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Encyclopedia > Overpopulation
Areas of high population densities, calculated in 1994.
Areas of high population densities, calculated in 1994.

Overpopulation is kanina when an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. In common parlance, the term usually refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x681, 53 KB) Summary Countries of the world by population density, based on 30 March 2006 version of wikipedia:List of countries by population density. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1368x681, 53 KB) Summary Countries of the world by population density, based on 30 March 2006 version of wikipedia:List of countries by population density. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4320x2160, 914 KB) This image shows the number of people per square kilometer around the world in 1994. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4320x2160, 914 KB) This image shows the number of people per square kilometer around the world in 1994. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Overpopulation is not simply a function of the size or density of the population. Overpopulation can be determined using the ratio of population to available sustainable resources. If a given environment has a population of ten, but there is food or drinking water enough for only nine, then that environment is overpopulated; if the population is 100 individuals but there is enough food, shelter, and water for 200 for the indefinite future, then it is not. Overpopulation can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates due to medical advances, from an increase in immigration, a decrease in emigration, or from an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources. It is possible for very sparsely-populated areas to be overpopulated, as the area in question may have a very meager or non-existent capability to sustain human life (e.g. the middle of the Sahara desert or Antarctica). Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ...


The resources to be considered when evaluating whether an ecological niche is overpopulated include clean water, clean air, food, shelter, warmth, and other resources necessary to sustain life. If the quality of human life is addressed as well, there are then additional resources to be considered, such as medical care, employment, money, education, fuel, electricity, proper sewage treatment, waste. Some countries have managed to temporarily increase their carrying capacity by using technologies such as agriculture, desalination, and nuclear power. However most technologies decrease the long-term carrying capacity unless they are designed to be sustainable. Some cornucopians have argued that poverty and famine are caused by bad government and bad economic policies, and that higher population density leads to more specialization and technological innovation, and that this leads to a higher standard of living. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Waste inside a wheelie bin Waste in a bin bag Waste, rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Forests on San Juan Island in Washington. ... A cornucopian is someone who posits that there are few intractable natural limits to growth, and believes the planet can provide a practically limitless abundance of natural resources. ... Specialization, also spelled Specialisation, is an important way to generate propositional knowledge, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity, to specific instances, such as when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor. Specialization is the opposite of generalization. ... Look up Innovation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Overpopulation predictions

In An Essay on the Principle of Population (first published in 1798), Thomas Malthus proposed that while resources tend to grow linearly, population grows exponentially. He argued that, if left unrestricted, human populations continue to grow until they would become too large to be supported by the food grown on available agricultural land, causing starvation which then controls population growth. He noted that this had happened many times previously in human history and estimated that this would occur again by the middle of the 19th century. To avoid this happening, Malthus argued for population control through "moral restraint". While arguably he was right about human history up to his time, he made his prediction for the future exactly at the time the industrial revolution and a similar revolution in agriculture caused a very large increase in available resources. The rise of colonialism meant European countries took food and essential materials from (and so displaced malnutrition and famine onto) poorer countries. His specific predictions for England therefore failed because he used a static analysis, and extrapolated his historical numbers into the future without considering unprecedented factors that could increase the resource base available to rich countries faster than he thought, (for example, the revolutions in agriculture at his time or later the Green Revolution), although he correctly predicted that population growth could decline or reverse with later marriages and "vices" like contraception (see for example, the demographic transition). Malthusian catastrophe, sometimes known as a Malthusian check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian dilemma, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian trap, or Malthusian limit is a return to subsistence-level conditions as a result of agricultural (or, in later formulations, economic) production being eventually outstripped by growth in population[1]. Theories of Malthusian catastrophe are... An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798. ... Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... In mathematics, exponential growth (or geometric growth) occurs when the growth rate of a function is always proportional to the functions current size. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... This article is about the statistical technique. ... In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of constructing new data points outside a discrete set of known data points. ... The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Demographic transition occurs in societies that transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. ...


Malthus noted that human population could double in 25 years with sufficient food. On a global scale, since the industrial revolution, human population growth has been constrained by food production increases as well as increasingly unequal access to food. However, it has been argued that other changes impacting Earth's ability to function as a suitable habitat for human beings, such as global warming, desertification, overfishing, peak oil, soil degradation, deforestation, aquifer depletion and other environmental problems caused by industrialization, will significantly reduce food production or factors necessary for well-being. Given recent population growth, this may cause a Malthusian catastrophe. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... × The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ...


Among the earlier best-known modern examples of such arguments are The Limits to Growth (1972) and The Population Bomb (1968) by Paul R. Ehrlich. These reports have been subjected to criticism. Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ...


Paul Ehrlich "predicted", "The population of the U.S. will shrink from 250 million to about 22.5 million before 1999 because of famine and global warming", though it should be noted that between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%[8], and the source of his quote, a 1969 short story called "Eco-catastrophe" reprinted from "Ramparts" Magazine, was apparently a work of science fiction [9]. Ehrlich also predicted, "Before 1985, mankind will enter a genuine age of scarcity . . . in which the accessible supplies of many key minerals will be facing depletion." [4] According to The Skeptical Environmentalist by Bjørn Lomborg, Ehrlich's predictions did not come true.[10] (See Erlich's answer to his critics and The Ultimate Resource, by Julian Simon, which challenges Ehrlich's ideas.) Interestingly Simon himself once stated "We now have in our hands in our libraries, really the technology to feed, clothe, and supply energy to an ever-growing population for the next 7 billion years... We [are] able to go on increasing forever" (Myers and Simon, 1994, 65). These comments have subjected Simon himself to criticism.[11] The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (Danish: Verdens Sande Tilstand, literal translation: The Real State of the World) is a controversial book by political scientist Bjørn Lomborg, which argues that claims made about global warming, overpopulation, declining energy resources, deforestation, species loss, water shortages, and... Bjørn Lomborg (born January 6, 1965) is an Adjunct Professor at the Copenhagen Business School and a former director of the Environmental Assessment Institute in Copenhagen. ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... The Ultimate Resource is a 1981 book written by Julian Lincoln Simon challenging the notion that humanity was running out of natural resources. ... Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932–February 8, 1998) was professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. ...


