FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
(海外華人/海外华人  or  外籍华人)
Total population

39,379,784

Regions with significant populations
Majority populations
Flag of Singapore Singapore 2,684,936 [8]
Flag of Christmas Island Christmas Island, Australia 1,045 [9]
Minority populations
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 7,566,200 [10]
Flag of Thailand Thailand 7,153,240 [11]
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia 7,070,500 [12]
Flag of United States United States 3,376,031 [13]
Flag of Canada Canada 1,612,173 [14]
Flag of Peru Peru 1,300,000 [15]
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 1,263,570 [16]
Flag of Philippines Philippines 1,146,250 [17]
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar 1,101,314 [18]
Flag of Russia Russia 998,000 [19]
Flag of Australia Australia 614,694 [20]
Flag of Japan Japan 519,561 [21]
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia 343,855 [22]
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 296,623 [23]
Flag of France France 230,515 [24]
Flag of India India 189,470 [25]
Flag of Laos Laos 185,765 [26]
Flag of Brazil Brazil 151,649 [27]
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 147,570 [28]
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 144,928 [29]
Flag of South Korea South Korea 137,790[citation needed] [30]
Flag of Panama Panama +100,000
Languages
various
Religions
Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. Small but significant Christian and Muslim minorities.

Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the Greater China region, which includes Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. This includes territories administered by both rival governments; the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). In addition, the ROC had granted residents of Hong Kong and Macau "Overseas Chinese Status" prior to their respective handover to Beijing rule, so the definition may be said to loosely extend to them. People of partial Chinese ancestry may also consider themselves Overseas Chinese. Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Christmas_Island. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Greater China in dark green, and areas with strong Chinese cultural influence in light green Greater China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or simply 大华/大華, is a term referring collectively to both the territories administered by the Peoples Republic of China as well as Hong Kong and Macau, and territories... Motto none Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (formerly and de jure Nanking) Largest city Taipei Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


The term Overseas Chinese is ambiguous as to whether it can refer to any of the ethnic groups that live in China (the broadly defined Zhonghua minzu) or whether it refers specifically to the Han Chinese ethnicity, narrowly defined. Korean minorities from China who are living in South Korea today are often included in calculations of overseas Chinese, because these ethnic Koreans also identify themselves as part of the Chinese nation. In Southeast Asia and particularly in Malaysia and Singapore, the state classifies the Peranakan as Chinese despite partial assimilation into Malay culture. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Koreans in China, also referred to as Chaoxianzu (朝鲜族 in Chinese), are citizens of China who are ethnically Korean. ... This Zhonghua Minzu does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


One study on overseas Chinese defines several criteria for identifying non-Han overseas Chinese: there is evidence of descent from groups living within or originating from China, they still retain their culture, self-identify with Chinese culture or acknowledge Chinese origin, and are not indigenous to their current land. Under this definition, minority overseas Chinese number about 7 million, or about 8.4% of the total overseas population.[1]

Contents

Terminology

The Chinese language has various terms equivalent to the English "Overseas Chinese". Huáqiáo (Simplified:华侨; Traditional:華僑) refers to Chinese residing in countries other than China. Huáyì (Simplified:华裔; Traditional:華裔) refers to ethnic Chinese residing outside of China. [31] Another often-used term is 海外华人 (hǎiwài huárén), a more literal translation of Overseas Chinese; it is often used by the PRC government to refer to people of Chinese ethnicities who live outside the PRC, regardless of citizenship. Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ...


Among Overseas Chinese who are Cantonese or Hokkien (Taiwanese), a commonly-used term is 唐人 (tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese and teng lang in Hokkien. Literally, it means Tang people, a reference to Tang dynasty China. It should be noted that this term is used mostly for its common usage, and not necessarily always as a reference to any relations between the Overseas Chinese people of today and the Tang dynasty. Cantonese people (Traditional Chinese: 廣東人; Simplified Chinese: 广东人; Pinyin: GuÇŽngdōng rén; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1 yan4), broadly speaking, are persons originating from the present-day Guangdong province in southern China. ... Hoklo (Chinese: 福佬人; Pinyin: FúlÇŽo Rén; POJ: Ho̍h-ló-lâng/Hō-ló-lâng) primarily refers to the largest of the four subethnic and ethnic groups in Taiwan. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan...


