured that old allies of Richard II were sending money and arms to the Welsh and the Cistercians and Franciscans were funneling funds to support the rebellion. Furthermore, the Percy rebellion was still viable; even after the defeat of the Percy Archbishop Scope in May. In fact the Percy rebellion was not to end until 1408 when the Sheriff of Yorkshire defeated Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland at Bramham Moor. Thus, far from a flight of fantasy, Owain was capitalizing on the political situation to make the best deal he possibly could. The Severn bridges crossing near the mouth of the River Severn The River Severn (Welsh: Afon Hafren) is the longest British river, at 354 kilometres (219 miles) long; it rises at an altitude of 610 metres on Plynlimon near Llanidloes, in the Cambrian Mountains, Mid Wales, and it passes through... Ferry across the Mersey, June 2005 The River Mersey is a river in the north west of England. ... Shropshire (abbreviated Salop or Shrops) is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in the West Midlands region of England. ... Herefordshire is a traditional and ceremonial county and unitary district in the West Midlands region of England in the United Kingdom. ... Shropshire (abbreviated Salop or Shrops) is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in the West Midlands region of England. ... Herefordshire is a traditional and ceremonial county and unitary district in the West Midlands region of England in the United Kingdom. ... Montgomeryshire (Welsh: Sir Drefaldwyn) is an inland traditional county of Wales. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ...


Things were improving on the international front too. Although negotiations with the Scots and the Lords of Ireland were unsuccessful, Owain had reasons to hope that the French and Bretons might be more welcoming. Quickly Owain dispatched Yonge and his brother-in-law, John Hanmer, to France to negotiate a treaty with the French. The result was a formal treaty that promised French aid to Owain and the Welsh. The immediate effect seems to have been that joint Welsh and Franco-Breton forces attacked and laid siege to Kidwelly Castle. The Welsh could also count on semi-official fraternal aid from their fellow Celts in the then independent Brittany and Scotland. Scots and French privateers were operating around Wales throughout Owain’s war. Scots ships had raided English settlements on the Llyn Peninsula in 1400 and 1401. In 1403 a Breton squadron defeated the English in the Channel and devastated Jersey, Guernsey and Plymouth while the French made a landing on the Isle of Wight. By 1404 they were raiding the coast of England, with Welsh troops on board, setting fire to Dartmouth and devastating the coasts of Devonshire. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Lleyn peninsula also known by its Welsh name of the LlÅ·n extends from north west Wales. ... Plymouth is a city in the South West of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island, south of Southampton off the southern English coast. ... Dartmouth College Other things named Dartmouth include: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Dartmouth Dam is Australias highest dam wall, near Dartmouth, Victoria Dartmouth is the name of a number of places: Dartmouth, Devon, England. ... The inner harbour, Brixham, south Devon, at low tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordering on Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. ...