David Pimentel claims that population outcomes for the 22nd century range from 2 billion people (characterised as thriving in harmony with the environment), to 12 billion people (characterised as miserable and suffering difficult lives with limited resources and widespread famine).[12]


Julian Simon predicted that any poor country that chose to adopt property rights, science, technology, industrialization, modern agriculture, hydroponic farming, nuclear power, and desalination, would achieve a rich, first world standard of living, even if the Earth had tens of billions of people.[13] However, Simon's predictions about the Earth being able to support quadrillions of people have been criticized by Hardin, Bartlett, Diamond and others; for example, Simon's predictions would lead to a density of ten persons per square foot of planet within 774 years. Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932–February 8, 1998) was professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. ... Garrett Hardin Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was a controversial ecologist from Dallas, Texas who was most known for his 1968 paper, The Tragedy of the commons. ... Albert A. Bartlett is a retired Emeritus Professor of Physics University of Colorado, Boulder, USA. Professor Bartlett has lectured over 1,500 times on Arithmetic, Population, and Energy. He has famously stated that The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ...


Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation.[14] David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (INRAN), place in their study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 200 million. To achieve a sustainable economy and avert disaster, the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third, and world population will have to be reduced by two-thirds, says the study.[15] The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Cornell redirects here. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ...


The authors of this study believe that the mentioned agricultural crisis will only begin to impact us after 2020, and will not become critical until 2050. The oncoming peaking of global oil production (and subsequent decline of production), along with the peak of North American natural gas production will very likely precipitate this agricultural crisis much sooner than expected. Geologist Dale Allen Pfeiffer claims that coming decades could see spiraling food prices without relief and massive starvation on a global level such as never experienced before.[16][17][18] It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Peak oil and Hubbert peak theory, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ...


The book The Little Green Handbook reasons that in 2050 about 7.7 billion people would be expected to suffer from illness, lack of adequate sanitation, hunger, and extreme poverty,[19] provided that the high population estimates of year 2050 are realised.


In his recent book Collapse (2005), Jared Diamond argues that many earlier civilizations have collapsed due to environmental problems, and warns of current environmental problems. However, he also notes many situations in which humans have managed their natural resources well. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed cover Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed is a 2005 English-language book by University of California, Los Angeles geography professor Jared M. Diamond. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ...


Optimistic views on population

In The Skeptical Environmentalist, Bjørn Lomborg argues that, because of the falling rate of population growth in most parts of the world and because of new science and technologies, there is little problem with overpopulation. A rebuttal can be found here[20]. Some of Lomborg's responses to his critics can be found here [21]. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (Danish: Verdens Sande Tilstand, literal translation: The Real State of the World) is a controversial book by political scientist Bjørn Lomborg, which argues that claims made about global warming, overpopulation, declining energy resources, deforestation, species loss, water shortages, and... Bjørn Lomborg (born January 6, 1965) is an Adjunct Professor at the Copenhagen Business School and a former director of the Environmental Assessment Institute in Copenhagen. ...


Similarly, in his 2007 book The Improving State of the World, Indur M. Goklany argues that there is little problem with overpopulation, as humanity's state is rapidly improving overall and environmental problems can be overcome. It proposes that in the early stages of economic and technological development, negative environmental impacts increase because securing access to such necessities as food, shelter, and energy is seen as more important than protecting the environment. As development continues and these supply problems are solved, environmental impact becomes a higher priority, and steps are then taken to reduce it. This pattern can be seen for many environmental indicators, such as air quality, availability of safe water, sanitation, and toxic residues (e.g., DDT and PCBs) in human tissues, which initially declined with increasing development but have more recently improved. The Improving State of the World: Why Were Living Longer, Healthier, More Comfortable Lives On a Cleaner Planet is a 2007 book by Indur M. Goklany. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... “PCB” redirects here. ...


However, far from being the natural outcome of free markets that Goklany postulates, James Surowiecki argues in his review of the book that "The reality ... is that the fight over environmental regulation, at least in the United States, was -- and remains -- a fierce one and that environmental skeptics and businesses have done their best to prevent regulations such as the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts from ever becoming law. It is also the case that without those regulations, the 'cleaner planet' Goklany sees today would not exist.... The point is that far from being the inevitable product of a strong economy, environmental improvement is often the result of political struggles that could very easily have gone the other way." James Surowiecki James Michael Surowiecki (b. ...


Population growth

The demographic transition

The theory of demographic transition, while unproven to apply to all world regions, holds that within a generation after the standard of living and life expectancy increases, family sizes start dropping. Factors cited in the decline of birth rates include such social factors as later ages of marriage, the growing desire of many women in such settings to seek careers outside of child rearing and domestic work, and the decreased need of children in industrialized settings. The latter factor stems from the fact that children perform a great deal of work in small-scale agricultural societies, and work less in industrial ones; it has been cited to explain the dropoff in birth rates worldwide in all industrializing regions. Demographic transition occurs in societies that transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ...


Another version of demographic transition is that of Virginia Abernethy in Population Politics, in which she claims that the demographic transition is primarily in effect for nations where women enjoy a special status (see Fertility-opportunity theory). In strongly patriarchal nations, where she claims women enjoy few special rights, a high standard of living tends to result in population growth. She argues that foreign aid to poor countries must include significant components designed to improve the education, human rights, political rights, political power, and also to equalize the economic and sexual status and power of women. Virginia Abernethy as a keynote speaker at the 2004 National Conference of the Council of Conservative Citizens, along side Jared Taylor, Wayne Lutton, and Paul Fromm. ... Virginia Abernethy as a keynote speaker at the 2004 National Conference of the Council of Conservative Citizens, along side Jared Taylor, Wayne Lutton, and Paul Fromm. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... Feminism is a body of social theory and a political movement primarily based on, and motivated by, the experiences of women. ...


Her theory runs counter to some of the available empirical evidence. For example Iran had a Total Fertility Rate of 1.82 children per couple in 2005, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1 to 2.3 children per couple needed to maintain population. Iran is widely perceived as a patriarchal nation, and yet any population growth that occurred there came not from increased birth rates, but from decreased mortality rates, and therefore not from a lack of reproductive rights. Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


"Demographic entrapment" is a concept developed by Maurice King that has not gained widespread acceptance. King argues that this occurs when a country has a population larger than its carrying capacity, no possibility of migration, and exports too little to be able to import food. This will cause starvation. He claims that for example many sub-Saharan nations are or will become stuck in demographic entrapment, instead of having a demographic transition.[22]


For the world as a whole, the number of children born per woman decreased from 5.02 to 2.65 between 1950 and 2005. Europe 2.66 to 1.41. North America 3.47 to 1.99. Oceania 3.87 to 2.30. Central America 6.38 to 2.66. South America 5.75 to 2.51. Asia (excluding Middle East) 5.85 to 2.43. Middle East & North Africa 6.99 to 3.37. Sub-Saharan Africa 6.7 to 5.53. In 2050, the projected number of children born per woman is 2.05. Only the Middle East & North Africa (2.09) and Sub-Saharan Africa (2.61) will then have numbers greater than 2.[23] Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south...