History

Main article: Chinese Migration

The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas. One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty when Zheng He became the envoy of Ming, he sent people to explore and trade in the South China Sea and Indian Ocean, many of them were Cantonese and Hokkien. Map of Chinese Migration during the 1800s - year 1949. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Pinyin: ; Islamic name: حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371–1433), was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of Eunuch Sanbao to the Western... Filipino name Tagalog: Luzon Sea Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Cantonese people (Traditional Chinese: 廣東人; Simplified Chinese: 广东人; Pinyin: GuÇŽngdōng rén; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1 yan4), broadly speaking, are persons originating from the present-day Guangdong province in southern China. ... Hokkien is a Min nan word corresponding to Standard Mandarin Fujian. It can refer to: Min Nan, a Chinese language/dialect, also called Minnan, Min Nan or Minnanyu (meaning Southern Fujian). ...


Waves of immigration

Often there are different waves of immigration leading to subgroups among overseas Chinese such as the new and old immigrants in Southeast Asia, North America, Oceania, Latin America, South Africa and Russia. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


In the 19th century, the age of colonialism was at its height and the great Chinese Diaspora began. Many colonies lacked a large pool of laborers. Meanwhile, in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong in China, there was a labor surplus due to the relative peace during the Qing dynasty. The Qing Empire was forced to allow its subjects to work overseas under colonial powers. Many Hokkien chose to work in Southeast Asia with their earlier links starting from the Ming era, as did the Cantonese. The city of Taishan in Guangdong province was the source for many of the economic migrants. For the countries in North America and Australia, great numbers of laborers were needed in the dangerous tasks of gold mining and railway construction. With famine widespread in Guangdong, this attracted many Cantonese to work in these countries to improve the living conditions of their relatives. Some overseas Chinese were sold to South America during the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars in the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong. Many people from the New Territories in Hong Kong emigrated to the UK (mainly England) and the Netherlands in the post-war period to earn a better living. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Chinese Migration during the 1800s - year 1949. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Taishan (台山; Mandarin: Táishān; Cantonese: Toisan; Taishanese: Hoisan, Other: Toishan, Toisaan) is a coastal county-level city in Guangdong Province, China. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Punti-Hakka Clan Wars or Hakka-Punti Clan Wars (客家本地宗族戰爭 pinyin: kejia bendi zongzu zhanzheng) refers to battles or conflicts between the Hakka and Punti in Guangdong (廣東), China circa the 1850s, during the reign of the Qing Dynasty (清朝). Hakka literally means guest family, and Punti literally means original land. ... Map of Pearl River Delta (details) The Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) in China occupies the low-lying areas alongside the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl river flows into the South China Sea. ... A major road, Kwong Fuk Road in Tai Po, a town in the New Territories. ...


From the mid-19th century onward, emigration has been directed primarily to western countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the nations of Western Europe; as well as to Peru where they are called tusán, Panama, and to a lesser extent to Mexico. Many of these emigrants who entered western countries were themselves overseas Chinese or were from Taiwan or Hong Kong, particularly from the 1950s to the 1980s, during which the PRC placed severe restrictions on the movement of its citizens. In 1984, Britain agreed to transfer the sovereignty of Hong Kong to the PRC; this triggered another wave of migration to the United Kingdom (mainly England), Australia, Canada, USA, Latin America and other parts of the world. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 further accelerated the migration. The wave calmed after the transfer of sovereignty in 1997. More recent Chinese presences have developed in Europe, where they number nearly a million, and in Russia, they number over 600,000, concentrated in Russia's Far East. Chinese who emigrated to Vietnam beginning in the 18th century are referred to as Hoa. The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... A Chinese Peruvian, also known as Tusán, a loanword of 土生 (tu3sheng1, local born), is a person of Chinese ancestry born in Peru, or who has made Peru his or her adopted homeland. ... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labour activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Hoa (Vietnamese: Viet Hoa, Chu Nom/Chinese character: 華, Mandarin: Yuènán huárén (越南華人), Cantonese: yuet naam wah kiu (越南華僑)) also referred to as either Chinese Vietnamese, Vietnamese Chinese, Sino-Vietnamese, or ethnic Chinese from Vietnam, are a Chinese minority in Vietnam. ...


