FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Owain Gwynedd

Owain Gwynedd (in English, "Owen") (c. 1100November 28, 1170), alternatively known by the patronymic "Owain ap Gruffydd", is considered to be the most successful of all the north Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He was known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from another contemporary Owain ap Gruffydd, ruler of part of Powys who was known as Owain Cyfeiliog. Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, a decendant of the senior branch from Rhodri Mawr. Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ... It has been suggested that Icelandic name#Patronymics in other cultures be merged into this article or section. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Powys is an administrative county in Wales, over 2000 sq. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey, by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... Rhodri the Great a. ...

Contents


Early life

Owain's father, Gruffydd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother, Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin. Owain was the second of three sons of Gruffydd and Angharad. Gruffydd ap Cynan (c. ... Gwynedd was one of the kingdoms or principalities of medieval Wales. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Anglesey (Welsh: Ynys Môn, pronounced (IPA), roughly unniss mawn), is an island and county at the north western extremity of north Wales. ...


Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers Cadwallon and later Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with great success. His elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm. Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd (died 1172) was the third son of Gruffydd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd and younger brother of Owain Gwynedd. ... Mediaeval kingdoms of Wales. ... Events Diarmaid Mac Murrough has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned and the abbess raped. ... Gruffydd ap Rhys c. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous people of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted the French name Rollo and swore allegiance to the king of France (Charles the Simple). ... Combatants Welsh forces from Gwynedd and Deheubarth Norman forces from all the South Wales lordships Commanders Owain Gwynedd Robert Fitz Martin (???) Strength Several thousand Several thousand Casualties Said to be light Heavy {{{notes}}} The Battle of Crug Mawr took place in September or October 1136, as part of a struggle... Cardigan could refer to any of the following: the cardigan sweater Cardigan, a town in Wales Cardiganshire, a Welsh county Cardigan, an electoral district in Canada the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, a breed of dog Lord Cardigan, charge of the Light Brigade The Cardigans, a Swedish pop group This is a... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county in Wales. ...


Accession to the throne and early campaigns

On Gruffydd's death in 1137, therefore, Owain inherited a portion of a well-established kingdom, but had to share it with Cadwaladr. In 1143 Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Anarawd ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, and Owain responded by sending his son Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd to strip him of his lands in the north of Ceredigion. Though Owain was later reconciled with Cadwaladr, from 1143, Owain ruled alone over most of north Wales. In 1155 Cadwaladr was driven into exile. Events Louis VII is crowned King of France. ... Events Celestine II is elected pope. ... Anarawd ap Gruffydd (died 1143) was a prince of Deheubarth in south-west Wales. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (died 1170) was the illegitimate son of Owain Gwynedd prince of Gwynedd and an Irishwoman named Pyfog. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county in Wales. ... Events Celestine II is elected pope. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ...


Owain took advantage of the civil war in England between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda to push Gwynedd's boundaries further east than ever before. In 1146 he captured the castle of Mold and about 1150 captured Rhuddlan and encroached on the borders of Powys. The prince of Powys, Madog ap Maredudd, with assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester, gave battle at Coleshill, but Owain was victorious. Stephen (1096 – October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... Empress Maud (1102 – September 10, 1167) is the title by which Matilda – daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. ... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... Mouldy cream cheese Molds, or mould, are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelia and usually produce masses of asexual, or sometimes sexual, spores. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Rhuddlan is a town in the administrative county of Denbighshire, traditional county of Flintshire, north Wales, lying on the River Clwyd. ... Powys is an administrative county in Wales, over 2000 sq. ... Madog ap Maredudd (died 1160) was the last prince of the entire Kingdom of Powys. ...


War with King Henry II

All went well until the accession of King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry invaded Gwynedd in 1157 with the support of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and Owain's brother Cadwaladr. The invasion met with mixed fortunes. King Henry was nearly killed in a skirmish near Basingwerk and the fleet accompanying the invasion made a landing on Anglesey where it was defeated. Owain was however obliged to come to terms with Henry, being obliged to surrender Rhuddlan and other conquests in the east. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Events King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... Anglesey (Welsh: Ynys Môn, pronounced (IPA), roughly unniss mawn), is an island and county at the north western extremity of north Wales. ...


Madog ap Maredudd died in 1160, enabling Owain to regain territory in the east. In 1163 he formed an alliance with Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth to challenge English rule. King Henry again invaded Gwynedd in 1165, but instead of taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, the king's army invaded from Oswestry and took a route over the Berwyn hills. The invasion was met by an alliance of all the Welsh princes, with Owain as the undisputed leader. However there was little fighting, for the Welsh weather came to Owain's assistance as torrential rain forced Henry to retreat in disorder. The infuriated Henry mutilated a number of Welsh hostages, including two of Owain's sons. Events Erik den helige is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... // Events Owain Gwynedd is recognized as ruler of Wales. ... Rhys ap Gruffydd (1132–28 April 1197) was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth (South Wales) from 1155 until his death. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ...