A comparison of fertility rates in Italy and Sweden[24] suggest Italy is alleviating overpopulation more than Sweden due primarily to greater gender inequality and fewer social services, similar findings from the same source relate to Japan, Russia and Estonia. First and second world effects of social services and gender equality on overpopulation appear to be the opposite of those found in the third world.


Population projections from the 1900's to 2050

United Nation's population projections by location.
United Nation's population projections by location.

The United Nations states that: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • Almost all growth will take place in the less developed regions, where today’s 5.3 billion population of underdeveloped countries is expected to increase to 7.8 billion in 2050. By contrast, the population of the more developed regions will remain mostly unchanged, at 1.2 billion. The world's population is expected to rise by 40% to 9.1 billion.
  • World population is currently growing by approximately 75 million people per year. Net growth by mid-century is predicted by the United Nations to be 34 million per year in contrast to the roughly 76 million per year that was seen from 2000 to 2005.
  • In 2000-2005, fertility at the world level stood at 2.65 children per woman, about half the level it had in 1950-1955 (5 children per woman). In the medium variant, global fertility is projected to decline further to 2.05 children per woman.
  • During 2005-2050, nine countries are expected to account for half of the world’s projected population increase: India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Bangladesh, Uganda, United States of America, Ethiopia, and China, listed according to the size of their contribution to population growth.
  • Global life expectancy at birth, which is estimated to have risen from 46 years in 1950-1955 to 65 years in 2000-2005, is expected to keep rising to reach 75 years in 2045-2050. In the more developed regions, the projected increase is from 75 years today to 82 years by mid-century. Among the least developed countries, where life expectancy today is just under 50 years, it is expected to be 66 years in 2045-2050.
  • The population of 51 countries or areas, including Germany, Italy, Japan and most of the successor States of the former Soviet Union, is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005.
  • During 2005-2050, the net number of international migrants to more developed regions is projected to be 98 million. Because deaths are projected to exceed births in the more developed regions by 73 million during 2005-2050, population growth in those regions will largely be due to international migration.
  • In 2000-2005, net migration in 28 countries either prevented population decline or doubled at least the contribution of natural increase (births minus deaths) to population growth. These countries include Austria, Canada, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Qatar, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, United Arab Emirates and United Kingdom. [25]
  • The updated United Nations figures project that the world population will reach 9.2 billion around 2050[26][27]. This is the medium variant figure which assumes a decrease in average fertility from the present level of 2.5 down to 2.
  • Birth rates are now falling in many developing countries, while the actual populations in many developed countries would fall without immigration.[28]
  • By 2050 (Medium variant), India will have almost 1.7 billion people, China 1.4 billion, United States 400 million, Indonesia 297 million, Pakistan 292 million, Nigeria 289 million, Bangladesh 254 million, Brazil 254 million, Democratic Republic of the Congo 187 million, Ethiopia 183 million, Philippines 141 million, Mexico 132 million, Egypt 121 million, Vietnam 120 million, Russia 108 million, Japan 103 million, Iran 100 million, Turkey 99 million, Uganda 93 million, Tanzania 85 million, and Kenya 85 million.
  • 1900
    • Africa - 133 million
    • Asia - 946 million
    • Europe - 408 million
    • Latin America & Caribbean - 74 million
    • Northern America - 82 million
  • 2050
    • Africa - 1.9 billion
    • Asia - 5.2 billion
    • Europe - 664 million
    • Latin America & Caribbean - 769 million
    • Northern America - 445 million

[29] Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Population decline is the reduction over time in a regions census. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ...


Birth control

Overpopulation is also related to issues of birth control, with some nations like China using strict measures in order to reduce birth rates, while religious and ideological opposition to birth control has been cited as a factor contributing to overpopulation and poverty.[30] For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ...


There are an estimated 350 million women in the poorest countries of the world who either did not want their last child, do not want another child or want to space their pregnancies, but they lack access to information, affordable means and services to determine the size and spacing of their families. In the developing world, some 514,000 women die of complications from pregnancy and abortion on a yearly basis. Additionally, 8 million infants die, many because of malnutrition or preventable diseases.[31] For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ...


On November 16, 2006 George W. Bush announced that the next Deputy Assistant Secretary for Population Affairs will be Dr. Eric Keroack. The U.S. Office of Population Affairs advises the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary for Health on reproductive health issues, including adolescent pregnancy, family planning, and sterilization, as well as other population issues. Keroack, an anti-abortion, anti-birth control obstetrician/gynecologist, was the medical director of A Woman's Concern, a Christian Crisis Pregnancy Center (CPC) in Massachusetts. After controversy he resigned from his appointment in Population Affairs. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Dr. Eric J. Keroack is an American non-board certified obstetrician-gynecologist. ... Oral contraceptives. ... ...


Resources

David Pimentel[32], Professor Emeritus at Cornell University, has stated that "With the imbalance growing between population numbers and vital life sustaining resources, humans must actively conserve cropland, freshwater, energy, and biological resources. There is a need to develop renewable energy resources. Humans everywhere must understand that rapid population growth damages the Earth’s resources and diminishes human well being"[33][34]. Cornell redirects here. ...


Some writers such as Julian Simon and Bjorn Lomborg and many of a conservative Libertarian persuasion, on the other hand, believe that resources abound for a furtherance of population growth. And population scientists have agreed with their assessments that there are indeed more resources left that would enable continued population growth. However, they warn, this will be at a high cost to the Earth - and thus to us, "the technological optimists are probably correct in claiming that overall world food production can be increased substantially over the next few decades ... [however] the environmental cost of what Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich describe as 'turning the Earth into a giant human feedlot' could be severe. A large expansion of agriculture to provide growing populations with improved diets is likely to lead to further deforestation, loss of species, soil erosion, and pollution from pesticides and fertilizer runoff as farming intensifies and new land is brought into production"[35]. Since we are intimately dependent upon the living systems of the Earth[36][37][38], scientists have questioned the wisdom of further expansion. See the Environment section below.[39] Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932–February 8, 1998) was professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. ... Bjørn Lomborg Bjørn Lomborg (born January 6, 1965) is a political scientist and former director of the Institute for Environmental Assessment in Copenhagen, Denmark. ...