Occupations

The Chinese in Southeast Asian countries have established themselves in commerce and finance. In North America, Europe and Oceania, occupations are diverse and impossible to generalize; ranging from catering to significant ranks in medicine, the arts, and academia. medicines, see Medication. ... The arts is a broad subdivision of culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ...


Overseas Chinese experience

The Chinese usually identify a person by ethnic origin instead of nationality. As long as the person is of Chinese descent, that person is considered Chinese, and if that person lives outside of China, that person is overseas Chinese. The majority of PRC Chinese do not understand the overseas Chinese experience of being a minority[citation needed], as ethnic Han Chinese comprise approximately 92% of the population. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


Discrimination

Overseas Chinese have sometimes experienced hostility and discrimination (see Sinophobia). Whether such treatment is reasonable, is a frequent point of contention between Overseas Chinese and nativist elements of their host societies. A major point of friction is the often disproportionate economic influence of the Overseas Chinese (who dominate the economies of Southeast Asia), and their tendency to segregate themselves into a subculture. For example, the anti-Chinese Jakarta Riots of May 1998 and Kuala Lumpur Racial Riots of 13 May 1969 seem to have been motivated by these perceptions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ...


Ethnic politics can be found to motivate both sides of the debate. In Malaysia, Overseas Chinese tend to support equal (race-blind) treatment on the expectation that they would do well in the resulting competition for government contracts, university places, etc., whereas many "Bumiputra" ("native sons") Malays oppose this on the grounds that their group needs such protections in order to retain their patrimony. The question of to what extent ethnic Malays, Chinese, or others are "native" to Malaysia is a sensitive political one. It is currently a taboo for Chinese politicians to raise the issue of Bhumiputra protections in parliament, as this would be deemed ethnic incitement.


In Indonesia, ethnic Chinese are not allowed to educate their children in formal Chinese-medium schools. In some cases other cultural markers (such as Chinese calendars) are banned. Chinese-language signs were banned in Indonesia until 2004.


In order to avoid discrimination, some overseas Chinese explicitly identify themselves only by nationality (i.e., the state they are from or resident in).


Many of the overseas Chinese who worked on railways in North America in the 19th century suffered from racial discrimination in Canada and the United States. Although most discriminatory laws have been repealed or are no longer enforced today, both countries had at one time introduced statutes that barred Chinese from entering the country, for the example the Chinese Exclusion Act in the United States or the Canadian Chinese Immigration Act, 1923. The Chinese Exclusion Act may be: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 passed in the United States in 1882 banning Chinese from entering American soil. ... The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923, known in the Chinese-Canadian community as the Chinese Exclusion Act, was an act passed by the federal government of Canada, banning most forms of Chinese immigration to Canada. ...


Assimilation

Hakka people in a wedding in East Timor, 2006
Hakka people in a wedding in East Timor, 2006

Overseas Chinese vary widely as to their degree of assimilation, their interactions with the surrounding communities (see Chinatown), and their relationship with China. In Thailand, overseas Chinese have largely intermarried and assimilated with their compatriots. In Myanmar, the Chinese rarely intermarry (even amongst different Chinese linguistic groups), but have largely adopted the Burmese culture whilst maintaining Chinese culture affinities. Indonesia, and Myanmar were among the countries that do not allow birth names to be registered in foreign languages, including Chinese. But since 2003, Indonesia government allowed overseas Chinese to use their Chinese name or using their Chinese family name on their birth certificate. Image File history File linksMetadata East_Timor_hakka_wedding. ... Image File history File linksMetadata East_Timor_hakka_wedding. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... For other uses, see Chinatown (disambiguation). ...


In Vietnam, Chinese names are transliterated naturally into Vietnamese. For example, 胡锦涛 (pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo) would become "Hồ Cẩm Đào". Very often, there is no distinction between Vietnamese and ethnic Chinese. In western countries, the overseas Chinese generally use romanised versions of their Chinese names, and the use of local first names is also common. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the...


