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Encyclopedia > Ovum
A human ovum
A human ovum
Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum
Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum

An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. The word is derived from Latin, meaning egg or egg cell. Both animals and embryophytes have ova. The term ovule is used for the young ovum of an animal. In some plants, such as algae, it is also called oosphere. File links The following pages link to this file: Ovum Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 1 Categories: Public domain images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Ovum Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 1 Categories: Public domain images ... Image File history File links Acrosome_reaction_diagram. ... Image File history File links Acrosome_reaction_diagram. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... The hand mirror and comb of the Roman Goddess Venus is often used to represent the female sex. ... Gametes, from the ancient Greek γαμετης (spouse), are the specialized germ cells that come together during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In most birds and reptiles, an apple (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... In most birds and reptiles, an apple (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Phyla Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Divisions Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes are the most familiar... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ...

Contents

Material contribution to offspring

The egg is the sole provider of such endosymbiotic organelles, including mitochondria and chloroplasts within the cytoplasm. These cannot be produced with nuclear DNA alone and must be manufactured from DNA within existing organelles of their type (such as mitochondrial DNA) — this is important in Human mitochondrial genetics and can be used to trace maternal and paternal ancestry, especially as plants contain chloroplasts as well. Sperm are often too small to contribute anything physical except DNA and its own mitochondria gets destroyed by the egg. An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... // Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria. ... It has been suggested that Mitochondrial DNA be merged into this article or section. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ...


Ova production

In higher animals, ova are produced by female gonads (sexual glands) called ovaries and all of them are present at birth in mammals, and mature via oogenesis. The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Oogenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell) in the ovarian follicle of the ovary. ...


Human and mammal ova

A sperm cell fusing with an ovum
Enlarge
A sperm cell fusing with an ovum

In the viviparous animals (which include humans and all other placental mammals), the ovum is fertilized inside the female body, and the embryo then develops inside the uterus, receiving nutrition directly from the mother. The ovum is the largest cell in the human body, typically visible to the naked eye without the aid of a microscope or other magnification device. The human ovum measures on average, 145 µm in diameter. Image File history File links Sperm-egg. ... Image File history File links Sperm-egg. ... A viviparous animal is an animal employing vivipary, a method of reproduction in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother from which it gains nourishment, and not from an egg. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the size of a droplet of mist or fog. ...


Ova development in oviparous animals

In the oviparous animals (all birds, most fishes, amphibians and reptiles) the ova develop protective layers and pass through the oviduct to the outside of the body. They are fertilized by male sperm either inside the female body (as in birds), or outside (as in many fishes). After fertilization, an embryo develops, nourished by nutrients contained in the egg. It then hatches from the egg, outside the mother's body. See egg (biology) for a discussion of eggs of oviparous animals. Orders Many - see section below. ... The Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Orders Procolophonia (extinct) Testudines Araeoscelidia (extinct) Avicephala (extinct) Younginiformes (extinct) Sauropterygia Ichthyosauria (extinct) Placodontia (extinct) Nothosauria (extinct) Plesiosauria (extinct) Sphenodontia Squamata Prolacertiformes (extinct) Archosauria Crurotarsi Order Aetosauria Order Phytosauria Order Rauisuchia Order Crocodilia Ornithodira Pterosauria (extinct) Marasuchus (extinct) Dinosauria (extinct) Order Saurischia Order Ornithischia Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals... In oviparous animals (those that lay eggs), the passage from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... The signifier sperm can refer to: (mass noun, from Greek sperma = seed) a substance which consists of spermatozoa and which is a component of semen (mass noun) semen itself (informally, count noun with plural sperm or sperms) a single spermatozoon (= sperm cell) sperma ceti (Latin ceti, genitive of cetus = whale... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In most birds and reptiles, an apple (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ...


The egg cell's cytoplasm and mitochondria (and chloroplasts in plants) are the sole means of the egg being able to reproduce by mitosis and eventually form a blastocyst after fertilisation. Organelles. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... The blastocyst is the structure formed in early mammalian embryogenesis, after the formation of the blastocele, but before implantation. ...


Ovoviviparity

There is an intermediate form, the ovoviviparous animals: the embryo develops within and is nourished by an egg as in the oviparous case, but then it hatches inside the mother's body shortly before birth, or just after the egg leaves the mother's body. Some fish, reptiles and many invertebrates use this technique. Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck to describe any animal without a spinal column. ...


See also

In most birds and reptiles, an apple (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A spermatozoon fertilising an ovum Fertilisation, also spelt fertilization (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy), is fusion of gametes to form a new organism of the same species. ... Insemination is the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female. ... Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes in the females of some animal species that is associated with reproductive fertility. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Respiratory burst is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells. ... The signifier sperm can refer to: (mass noun, from Greek sperma = seed) a substance which consists of spermatozoa and which is a component of semen (mass noun) semen itself (informally, count noun with plural sperm or sperms) a single spermatozoon (= sperm cell) sperma ceti (Latin ceti, genitive of cetus = whale... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

  • The Ovarian Kaleidoscope Database description of 1800 genes involved in ovarian functions

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An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete.
In the viviparous animals (which include humans and all other placental mammals), the ovum is fertilized inside the female body, and the embryo then develops inside the uterus until it is born.
The ovum is the largest cell in the human body, typically visible to the naked eye without the aid of a microscope or other magnification device.
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