According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a four-year research effort by 1,360 of the world’s leading scientists commissioned to measure the actual value of natural resources to humans and the world, "The structure of the world’s ecosystems changed more rapidly in the second half of the twentieth century than at any time in recorded human history, and virtually all of Earth’s ecosystems have now been significantly transformed through human actions"[40]. "Ecosystem services, particularly food production, timber and fisheries, are important for employment and economic activity. Intensive use of ecosystems often produces the greatest short-term advantage, but excessive and unsustainable use can lead to losses in the long term. A country could cut its forests and deplete its fisheries, and this would show only as a positive gain to GDP, despite the loss of capital assets. If the full economic value of ecosystems were taken into account in decision-making, their degradation could be significantly slowed down or even reversed"[41][42]. The MA blames habitat loss and fragmentation for the continuing disappearance of species. A conceptual outline for the program The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) is a research program that focuses on ecosystem changes over the course of decades, and projecting those changes into the future. ...


Another study by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) called the Global Environment Outlook[5] which involved 1,400 scientists and took five years to prepare comes to similar conclusions. It "found that human consumption had far outstripped available resources. Each person on Earth now requires a third more land to supply his or her needs than the planet can supply". It faults a failure to "respond to or recognise the magnitude of the challenges facing the people and the environment of the planet... 'The systematic destruction of the Earth's natural and nature-based resources has reached a point where the economic viability of economies is being challenged - and where the bill we hand to our children may prove impossible to pay'... The report's authors say its objective is 'not to present a dark and gloomy scenario, but an urgent call to action'. It warns that tackling the problems may affect the vested interests of powerful groups, and that the environment must be moved to the core of decision-making... 'Personally, I think this could be one of the most important races that humanity will ever run'" says Joseph Alcamo, one of the report's authors [6]. Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Additionally, other issues involving quality of life - would most people want to live in a world of billions more people - and the basic right of other species to exist in their native environments come into play. The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ...


Food

Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. Food per person increased during the 1961-2005 period.

The amounts of natural resources in this context are not necessarily fixed, and their distribution is not necessarily a zero-sum game. For example, due to the green revolution and the fact that more and more land is appropriated each year from wild lands for agricultural purposes, the worldwide production of food has steadily increased faster than population growth. World food production per person was considerably higher in 2005 than 1961.[43] Image File history File links Food_production_per_capita_1961-2005. ... Image File history File links Food_production_per_capita_1961-2005. ... Zero-sum describes a situation in which a participants gain (or loss) is exactly balanced by the losses (or gains) of the other participant(s). ... The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ...


As world population doubled from 3 billion to 6 billion, daily calorie consumption in poor countries increased form 1,932 to 2,650, and the percentage of people in those countries who were malnourished fell from 45% to 18%. This suggests that third world poverty and famine are caused by underdevelopment, not overpopulation.[44] However others question this kind of statistic[45].


According to a 2004 article from the BBC, China, the world's most populous country, is suffering from an obesity epidemic.[46] More recent data indicate China's grain production peaked in the mid 1990s, due to overextraction of groundwater in the North China plain. Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ...


Worldwide, the number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are malnourished. In a 2006 news story, MSNBC reported, "There are an estimated 800 million undernourished people and more than a billion considered overweight worldwide."[47] For the news website, see msnbc. ...


Water deficits, which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries, may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India.[48] The water tables are falling in scores of countries (including Northern China, the US, and India) due to widespread overpumping using powerful diesel and electric pumps. Other countries affected include Pakistan, Iran, and Mexico. This will eventually lead to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Even with the overpumping of its aquifers, China is developing a grain deficit. When this happens, it will almost certainly drive grain prices upward. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be added worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. Unless population growth can be slowed quickly by investing heavily in female literacy and family planning services, there may not be a humane solution to the emerging world water shortage.[49] Desalination is a real world, humane, and effective solution to the problem of water shortages.[50][51] The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, or permeable mixtures of unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) (see also groundwater). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... This article is about the ability to read and write. ... Oral contraceptives. ... Water shortage may refer either to natural or social topics, or both: Drought Water crisis Category: ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


After China and India, there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits — Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, and Pakistan. Four of these already import a large share of their grain. Only Pakistan remains self-sufficient. But with a population expanding by 4 million a year, it will also likely soon turn to the world market for grain.[52]


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states in its report The State of Food insecurity in the World 2006, that while the number of undernourished people in the developing countries has declined by about three million, a smaller percentage of the populations of developing countries is undernourished today compared with 1990 – 92: 17 percent against 20 percent. Furthermore, FAO’s projections suggest that the proportion of hungry people in developing countries in 2015 could be about half of what it was in 1990 – 92: a drop from 20 to 10 percent. The FAO also states "We have emphasized first and foremost that reducing hunger is no longer a question of means in the hands of the global community. The world is richer today than it was ten years ago. There is more food available and still more could be produced without excessive upward pressure on prices. The knowledge and resources to reduce hunger are there. What is lacking is sufficient political will to mobilize those resources to the benefit of the hungry." [7]PDF The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...


Hunger and malnutrition kill nearly 6 million children a year, and more people are malnourished in sub-Saharan Africa this decade than in the 1990s, according to a report released by the Food and Agriculture Organization Tuesday. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of malnourished people grew to 203.5 million people in 2000-02 from 170.4 million 10 years earlier says The State of Food Insecurity in the World report. Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ...


According to the BBC, the famine in Zimbabwe was caused by government seizure of farmland.[53] However drought has also played a major role[54]. "Well, the United Nations statistics are saying that thirteen-million people are threatened by famine, in light of the drought in southern Africa. Six-million of them live in Zimbabwe. So that is a contingent of fully half of those potentially threatened by the current food shortages, if indeed they get worse, as is projected"[55]. Prior to this combination of drought and seizure of farmland, Zimbabwe had been exporting so much food that it was called "the breadbasket of southern Africa." So other countries were also harmed by these farm seizures.[56] People who study the Zimbabwean famine claim that normally there are more than enough natural resources to feed the people.[57][58][59]. Some claim that the dams and rivers in Zimbabwe are full, and that the famine has nothing to do with drought[60]. And though it's undoubtedly true that bad governance has exacerbated the famine, still notes the article, "Four weeks without rain at the critical germination phase has led to the failure of [the villagers] small crops. There will be no harvest again until next June."