On the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore, overseas Chinese have maintained a distinct communal identity, though the rate and state of being assimilated to the local, in this case a multicultural society, is currently en par with that of other Chinese communities (see Peranakan). In the Philippines, many younger Overseas Chinese are well assimilated, whereas the older ones tend to be considered as 'foreigners'. More recent overseas Chinese immigrants have been despised by many Filipinos due to incidences of some selling illegal drugs, as well as being high profile smugglers. The Chinese have also brought a cultural influence to some other countries such as Vietnam, where many Chinese customs have been adopted by native Vietnamese. A large number of Chinese people stayed in Vietnam and never returned to China.[2] Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay...


Relationship with China

Both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China maintain highly complex relationships with overseas Chinese populations. Both maintain cabinet level ministries to deal with overseas Chinese affairs, and many local governments within the PRC have overseas Chinese bureaus. Both the PRC and ROC have some legislative representation for overseas Chinese. In the case of the PRC, some seats in the National People's Congress are allocated for returned overseas Chinese. In the ROC's Legislative Yuan, there are eight seats allocated for overseas Chinese. These seats are apportioned to the political parties based on their vote totals on Taiwan, and then the parties assign the seats to overseas Chinese party loyalists. Most of these members elected to the Legislative Yuan hold dual citizenship, but must renounce their foreign citizenship (at the American Institute in Taiwan for American citizens) before being sworn in. Motto none Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (formerly and de jure Nanking) Largest city Taipei Official languages Standard Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung Establishment Xinhai Revolution   -  Independence declared October 10, 1911... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) serves as the de facto embassy of the United States in Taiwan. ...


Overseas Chinese have sometimes played an important role in Chinese politics. Most of the funding for the Chinese revolution of 1911 came from overseas Chinese. Combatants Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s, the ROC tended to seek the support of overseas Chinese communities through branches of the Kuomintang based on Sun Yat-sen's use of expatriate Chinese communities to raise money for his revolution. During this period, the People's Republic of China tended to view overseas Chinese with suspicion as possible capitalist infiltrators and tended to value relationships with southeast Asian nations as more important than gaining support of overseas Chinese, and in the Bandung declaration explicitly stated that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Dr Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... The Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. ...


After the Deng Xiaoping reforms, the attitude of the PRC toward overseas Chinese changed dramatically. Rather than being seen with suspicion, they were seen as people which could aid PRC development via their skills and capital. During the 1980s, the PRC actively attempted to court the support of overseas Chinese by among other things, returning properties that were confiscated after the 1949 revolution. More recently PRC policy has attempted to maintain the support of recently emigrated Chinese, who consist largely of Chinese seeking graduate education in the West. Many overseas Chinese are now investing in mainland China providing financial resources, social and cultural networks, contacts and opportunities. Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...


Article 5 of the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China states: Flag of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) The Nationality Law of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó guójí fǎ) regulates citizenship in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...

Any person born abroad whose parents are both Chinese nationals and one of whose parents is a Chinese national shall have Chinese nationality. But a person whose parents are both Chinese nationals and have both settled abroad, or one of whose parents is a Chinese national and has settled abroad, and who has acquired foreign nationality at birth shall not have Chinese nationality.[3]

Current numbers

There are over 40 million overseas Chinese, mostly living in Southeast Asia where they make up a majority of the population of Singapore and significant minority populations in Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam. The overseas populations in those areas arrived between the 16th and 19th centuries mostly from the maritime provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, followed by Hainan. There were incidences of earlier emigration from the 10th to 15th centuries in particular to Malacca and Southeast Asia. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 14 January 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese occupation...