1405 was the "Year of the French" in Wales. On the continent the French pressed the English as the French army invaded English Aquitaine. Simultaneously, the French landed in force at Milford Haven in West Wales. They had left Brest in July with more than twenty-eight hundred knights and men-at-arms led by Jean de Rieux, the Marshall of France. Unfortunately, they had not been provided with sufficient fresh water and many horses had died. They also brought modern siege equipment. Joined by Owain’s forces they marched inland and took the town of Haverfordwest but failed to take the castle. They then moved on and retook Carmarthen and laid siege to Tenby. What happened next is something of a mystery. The Franco-Welsh force marched across South Wales (according to local tradition) and invaded England. They marched through Herefordshire and into the Midlands. They finally met the English outside Worcester at the ancient British hill fort of Woodbury Hill. The armies viewed each other without any action for eight days. Then, for reasons that have never been clear, both sides withdrew. The Welsh and French withdrew back through Wales into the West. More French were to arrive as the year went on but the high-point of French involvement had passed. By 1406, most French forces had withdrawn after politics shifted in Paris toward the peace party. Even Owain's so-called "Pennal Letter", in which he promised the French King and the Avignon Pope to shift the allegiance of the Welsh Church from Rome to Avignon, produced no effect. Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... Capital Bordeaux Land area¹ 41,309 km² Regional President Alain Rousset (PS) (since 1998) Population  - Jan. ... Milford Haven (Welsh: Aberdaugleddau meaning Mouth of the Two Cleddaus) is a town in Pembrokeshire, Wales. ... Location within France Brest, at the tip of Brittany Brest is a city in the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... For the Boston area punk band see Siege (band). ... Haverfordwest (Welsh: Hwlffordd) is a small market town in south-west Wales. ... Harbour of Tenby in Nov, 2001 Tenby (Welsh: Dinbych-y-Pysgod, fortlet of the fishes) is a town in Pembrokeshire, west Wales, lying on Carmarthen Bay. ... The city of Worcester (pronounced ) is a city and the county town of Worcestershire in England; the river Severn runs through the middle, with the citys large Worcester Cathedral overlooking the river. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... Pennal is a village in north Wales, chiefly known for its historical association with Owain Glyndwr. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,823,807 almost 4,000,000 1... View over the Rhône River to North-East with Mt Ventoux at the rear Palais des papes Square below the Palace of the Popes Paul Vs coat-of-arms on the Palais des papes The Notre Dame des Doms cathedral is located in the heart of Avignon, near...


There were other signs the revolt was encountering problems. Early in the year Owain’s forces suffered defeats at Grosmont and Usk (Pwll Melyn). Although it is very difficult to understand what happened at these two battles, it appears that Henry of Monmouth or possibly Sir John Talbot defeated substantial Welsh raiding parties led by Rhys Gethin (“Swarthy Rhys”) and Owain’s eldest son, Gruffudd. The exact date and order of these battles is subject to dispute. However, they may have resulted in the death of Rhys Gethin and Owain's brother, Tudur, and the capture of Gruffudd. Henry also showed that the English were engaged in more and more desperate tactics. Adam of Usk says that after the battle of Pwll Melyn, Henry had three hundred prisoners beheaded in front of Usk Castle. John ap Hywel, abbot of the Llantarnam Cistercian monastery, was killed during the battle of Usk as he ministered to the dying and wounded on both sides. More serious for the rebellion, English forces landed in Anglesey from Ireland. Over the next year they would gradually push the Welsh back until the resistance in Anglesey formally ended toward the end of 1406. Llantarnam is a suburb of Cwmbran in the county borough of Torfaen, traditional county of Monmouthshire, southern Wales, United Kingdom. ...


At the same time, the English were adopting a different strategy. Rather than focusing on punitive expeditions favoured by Henry IV, the young Henry of Monmouth adopted a strategy of economic blockade. Using the castles that remained in English control he gradually began to retake Wales while cutting off trade and the supply of weapons. By 1407 this strategy was beginning to bear fruit. In March, 1,000 men from all over Flintshire appeared before the Chief Justice of the county and agreed to pay a communal fine for their adherence to Glyndwr. Gradually the same pattern was repeated throughout the country. In July the Earl of Arundel’s north-east lordship submitted. One by one the lordships began to surrender. By midsummer, Owain’s castle at Aberystwyth was under siege. That autumn the castle surrendered. In 1409 it was the turn of Harlech. Last minute desperate envoys were sent to the French for help. There was no response. Gruffudd Yonge was sent to Scotland to attempt to coordinate action but nothing was to come. The castle fell. Edmund Mortimer died in the final battle and Owain’s wife Margaret along with two of his daughters (including Catrin) and three of his Mortimer granddaughters were taken prisoner and incarcerated in the Tower of London. They were all to die in the Tower of London before 1415. Flintshire (Welsh Sir y Fflint) is a county in northern Wales. ... Aberystwyth (from the Welsh Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre and seaport of Ceredigion (Cardiganshire), Mid Wales. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... Harlech is a town and seaside resort in Gwynedd, north Wales, lying on Tremadog Bay. ... The Tower of London, seen from the river, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ...