Henry did not invade Gwynedd again and Owain was able to regain his eastern conquests, recapturing Rhuddlan castle in 1167 after a siege of three months. Events Taira no Kiyomori becomes the first samurai to be appointed Daijo Daijin, chief minister of the government of Japan Peter of Blois becomes the tutor of William II of Sicily Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, leads the first Danish synod at Lund Absalon fortifies Copenhagen William Marshal, the greatest knight...


Disputes with the church and succession

The last years of Owain's life were spent in disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over the appointment of a new Bishop of Bangor. When the see became vacant Owain had his nominee, Arthur of Bardsey, elected. The archbishop refused to accept this, so Owain had Arthur consecrated in Ireland. The dispute continued, and the see remained officially vacant until well after Owain's death. He was also put under pressure by the Archbishop and the Pope to put aside his second wife, Cristin, who was his first cousin, this relationship making the marriage invalid under church law. Despite being excommunicated for his defiance, Owain steadfastly refused to put Cristin aside. Owain died in 1170, and despite having been excommunicated was buried in Bangor Cathedral by the local clergy. The annalist writing Brut y Tywysogion recorded his death "after innumerable victories, and unconquered from his youth". Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Saint Thomas Becket (December 21, 1118 – December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170. ... The Bishop of Bangor heads the Church in Wales diocese of Bangor centred upon Bangor Cathedral. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ... Bangor Cathedral from Bangor Mountain Bangor Cathedral is a place of Christian worship situated in Bangor in North Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Brut y Tywysogion (Chronicle of the Princes) is a monastic record of mainly Welsh events, started in 682. ...


He is believed to have commissioned the propaganda text, The Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan an account of his father's life. Following his death, civil war broke out between his sons. Owain was married twice, first to Gwladus ferch Llywarch ap Trahaearn, by whom he had two sons, Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd and Iorwerth Drwyndwn, the father of Llywelyn the Great, then to Cristin, by whom he had three sons including Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd and Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd. He also had a number of illegitimate sons, who by Welsh law had an equal claim on the inheritance if acknowledged by their father. Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd was a prince of part of Gwynedd. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (died 1203) was Prince of Gwynedd from 1170 to 1195. ... Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd (1135(?)-1195), was prince of part of Gwynedd. ... Codified by Hywel Dda (Hywell the Good) in the early 10th century, the laws of the Welsh Princes were significantly more complex than would be found in other ares of Western Europe for centuries. ...


Owain had originally designated Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor. Rhun was Owain's favourite son, and his premature death in 1147 plunged his father into a deep melancholy, from which he was only roused by the news that his forces had captured Mold castle. Owain then designated Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor, but after his death Hywel was first driven to seek refuge in Ireland by Cristin's sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, then killed at the battle of Pentraeth when he returned with an Irish army. Dafydd and Rhodri split Gwynedd between them, but a generation passed before Gwynedd was restored to its former glory under Owain's grandson Llywelyn the Great. Pentraeth is a village on the island of Anglesey (Ynys Môn), north Wales. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ...


According to legend, one of Owain's sons was Prince Madoc, who is popularly supposed to have fled across the Atlantic and colonised America. This article is about the legendary Welsh prince. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Fiction

Owain is a major character in "The summer of the Danes" by Ellis Peters, and also appears in other novels in this writer's Brother Cadfael series. He also appears in "Silver on the Tree," the last book in Susan Cooper's The Dark Is Rising series. Edith Mary Pargeter (September 28, 1913 - October 14, 1995) was a prolific British author of works in many categories, especially history and historical fiction, and was also honored for her translations of Czech classics; she is probably best known for her murder mysteries, both historical and modern. ... Brother Cadfael is the fictional detective in a series of murder mysteries by the late Edith Pargeter writing under the name Ellis Peters. ... Silver on the Tree by Susan Cooper is the fifth and final book in The Dark is Rising Sequence All of the main characters from the other books in the sequence come together in this book, some meeting each other for the first time. ... Susan Cooper (born in Burnham, Buckinghamshire, England, UK in May 1935) is a British author. ... The Dark is Rising is a childrens novel by Susan Cooper. ...


References

  • John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)
  • K.L. Maund (ed) (1996). Gruffudd ap Cynan : a collaborative biography, Boydell Press. ISBN 0-851153895.
Preceded by:
Gruffydd ap Cynan
Prince of Gwynedd
1137–1170
Succeeded by:
Dafydd ap Owain
Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd
Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd

  Results from FactBites:
 
EBK: King Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd (532 words)
Owain was the second son of King Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd and Angharad, the daughter of Owain ab Edwin.
Owain's campaigns in South Wales, however, were largely intended as a diversionary tactic designed to obscure his main objective of territorial consolidation in the North.
Owain, further, made no attempt to break his new-found feudal link with the English when, at the climax of his reign after the general Welsh uprising of 1165, he destroyed the royal strongholds of Tegeingl and re-established the power of Gwynedd along the Dee estuary.
Owain Gwynedd - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1117 words)
Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, a decendant of the senior branch from Rhodri Mawr.
Owain's father, Gruffydd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base.
Owain was married twice, first to Gwladus ferch Llywarch ap Trahaearn, by whom he had two sons, Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd and Iorwerth Drwyndwn, the father of Llywelyn the Great, then to Cristin, by whom he had three sons including Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd and Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m