Statistics

Continent/Country Articles about Chinese population Overseas Chinese Population % of local
population
% of Global Overseas
Chinese population
Asia   30,976,784 (2006) 0.8% 78.7%
Thailand Thai Chinese 8.5 million (2006) 14% 11.7%
Indonesia Chinese Indonesian 7.3 million (2003) 3.1% 11.7%
Malaysia Malaysian Chinese, Peranakan 7.0 million (2006)[4] 24.5% 12.1%
Singapore Chinese in Singapore 2.7 million (2005)[5] 75.6% 4.3%
Vietnam Hoa, Ngái, San Diu 2.3 million (2006)[6] 3% 2%-3%
Philippines Chinese Filipino 1.5 million (2004) 2% 2.4%
Myanmar Burmese Chinese, Panthay 1.3 million (2003) 3% 2.1%
India Chinese community in Kolkata 186,461 (2005) 0.02% 0.5%
Japan Chinese in Japan 175,000 (2003) 0.1% 0.3%
Cambodia Chinese Cambodian 150,000 (2003) 1.2% 0.2%
South Korea Ethnic Chinese in Korea 85,000 (2003) 0.2% 0.16%
Brunei Ethnic Chinese in Brunei 56,000 (2006) 15% 0.1%
Laos Laotian Chinese 50,000 (2003) 1% 0.1%
North Korea Ethnic Chinese in Korea 50,000 (2003) 0.2% 0.1%
Israel Chinese in Israel 23,000 0.3% 0.1%
Mongolia Han Chinese in Mongolia 11,323 0.4% 0.03%
Americas   5,920,000 (2005) 0.6% 14.4%
United States Chinese American, American-born Chinese 3 million (2005) 1% 6.8%
Canada Chinese Canadian, Canadian-born Chinese 1.3 million (2004) 3.69% 3.4%
Brazil Chinese Brazilian 360,000 (2006) 0.10% 0.4%
Peru Chinese-Peruvian 250,000 2.08% 0.4%
Panama Demographics section of the Panama article 150,000 5% 0.4%
Argentina Asian Argentine 60,000 0.16% 0.1%
Nicaragua Chinese Nicaraguan 12,000[7] -- --
Jamaica Chinese Jamaican 10,000 (2004) 0.3% 0.02
Cuba Chinese Cuban 500 -- --
Puerto Rico Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico Unknown Unknown Unknown
Europe   1,700,000 (2006) 0.2% 4.1%
Russia Chinese people in Russia, Dungan 680,000 0.5% 1.9%
France Chinese French 300,000 0.5% 0.9%
United Kingdom British Chinese 247,403 (2001)[8] 0.4% 0.7%
Republic of Ireland -- 16,533 (2006)[9] 0.39%
Italy Chinese in Italy 111,712 0.19% 0.2%
Spain Chinese in Spain 99,000 (2006)[10] 0.22% 0.16%
Germany -- 71,639 (2004)[11] 0.1% 0.1%
The Netherlands -- 44,713 (2006)[12] 0.7% 0.1%
Romania Chinese of Romania 2,249 -- --
Oceania   1,000,000(2003) 1.9% 1.7%
Australia Chinese Australian ~700,000(2006)[13] 2.5% 1.3%
New Zealand Chinese New Zealander 147,570 (2006) 2.8% 0.3%
Fiji Chinese in Fiji 6,000 (2000) 0.5% 0.01%
Africa   103,000 (2003) 0.02% 0.3%
South Africa South African Chinese 100,000 (2003) 0.2% 0.3%
Mauritius Sino-Mauritian Unknown Unknown Unknown
Total -- 39,379,784 0.6% 100%