Prior to President Robert Mugabe's seizure of the farmland in Zimbabwe, the farmers had been using irrigation to deal with drought, but during the seizures of the farmland, much of the irrigation equipment was either vandalized or looted.[61][62] A 2006 BBC article about Mugabe's seizure of farmland states, "Critics say the reforms have devastated the economy and led to massive hunger. Much of the formerly white-owned land is no longer being productively used - either because the beneficiaries have no experience of farming or they lack finance and tools. Many farms were wrecked when they were invaded by government supporters."[63]


Zimbabwe only has 33 people per square kilometer. Meanwhile, Israel has a whopping 302 people per square kilometer.[64] Although Israel is a desert country with frequent drought and very high population density, it does not have famine. One possible reason why Israel does not have famine is because its government respects the property rights of farmers, and encourages them to use modern agriculture and irrigation to grow huge amounts of food.[65][66]


Mauritius is the most densely populated country in Africa. It's 10 times more densely populated than most other African countries, though at a total population of just 1,230,602 it sits at 46 out of 54 of Africa's nations for actual population numbers. However, Mauritius does not have famine. On the contrary, it's a rich country with a first world standard of living. The reason that Mauritius is doing so well is because it has strong protection of property rights, and because it uses science, technology, industrialization, and modernization.[67]


According to a 2007 article form the BBC, scientists at Columbia University have theorized that in the future, densely populated cities such as New York City may use vertical farming to grow food on each floor of 30 story skyscrapers. [68] Vertical farming is a conceptual form of agriculture done in urban high-rises. ...


Population as a function of food availability

Thinkers such as David Pimentel,[69] a professor from Cornell University, Virginia Abernethy,[70] Alan Thornhill,[71] Russell Hopffenberg[72] and author Daniel Quinn[73] propose that like any animals, human populations predictably grow and shrink according to their available food supply – populations grow in an abundance of food, and shrink in times of scarcity. The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Virginia Abernethy as a keynote speaker at the 2004 National Conference of the Council of Conservative Citizens, along side Jared Taylor, Wayne Lutton, and Paul Fromm. ... For other uses, see Daniel Quinn (disambiguation). ...


Proponents of this theory argue that every time food production is increased, the population grows. Some human populations throughout history support this theory. Populations of hunter-gatherers fluctuate in accordance with the amount of available food. Population increased after the Neolithic Revolution and an increased food supply. This was followed by subsequent population growth after subsequent agricultural revolutions. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... In the Earths history there have been a number of agricultural revolutions. ...


Critics of this idea point out that birth rates are lowest in the developed nations, which also has the highest access to food. In fact, some developed countries have both a diminishing population and an abundant food supply. The United Nations projects that the population of 51 countries or areas, including Germany, Italy, Japan and most of the successor states of the former Soviet Union, is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005.[74] This shows that human populations do not always grow to match the available food supply; also, many of these countries are major exporters of food. A developed country is a country that is technologically advanced and that enjoys a relatively high standard of living. ...


However as Daniel Quinn points out in his book "The Story Of B": "When our population system is assessed as a whole, on a global scale, rather than country by country, there is no doubt whatever that, as a whole, our population is increasing catastrophically, so that studies conducted by international groups like the United Nations predict without reservation that there will be twelve billion of us here in forty years or so." However, a more recent report from the U.N. predicts that world population will reach 9.2 billion in the year 2050.[75]


Fresh water

Despite advances in agriculture, the fresh water supplies that it depends on are running low worldwide. [76][77] Some argue[weasel words] that this water crisis is only expected to worsen as the population increases. Lester R. Brown of the Earth Policy Institute argues that declining water supplies could well have future disastrous consequences for agriculture.[78] For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Lester Russell Brown (born 1934) is an environmental analyst who has written several books on global environmental issues. ... Earth Policy Institute is an environmental organization based in Washington DC in the United States. ...


However, the amount of freshwater is not necessarily limited to what is currently available in nature. Malta derives two thirds of its freshwater from desalination of salt water. This is an energy intensive process. One possible solution is large expansion of nuclear powered desalination plants. Such plants already exist.[79] Some argue that there are billions of years of nuclear fuel available.[80] Critics point to the high costs of desalination technologies, especially for poor third world countries, the impracticability and cost of transporting or piping massive amounts of desalinated seawater throughout the interiors of large countries, and the "lethal byproduct of saline brine that is a major cause of marine pollution when dumped back into the oceans at high temperatures"[81]. Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Salt water may refer to: Saline water, water containing dissolved salts Brine, water saturated or nearly saturated with salt Brackish water, water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water Seawater, water from a sea or ocean Saline (medicine), a solution of sodium chloride in... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


One study of the costs of desalination and its transport says that "Indeed, one needs to lift the water by 2000 m, or transport it over more than 1600 km to get transport costs equal to the desalination costs.[citation needed]. Desalinated water is expensive in places that are both somewhat far from the sea and somewhat high, such as Riyadh and Harare. In other places, the dominant cost is desalination, not transport. This leads to relatively low costs in places like Beijing, Bangkok, Zaragoza, Phoenix, and, of course, coastal cities like Tripoli." Still, the study, while generally positive about the technology for affluent areas that are proximate to oceans, concludes that "Desalinated water may be a solution for some water-stress regions, but not for places that are poor, deep in the interior of a continent, or at high elevation. Unfortunately, that includes some of the places with biggest water problems" [8]PDF. “PDF” redirects here. ...


Israel is now desalinating water for a cost of 53 cents per cubic meter.[82] Singapore is desalinating water at a cost of 49 cents per cubic meter.[83]


Newer agricultural technologies do not always require more water usage; for example hydroponics and green houses require less. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ...