Owain remained at large but now he was a hunted guerilla leader. The revolt continued to splutter on. In 1409 or 1410, Owain readied his supporters for a last raid deep into Shropshire. Many of his most loyal commanders were present. It may have been a last desperate suicide raid. Whatever was intended, the raid went terribly wrong and many of the leading figures still at large were captured. Rhys Ddu ("Black Rhys") of Cardigan, one of Owain’s most faithful commanders, was captured and taken to London for execution. A chronicle of the time states that Rhys Ddu was: "..laid on a hurdle and so drawn forth to Tyburn through the city and was there hanged and let down again. His head was smitten off and his body quartered and sent to four towns and his head set on London Bridge." Philip Scudamore and Rhys ap Tudur were also beheaded and their heads displayed at Shrewsbury and Chester (no doubt to discourage any further thoughts of rebellion). Events July 15 – Lithuanian forces under the cousins Władysław Jagiełło of Poland and Witowt of Lithuania decisively defeat the forces of the Teutonic Knights, whose power is broken Jan Hus is excommunicated by the Archbishop of Prague. ... It has been suggested that Suicide and culture be merged into this article or section. ... Cardigan could refer to any of the following: the cardigan sweater Cardigan, a town in Wales Cardiganshire, a Welsh county Cardigan, an electoral district in Canada the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, a breed of dog Lord Cardigan, charge of the Light Brigade The Cardigans, a Swedish pop group This is a... Map sources for Shrewsbury at grid reference SJ4912 Porthill Bridge crossing the Severn at Shrewsbury Shrewsburys Old Market Hall and The Square Market Street, behind the Old Market Hall, with the Music Hall on the left Shrewsbury (pronounced either /ˈʃɹuːzbɹiː/ or /ˈʃɹəʊzbɹiː/) is a town of... Chester is the county town of Cheshire in North West England. ...


In 1412, Owain captured and later ransomed a leading Welsh supporter of Henry’s, Dafydd Gam ("Crooked David"), in an ambush in Brecon. These were the last flashes of the revolt. This was the last time that Owain was seen alive. As late at 1414, there were rumors that the Lollard leader, Sir John Oldcastle, was communicating with Owain and reinforcements were sent to the major castles in the North and South. Outlaws and bandits left over from the rebellion were still active in Snowdonia. Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan. ... Dafydd ap Llewelyn Davie/Davy Gam was a Welshman of princely line who at the battle of Agincourt (q. ... Events Council of Constance begins. ... Sir John Oldcastle (d. ...


But by then things were changing. Henry IV died in 1413 and his son began to adopt a conciliatory attitude to the Welsh. Pardons were offered to the major leaders of the revolt and other opponents of his father's regime. In a symbolic gesture, the body of Richard II was interred in Westminster Abbey. In 1415 Henry offered a pardon to Owain as he prepared for war with France. There is evidence that Henry was in negotiations with Owain’s son, Maredudd ab Owain Glyndŵr, but nothing was to come of it. In 1416 Maredudd was offered a pardon but refused. Perhaps his father was still alive and he was unwilling to accept the pardon while he lived. He finally accepted a pardon in 1421, suggesting that Owain was dead. // Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. ... Richard II may refer to: King Richard II of England Richard II, a play by William Shakespeare about the king Richard II of Normandy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Abbeys western facade The Collegiate Church of St John, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral, in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Events May 30 - The Catholic Church burns Jerome of Prague as a heretic. ... Events March 21 - Battle of Beaugé. A small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ...