Statistics compiled using local country statistics or best available estimates. Note that the percentages may not add up due to varying census and estimate dates. Image File history File links Circle-contradict. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Thai Chinese is a group of overseas Chinese born in Thailand. ... The Chinese Indonesian (Mandarin: Yin du ni xi ya Huaren (Traditional: 印度尼西亞華人, Simplified: 印度尼西亚华人) Hakka: Thong ngin, Min: Teng lang, Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively) China totok) are citizens or residents of Indonesia of Chinese birth or descent, as a result of centuries of overseas Chinese migration. ... A Malaysian Chinese is an overseas Chinese who is a citizen or long-term resident of Malaysia. ... Peranakan, Baba-Nyonya () and Straits Chinese (; named after the Straits Settlements) are terms used for the descendants of the very early Chinese immigrants to the Nusantara region, including both the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java among other places, who have partially adopted Malay... Chinatown was an enclave for the early Chinese immigrants in Singapore in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Hoa (Vietnamese: Viet Hoa, Chu Nom/Chinese character: 華, Mandarin: Yuènán huárén (越南華人), Cantonese: yuet naam wah kiu (越南華僑)) also referred to as either Chinese Vietnamese, Vietnamese Chinese, Sino-Vietnamese, or ethnic Chinese from Vietnam, are a Chinese minority in Vietnam. ... The Ngái are an ethnic group in Vietnam and other Indochinese countries. ... The San Diu (also known as San Deo, Trai, Trai Dat and Man Quan Coc) are an ethnic group in North Vietnam. ... A Chinese Filipino (Simplified Chinese: 华菲; Traditional Chinese: 華菲; Hanyu Pinyin: HuáfÄ“i; Hokkien: HuÇŽhÅ«i; Cantonese: Waafei; Tagalog/Filipino: Tsinoy (pronounced ʧɪnÉ”j) derived from two words: Tsino (meaning Chinese) and Pinoy (the slang word for Filipino) is a person with Chinese blood born in the Philippines. ... The Burmese Chinese (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MiÇŽndiàn huárén; Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Myanmar (formerly Burma). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Chinese of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in West Bengal, India are a community of immigrants and their descendants that emigrated from China starting in the late 1700s. ... Chinese in Japan, also referred to as kakyou (Japanese: 華僑, literally Chinese sojourners) or zainichi chuugokujin (Japanese: 在日中国人, literally Chinese people resident in Japan), have a history going back for centuries or even millenia. ... Chinese Cambodians are Cambodian citizens of Chinese descent. ... Ethnic Chinese in Korea have existed as a recognizable community for at least 120 years. ... Ethnic Chinese in Brunei form roughly 15% of Bruneis population. ... The Laotian Chinese are an overseas Chinese community who live in Laos. ... Ethnic Chinese in Korea have existed as a recognizable community for at least 120 years. ... The Chinese in Israel are comprised of a few separate groups. ... The Chinese in Mongolia have not been very well-documented. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1], Central America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... An American-born Chinese or ABC is a person born in the United States of Chinese ethnic descent. ... A Chinese Canadian is a person of Chinese descent or origin who was born in or immigrated to Canada. ... A Chinese Canadian is a person of Chinese descent or origin who was born in or immigrated to Canada. ... Chinese Brazilians (Portuguese: sino-brasileiro or chinês-brasileiro) are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Brazil. ... A Chinese Peruvian, also known as tusán, a loanword from 土生 (pinyin: tÇ” shÄ“ng, jyutping: tou2 saang1, local born), is a person of Chinese ancestry born in Peru, or who has made Peru his or her adopted homeland. ... Motto Pro Mundi Beneficio(Latin) For the Benefit of the World Anthem Himno Istmeño Royal anthem Marcha Real Capital Panama City Largest city Panama City Official languages Spanish, English Government Constitutional Democracy  -  President Martín Torrijos Independence  -  from Spain 28 November 1821   -  from Colombia 3 November 1903  Area  -  Total... A small neighborhood grocery store in Buenos Aires owned by Asian Argentines Argentinas Asian population is descended from several waves of Asian immigration that have occurred in the last century. ... Chinese Nicaraguans (Simplified Chinese: 尼加拉瓜华人 Pinyin: ní jiā lā guā huá rén Spanish: Chino-Nicaraguense) are Nicaraguans of Chinese ancestry. ... Chinese Jamaicans refer to the small but nonetheless influential group of Jamaicans with Chinese ancestry. ... A Chinese Cuban (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Cantonese Jyutping: Gu2 Baa1 Waa4 jan4; Spanish: chino-cubano) is a Cuban of Chinese ancestry who was born in or has immigrated to Cuba. ... Chinese immigration to Puerto Rico began in the late 19th Century when the United States passed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Chinese immigrants, such as the one pictured, immigrated to Puerto Rico and South America A Chinese Puerto Rican is a person who was born, or resides, in Puerto... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Chinese people in Russia numbered 34,577 according to the 2002 census. ... Dungan (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Russian: ) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a Muslim people of Chinese origin. ... Chinese French (French: Sino-Français) are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or immigrated to France. ... British Chinese (Trad. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... The Chinese Italian community has grown rapidly in the past ten years. ... Chinese in Spain form the ninth-largest non-European Union foreign community in Spain. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The Chinese (汉族 in Chinese, chinezi in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania, numbering 2249 people according to the 2002 census. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ... Sydneys Chinatown A Chinese Australian is an Australian of Chinese heritage. ... A Chinese New Zealander (Traditional Chinese: 華裔紐西蘭人 Simplified Chinese: 华裔新西兰人) is a New Zealander of Chinese heritage. ... Chinese people and their descendants constitute a small, but influential, community in the multiracial society that makes up modern Fiji. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sino-Mauritian or Chinese Mauritian are overseas Chinese who reside in Mauritius. ...