Land

World Resources Institute states that "Agricultural conversion to croplands and managed pastures has affected some 3.3 billion [hectares] — roughly 26 percent of the land area. All totaled, agriculture has displaced one-third of temperate and tropical forests and one-quarter of natural grasslands".[84][85] Energy development may also require large areas, like for hydroelectric dams. Usable land may become less useful through salinization or desertification. Global warming may cause flooding of many of the most productive agricultural areas. Thus, available useful land may become a limiting factor. Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... A Hydroelectric Dam converts a River into a Large Reservoir and transforms the potential energy of the river into Electrical Power. ... Soil salination results from the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it leads to degradation of soils and vegetation. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ...


High crop yield vegetables like potatoes and lettuce do not waste space with inedible plant parts, like stalks, husks, vines, and inedible leaves. New varieties of selectively bred and hybrid plants have larger edible parts (fruit, vegetable, grain) and smaller inedible parts; however, many of the gains of agricultural technology are now historic, with new advances being more difficult to achieve. With new technologies, it is possible to grow crops on some marginal land under certain conditions. Aquaculture could theoretically increase available area. Hydroponics and food from bacteria and fungi, like Quorn, may allow the growing of food without having to consider land quality, climate, or even available sunlight, although such a process may be very energy-intensive. In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is a measure of the yield per unit area of land under cultivation. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... For other uses, see Quorn (disambiguation). ...


Some claim that not all arable land will remain productive if used for agriculture, as they argue that some marginal land can only be made to produce food by unsustainable practices like slash-and-burn agriculture. Even with the modern techniques of agriculture, the sustainability of production is in question. Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ...


Some scientists have said that in the future, densely populated cities will use vertical farming to grow food inside skyscrapers.[86] Vertical farming is a conceptual form of agriculture done in urban high-rises. ...


Some countries, such as Dubai have constructed large artificial islands, or have created large dam and dike systems, like the Netherlands, which reclaim land from the water to increase their total land area.[87] Coordinates: , Emirate Government  - Emir Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ...


Ecological footprint

Some groups (for example, the World Wide Fund for Nature[88][89] and the Global Footprint Network[90]) have stated that the carrying capacity for the human population has been exceeded as measured using the ecological footprint. Critics question the simplifications and statistical methods employed in calculating ecological footprints. Some argue that there is nothing intrinsically negative about using more land to improve living standards.[91][92] On the other hand, proponents would counter that there are many moral dilemmas inherent in geopolitically and temporally inequitable distribution of resources. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ...


Energy

Enthusiasts have also been criticized for failing to account for future shortages in fossil fuels, currently used for fertilizer and transportation for modern agriculture. (See Hubbert peak and Future energy development.) They counter that there will be enough fossil fuels until suitable replacement technologies have been developed, for example hydrogen in a hydrogen economy.[93][94] Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... The Hubbert peak theory, also known as peak oil, is an influential theory concerning the long-term rate of conventional oil (and other fossil fuel) extraction and depletion. ... Future energy development, providing for the worlds future energy needs, currently faces great challenges. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which energy is stored and transported as hydrogen (H2), particularly as an energy carrier for vehicle applications (e. ...


In his 1992 book Earth in the Balance, Al Gore wrote, "... it ought to be possible to establish a coordinated global program to accomplish the strategic goal of completely eliminating the internal combustion engine over, say, a twenty-five-year period..."[95] Plug in electric cars such as the Tesla Roadster suggest that Gore's prediction will come true. The Earth has enough uranium to provide humans with all of their electricity needs until the sun blows up in 5 billion years.[96] Earth in the Balance audio book cover Earth in the Balance (ISBN 0452269350) is a 1992 book written by Al Gore shortly before he was elected Vice President in the 1992 presidential election. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... The Tesla Roadster is the first fully electric automobile to be produced by electric car firm Tesla Motors. ...


There has also been increasing development in renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and tidal energy, which, if used on a wide scale, could supplement most, if not all, of the energy needs currently being filled by non-renewable resources. However, it should be noted that some of these renewable resources also have ecological footprints, though they may be different or smaller than some non-renewable resources.


Fertilizer

Modern agriculture uses large amounts of fertilizer. Since much of this fertilizer is made from petroleum, the problem of peak oil is of concern. According to a 2003 article in Discover magazine, it is possible to use the process of thermal depolymerization to manufacture fertilizer out of garbage, sewage, and agricultural waste[97]. A follow up article from 2006 gave more information[98]. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Discover Magazine is a science magazine that publishes articles about science. ... Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a process for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often known as biomass) into light crude oil. ...


Wealth and poverty

As the world's population has grown, the percentage of the world's population living on less than $1 per day (adjusted for inflation) has halved in twenty years. The graph shows the 1981-2001 period.
As the world's population has grown, the percentage of the world's population living on less than $1 per day (adjusted for inflation) has halved in twenty years. The graph shows the 1981-2001 period.

The United Nations indicates that about 850 million people are malnourished or starving,[99] and 1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.[100] Thus some argue that the Earth may support 6 billion people, but only on the condition that many live in misery. Others posit that poverty was worse in the past when the population was smaller, and that worldwide poverty is declining as the population grows. The percentage of the world's population living on less than $1 per day has halved in twenty years; these are inflation adjusted numbers.[101] Furthermore, a 2007 article from Investor's Business Daily suggests that the population explosion has been accompanied by an increase in worldwide living standards. The article states, "On a per-person basis, real average incomes have more than tripled since 1950 worldwide. And in once-poor areas with the greatest trade liberalization — like East Asia — growth has been even greater, soaring 5,675% from 1950 to 2003."[102]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (733x655, 22 KB) Summary Chart showing the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day 1981-2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (733x655, 22 KB) Summary Chart showing the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day 1981-2001. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


However states the UN Human Development Report from 1997 "During the last 15-20 years, more than 100 developing countries, and several East European countries, have suffered from disastrous growth failures. The reductions in standard of living have been deeper and more long-lasting than what was seen in the industrialised countries during the depression in the 1930´es. As a result, the income for more than one billion people has fallen below the level that was reached 10, 20 or 30 years ago." How do some massage the numbers to come up with a rosy picture for the third world? Says Pimm and Harvey "Lomborg’s great optimism about humanity’s future shows up in the way he presents statistics. In sub-Saharan Africa, 'starving people' constituted '38 percent in 1970 … [but only] '33 percent … in 1996. [The percentage is] expected to fall even further to 30 percent in 2010.' The absolute numbers of starving are curiously missing from these paragraphs. Roughly, the region’s population doubled between 1970 and 1996. To keep the numbers of starving constant, the percentage would have had to have dropped by more than half."[103]. In other words, the percentages Lomborg presents would indeed be impressive in an environment with no population growth, but in one wherein the population has doubled the absolute numbers has actually risen dramatically[104][105].