The Death of Owain

Nothing is known of Owain after 1412. Despite enormous rewards offered he was never captured. Tradition has that he either died and was buried at his estate in Sycharth or on the estates of his daughters' husbands — Kentchurch in Herefordshire or Monnington. Owain’s daughter, Alys, had married Sir Henry Scudamore, the Sheriff of Herefordshire. Somehow he had weathered the war and remained in office. It was rumoured that Owain finally retreated to their home at Kentchurch. In his book "The Mystery of Jack of Kent and the Fate of Owain Glyndŵr", Alex Gibon argues that the folk hero Jack of Kent – the family chaplain of the Scudamore family – was Owain Glyndŵr. Gibbon points out a number of similarities between Kent and Glyndŵr (including physical appearance) and claims that Owain spent his last years living with Alys passing himself off as an aging Franciscan friar. Sycharth, is the birth place of Owain Glyndwr, site of the Sycharth Castle one of the noblest houses of Wales. ... Herefordshire is a traditional and ceremonial county and unitary district in the West Midlands region of England in the United Kingdom. ...


The Aftermath

By 1415, peace could be said to have returned to Wales. The leading rebels were dead, imprisoned, or impoverished through massive fines. Scarcely a parish or family in Wales, English or Welsh, had not been affected in some way. The cost in loss of life, physical destruction, and ruined lives was enormous. Wales, already a poor country, was further impoverished by pillage, economic blockade and communal fines. Reports by travellers talk of ruined castles and abbeys. Grass grew in the market squares of many towns and commerce had almost ground to a halt. Land that had previously been productive was now empty wasteland with no tenants to work the land. As late as 1492, a Royal Official in lowland Glamorgan was still citing the devastation caused by the revolt as the reason why he was unable to deliver promised revenues to the King. 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Glamorgan or Morgannwg is a maritime traditional county of Wales, UK, and was previously a medieval kingdom or principality. ...


Many prominent families were ruined. In 1411, John Hanmer pleaded poverty as a reason why he could not pay the fines imposed on him. The Tudors no longer lorded it over Anglesey and northwest Wales as they had done throughout the late 14th century. The family seemed finished until the third Tudor brother, Maredudd, went to London and established a new destiny for the family. Others eventually surrendered and made peace with the new order. The redoubtable Henry Dwn who with the French and Bretons had laid siege to Kidwelly Castle in 1403 and 1404 made his peace and accepted a fine. Somehow he avoided paying a penny. For many years after his surrender and despite official proscriptions, he sheltered rebels on the run, levied fines on 200 individuals that had not supported him, rode around the county with his retinue, and even plotted the murder of the King’s justice. Nevertheless, his grandson fought with Henry V in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourt. Others could not fit into the new order. An unknown number of Owain’s supporters went into exile. Henry Gwyn ("White Henry") - heir to the substantial Lordship of Llansteffan - left Wales forever and was to die in the service of the King of France facing his old comrades at Agincourt. Gruffydd Yonge was another permanent exile. By 1415 he was in Paris. He was to live another 20 years being first Bishop of Ross in Scotland and later Bishop of Hippo in North Africa. Events Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Leopold IV, Regent of Tyrol and Further Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, Timurid ruler in Transoxiana (born 1384) Hasdai Crescas, Jewish philosopher and halakhist (born c. ... Anglesey (Welsh: Ynys Môn, pronounced (IPA), roughly unniss mawn), is an island and county at the north western extremity of north Wales. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... A variety of coins considered to be lower-value, including an Irish 2p piece and many US pennies. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Combatants Kingdom of England France Commanders Henry V of England Jean Le Maingre (Bouccicault), Charles dAlbret Strength 6,000-9,000 troops 25,000-50,000 troops Casualties 100-500 5,000-8,000 with over 1,000 prisoners The Battle of Agincourt was fought on 25 October 1415... Llansteffan is a village in Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Categories: Stub | Traditional Counties of Scotland | History of Scotland ... ... North Africa is a region generally considered to include: Algeria Egypt Libya Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara The Azores, Canary Islands, and Madeira are sometimes considered to be a part of North Africa. ...