Top 20 Overseas Chinese populations

Statistics as compiled by the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission of the Republic of China, for 2005 [32].

Country 2005 Population Rank
Indonesia 7,566,200 1
Thailand 7,053,240 2
Malaysia 6,187,400 3
United States 3,376,031 4
Singapore 2,684,900 5
Canada 1,612,173 6
Peru 1,300,000 7
Vietnam 1,263,570 8
Philippines 1,146,250 9
Myanmar 1,101,314 10
Russia 998,000 11
Australia 614,694 12
Japan 519,561 13
Cambodia 343,855 14
United Kingdom 296,623 15
France 230,515 16
India 189,470 17
Laos 185,765 18
Brazil 151,649 19
Netherlands 144,928 20

See also

An Asian Latin American is a Latin American of Asian descent. ... Map of Chinese Migration during the 1800s - year 1949. ... For other uses, see Chinatown (disambiguation). ... Picture of a Cantonese districts Association & Temple in Penang, Malaysia. ... A list of famous people with Chinese ancestry living outside of the Republic of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... Discriminatory laws against Indonesian Chinese are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Indonesian Chinese. ... Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ...

References

  1. ^ . ""A Survey of the Study on Huanqiao-Huaren in PRC (1950-2000) —With Reference to the Study on Ethnic Minority Huanqiao-Huaren"".
  2. ^ . "The Urban History of the Southeast Asian Coastal Cities".
  3. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/english/LivinginChina/184710.htm
  4. ^ US Department of State info on Malaysia [1]
  5. ^ Singapore Statistics [2]
  6. ^ [3]: Source from the US Department of State shows (source linked) that as of 2006 there are 2.3 million Chinese in Vietnam. The 1.3 million figure from 1999 excludes Chinese of other nationalities not included in that census, and Chinese population has also increased dramatically since 1999 due simply to large birth rate.
  7. ^ Rank and statistics of Han Chinese worldwide on joshuaproject.net
  8. ^ "Population of the UK, by ethnic group, 2001" (Note that in UK usage Asian in this context refer to South Asia). Retrieved on 23 June, 2006.
  9. ^ http://beyond2020.cso.ie/Census/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=1842
  10. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Padrón 2006[4].
  11. ^ Federal Statistical Office Germany [5].
  12. ^ Dutch Census Bureau (excludes ethnic Chinese not from China)[6].
  13. ^ 200 Australian Bureau of Statistics [7].

Further reading

  • Pan, Lynn. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, Landmark Books, Singapore, 1998. ISBN 981-4155-90-X
  • Chin, Ung Ho. The Chinese of South East Asia, London: Minority Rights Group, 2000. ISBN 1-897693-28-1

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Overseas Chinese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1732 words)
Overseas Chinese (華僑 in pinyin: huáqiáo, or 華胞 huábāo, or 僑胞 qiáobāo, or 華裔 huáyì) are either ethnic Chinese or people of the Chinese nation (zhonghua minzu) who live outside of China.
The overseas populations in those areas arrived between the 16th and the 19th centuries from mostly the maritime provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, followed by Hainan.
Overseas Chinese vary widely as to their degree of assimilation, their interactions with the surrounding communities (see Chinatown), and their relationship with China.
Burmese Chinese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1471 words)
Although the Chinese officially make up three percent of the population (1,078,000), this is an underestimate because of intermarriage between them and the ethnic Bamar, and because of widespread discrimination against minorities (which compels many to refer to themselves as Bamar).
The Cantonese are commonly thought of as the poorest of the Chinese, the Hakka are stereotypically wealthier, occupying high positions in the economy, and having connections to the government, and the Hokkien are considered to be womanizers, who practise polygamy (although polygamy is rare in modern times).
The tayoke kabya are of Bamar and Chinese heritage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m