North Korea and South Korea have similar population densities and natural resources. But whereas North Korea is a poor, third world country suffering from terrible famine, South Korea is a rich, first world country where the people are well fed. This suggests that it is bad economic polices, not overpopulation, that causes famine. Various Indices of Economic Freedom suggest that countries with a strong level of economic freedom never have famine, no matter how high their population densities become.[106] The annual surveys Economic Freedom of the World and Index of Economic Freedom are two indices which attempt to measure the degree of economic freedom, using a definition for this similar to laissez-faire capitalism, in the worlds nations. ...


Clean air

Once a country has industrialized and become wealthy, a combination of government regulation and technological innovation may cause air pollution to decline substantially, even as its population continues to grow. For example, in the United States between 1970 and 2006, the population increased by 42%, inflation adjusted GNP grew by 195%, the number of automobiles more than doubled, and the total number of miles driven increased by 178%. However, according to the Environmental Protection Agency, during that same time period, there were substantial reductions in total annual emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulates, and lead.[107] EPA redirects here. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Nitrogen has six different oxides: Nitric oxide (NO) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) The term nitrogen oxide is imprecise and can be used to refer to any of these or to a mixture of them. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... This article is about the metal. ...


Environment

Overpopulation has had a major impact on the environment of Earth starting at least as early as the 20th century.[108] Many posit that the human population has expanded, enabled by over-exploiting natural resources, with resultant adverse impacts upon biodiversity, aquifer sustainability, climate change and even human health. There are also indirect economic consequences of this environmental degradation in the form of ecosystem services attrition.[109] Beyond the scientifically verifiable harm to the environment, some argue the moral right of other species to simply exist, protected from human exploitation. Says environmental author Jeremy Rifkin, "our burgeoning population and urban way of life have been purchased at the expense of vast ecosystems and habitats. ... It's no accident that as we celebrate the urbanization of the world, we are quickly approaching another historic watershed: the disappearance of the wild."[110] Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. ...


These reflect the comments also of the United States Geological Survey in their paper The Future of Planet Earth: Scientific Challenges in the Coming Century. "As the global population continues to grow...people will place greater and greater demands on the resources of our planet, including mineral and energy resources, open space, water, and plant and animal resources". InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ...


Says Peter Raven, former President of AAAS (the American Association for the Advancement of Science) in their seminal work AAAS Atlas of Population & Environment, "Where do we stand in our efforts to achieve a sustainable world? Clearly, the past half century has been a traumatic one, as the collective impact of human numbers, affluence (consumption per individual) and our choices of technology continue to exploit rapidly an increasing proportion of the world's resources at an unsustainable rate. ... During a remarkably short period of time, we have lost a quarter of the world's topsoil and a fifth of its agricultural land, altered the composition of the atmosphere profoundly, and destroyed a major proportion of our forests and other natural habitats without replacing them. Worst of all, we have driven the rate of biological extinction, the permanent loss of species, up several hundred times beyond its historical levels, and are threatened with the loss of a majority of all species by the end of the 21st century". The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ... For other uses, see Atmosphere (disambiguation). ... Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


In Facing the Limits to Growth the authors of the influential 1972 study "Limits to Growth" tell of the difficulty in getting the idea of the necessity of limiting human population growth past "Entrenched political, economic, and religious cliques". And they acknowledge that revision has been necessary, "Because of the long time horizon involved in our studies, we always realized it would require several decades to get any perspective on the accuracy of our forecasts", however, "the basic conclusions are still the same. We have modified our model only a little to reflect some better data about the effects of technology on land yields and birth rates."

Occasionally, however, there arises the potential for catastrophic overshoot [overpopulation]. Growth in the globe's population and material economy confronts humanity with this possibility. It is the focus of this book. The potential consequences of this overshoot are profoundly dangerous. The situation is unique; it confronts humanity with a variety of issues never before experienced by our species on a global scale. We lack the perspectives, the cultural norms, the habits, and the institutions required to cope. And the damage will, in many cases, take centuries or millennia to correct. But the consequences need not be catastrophic. Overshoot can lead to two different outcomes. One is a crash of some kind. Another is a deliberate turnaround, a correction, a careful easing down. We explore these two possibilities as they apply to human society and the planet that supports it. We believe that a correction is possible and that it could lead to a desirable, sustainable, sufficient future for all the world's peoples. We also believe that if a profound correction is not made soon, a crash of some sort is certain. And it will occur within the lifetimes of many who are alive today.[111]

Actual examples can, in fact, be found of the results of human overpopulation. In Collapse How Societies Choose to Fail or SucceedJared Diamond pieces together the data to argue that it was overpopulation that led the now recovering inhabitants of Easter Island (a.k.a. Rapa Nui) to destroy their once beautiful island paradise. Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...

From circa AD 1000 to circa 1650/1700 AD, Rapa Nui's population increased significantly. Some estimate the population reached a high of 10,000 or even 15,000. Moai carving and transport were in full swing from 1400 to 1650, less than 100 years before the first recorded European visitors to the island. By the late nineteenth century the population had fallen to a low of 132. Deforestation, civil wars, European diseases and slave raiding all contributed to the population crash. Core sampling and archaeology from the island has revealed a slice of Rapa Nui history that speaks of deforestation, extinction of native bird populations, soil depletion, and erosion as well as loss of access to deep sea fish as wood became scarce. From this devastating ecological scenario it is not hard to imagine the resulting overpopulation, food shortages, and ultimate collapse of Rapa Nui society. Evidence of cannibalism at that time is present on the island, though very scant. Van Tilburg cautiously asserts, "The archaeological evidence for cannibalism is present on a few sites" [112].

Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... Ahu Tongariki, restored in the 1990s Moai are monolithic stone figures on Rapa Nui / Easter Island, Chile. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... For a related concept in sociology, see Social disintegration. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...

Cities

In 1800 only 3% of the world's population lived in cities. By the 20th century's close, 47% did so. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; but by 2007, this had risen to 468 agglomerations of more than one million.[113] If the trend continues, the world's urban population will double every 38 years, say researchers. The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities.[114] Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Cities with at least 500. ...