Legacy

After Owain's death, there was little resistance to English rule until, in the 16th century, the Tudor dynasty, whilst allowing Welshmen to become more prominent in English society, saw Owain's revolt as a catastrophe for Wales. In "Henry IV" Shakespeare portrays him as wild and exotic; a man ruled by magic and emotion in sharp contrast to the logical and reasonable Hotspur. It was not until the late 19th century that Owain's reputation was to be revived. The "Young Wales" movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism. The discovery of Owain's Great Seal and his letters to the French in the Bibliotheque Nationale helped revise historical images of him as a purely local leader. In the First World War, the Welsh Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, unveiled a statue to him in Cardiff town hall and a postcard showing Owain at the Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen was sold to raise money for wounded Welsh soldiers. Folk memory in Wales had always held him in high regard. Almost every parish has some landmark or story about Owain. He joined the long list of failed resistance to English rule and was remembered as a national hero on a par with King Arthur. Welsh legend states that when Wales is threatned again then he will rise from the his unknown resting place in Wales in order to lead the defence of Wales. Quite like the legend of King Arthur. During the 1980s, a group calling themselves "Meibion Glyndwr" claimed responsibility for the burning of holiday homes in Wales. The creation of the National Assembly for Wales brought him back into the spotlight. In 2000 celebrations were held all over Wales to commemorate the 600th anniversary of the rising. Stamps were issued with his likeness and streets, parks, and public squares were named after him throughout Wales. Owain’s personal standard – the quartered arms of Powys and Deheubarth rampant – began to be seen all over Wales, especially at rugby matches against the English. An energetic campaign exists to make September 16th, the date Owain raised his standard, a national holiday in Wales. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: Tudur) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The new buildings of the library. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister A prime minister may be either: chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the... The Right Honourable David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Norman Keep, Cardiff Castle Aerial view of the Millennium Stadium The Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff Bay The Cardiff Indoor Market Cardiff (Welsh: Caerdydd) is the capital and largest city of Wales. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Great Britain, where he appears as the ideal of kingship in both war and peace. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Argentina-France Rugby Union match Rugby football refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ...


Fiction

Glyndwr is the subject of several historical novels, including:

He is also a character in Shakespeare's Henry IV, part 1. John Cowper Powys (October 8, 1872 - June 17, 1963) was a British (English-Welsh) writer, lecturer, and philosopher. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Edith Mary Pargeter (September 28, 1913 - October 14, 1995) was a prolific British author of works in many categories, especially history and historical fiction, and was also honored for her translations of Czech classics; she is probably best known for her murder mysteries, both historical and modern. ... Malcolm Pryce (born 1960, in Shrewsbury, England) is an English author of noir detective novels, in the style of Raymond Chandler except that the stories are incongruously transferred from the mean streets of Los Angeles to the rainswept streets of an alternate universe version of the Welsh seaside resort and... William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, widely considered the greatest of the histories. ...


Bibliography

  • J.E. Lloyd, Owen Glendower. Although written in 1931, this book is still considered a classic.
  • Rees R. Davies, The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr. Oxford: University Press, 1995. ISBN 0192853368
  • Geoffrey Hodge, Owain Glyn Dwr: The War of Independence in the Welsh Borders, Logaston Press, 1995. ISBN 1873827245

1931 (MCMXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Owen Glendower
  • The Owain Glyndwr Society
  • Two letters of Owain Glyndwr, from Adam of Usk
  • "Glyndwr flag flies at city castle" – BBC News 12 September 2005
  • "Glyndwr's burial mystery 'solved'" – BBC News

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Armoury of St James's (1076 words)
What is certain is that on 16th September 1400 Owen Glendower took up arms along with his eldest son, his brother Gryffyn, and his brother-in-law Philip Hanmer, proclaimed himself Prince of the Welsh, and on the 18th burned Ruthin and for the next three days ravaged the English settlements hard by.
Glendower's revolt was to spread to the whole of Wales and reach its climax in 1405, but at the end of 1401 he still only wanted his rights as a Welsh landowner recognised.
Glendower replied that having in seen the fate of certain earls involved in the rising of early 1400, he dared not submit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m