The increase will be most dramatic in the poorest and least-urbanised continents, Asia and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries.[115] One billion people, one-sixth of the world's population, or one-third of urban population, now live in shanty towns,[116] which are seen as "breeding grounds" for social problems such as crime, drug addiction, alcoholism, poverty and unemployment. In many poor countries slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care.[117] By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums.[118] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Shanty towns are units of irregular low-cost and self-constructed housing built on terrain seized and occupied illegally -- usually on lands belonging to third parties, most often located in the urban periphery of the cities. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A slum is an overcrowded and squalid district of a city or town usually inhabited by the very poor. ... Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur uniquely in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are either more widespread in the tropics or more difficult to prevent or control. ...


In 2000, there were 18 megacities – conurbations such as Tokyo, Mexico City, Mumbai(Bombay), Sao Paulo and New York City – that have populations in excess of 10 million inhabitants. Greater Tokyo already has 35 million, more than the entire population of Canada.[119] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Megacity. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... This article is about the Brazilian state, São Paulo. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Greater Tokyo Area (東京都市圏 Tōkyō-toshiken), also the Tokyo-Yokohama area, is a large metropolitan area in Japan consisting of the prefectures of Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa and Saitama. ...


By 2025, according to the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia alone will have at least 10 hypercities, those with 20 million or more, including Jakarta (24.9 million people), Dhaka (25 million), Karachi (26.5 million), Shanghai (27 million) and Mumbai (with a staggering 33 million).[120] Lagos has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 15 million today, and the Nigerian government estimates that city will have expanded to 25 million residents by 2015.[121] Chinese experts forecast that Chinese cities will contain 800 million people by 2020.[122] Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kalapa, Jayakarta, Batavia and Djakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ...


Overpopulation by world region

Petén region of Guatemala

This region is inhabited by mostly indigenous peoples. The resource base is stretched thin by deforestation and inability of the fragile tropical forest soils to provide high yield agriculture. Decades of non-sustainable agriculture including considerable slash-and-burn activity by native peoples have left the region unable to feed or support the present population (in terms of food, drinking water, sanitation and other factors).[123] This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ...


Bangladesh

Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a developing nation, in part due to its large population.[124] Its per capita income in 2006 was US$2300, compared to the world average of $10,200.[125] The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ...


Recent (2005-2007) estimates of Bangladesh's population range from 142 to 159 million, making it the 7th most populous nation in the world. With a land area of 144,000 square kilometers (55,600 sq mi (144,000 km²), ranked 94th), the population density is remarkable. A striking comparison is offered by the fact that Russia's population is only slightly smaller. Indeed, Bangladesh boasts the highest population density in the world, excluding a handful of city-states. Bangladesh's population growth was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when the count grew from 50 to 90 million, but with the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, the growth rate slowed. The total fertility rate is now 3.1 children per woman, compared with 6.2 three decades ago. The population is relatively young, with the 0–25 age group comprising 60%, while 3% are 65 or older.[126] This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ...


Bangladesh remains among the poorest nations in the world. Many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land. Nearly half of the population lives on less than 1 US$ per day.[127]


Madagascar

Massive deforestation with resulting desertification, water resource degradation and soil loss has affected approximately ninety percent of Madagascar's previously biologically productive lands. Most of this loss has occurred since independence from the French, and is the result of local people trying merely to subsist. The country is currently unable to provide adequate food, fresh water and sanitation for its population. This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ...


Madagascar does not have secure property rights.[128]


Madagascar's long isolation from the neighboring continents (it is the oldest island in the world, isolated for at least 65 million years) has resulted in a unique mix of plants and Malagasy fauna,[129] many found nowhere else in the world; some ecologists refer to Madagascar as the "eighth continent". Unfortunately, Madagascar has lost 95% of its rainforests during the last 50 years.[130] A good example of malagasy convergent evolution is the fossa, a malagasy carnivore that has evolved in appearance and behaviour to be so like a large cat that it was originally classified in felidae, when it is in fact more closely related to the mongoose Madagascar has been an isolated... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ...


Its environmental problems are caused especially by rapid population growth. Extensive deforestation has taken place in parts of the country. Slash-and-burn activity, locally called tavy, has occurred in the eastern and western dry forests as well as the on the central high plateau, reducing certain forest habitat and applying pressure to some endangered species. Slash-and-burn is a method sometimes used by shifting cultivators to create short-term yields from marginal soils. When practiced repeatedly, or without intervening fallow periods, the nutrient-poor soils may be exhausted or eroded to an unproductive state. The resulting increased surface runoff from burned lands has caused significant erosion and resulting high sedimentation to western rivers. [131][132] Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ...


Australia

Some members of the Australian environmental movement, notably the organisation Sustainable Population Australia, believe that as the driest inhabited continent, Australia cannot continue to sustain its current rate of population growth without becoming overpopulated.[133] The UK-based Optimum Population Trust supports the view that Australia is overpopulated, and believes that to maintain the current standard of living in Australia, the optimum population is 10 million (rather than the present 20.86 million), or 21 million with a reduced standard of living.[134] The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ... Sustainable Population Australia (SPA) (formerly Australians for an Ecologically Sustainable Population) is an Australian special interest group, founded in Canberra in 1988, which seeks to establish a ecologically sustainable human population (Australias population recently passed 21 million). ... Immigration to Australia began at least 40,000 years ago, when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. ... The Optimum Population Trust is a registered charity, small think tank and campaign group concerned with the impact of population growth on the natural environment. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ...


India and China

India has a significant overpopulation problem. India is experiencing major problems with declining water tables due to over-extraction beyond sustainable yield. India is building desalination plants to solve this problem. [9] Because India has the same population density as Japan, some have claimed that India's poverty is caused by underdevelopment, not overpopulation.[135] The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i. ... Underdevelopment is the state of an organism or of an organisation (e. ...


However, if China and India were to consume as much resources per capita as United States together they would require two planet Earths just to sustain their two economies.[136][137]


The Worldwatch Institute said the booming economies of China and India are planetary powers that are shaping the global biosphere. The State of the World 2006 report said the two countries' high economic growth hid a reality of severe pollution. The report states: The Worldwatch Institute is an environmental research organisation in the United States. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... The State of the World is a book published annually by the Worldwatch Institute. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...

The world's ecological capacity is simply insufficient to satisfy the ambitions of China, India, Japan, Europe and the United States as well as the aspirations of the rest of the world in a sustainable way.[138]

Nigeria

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The 2006 census gave a population of 140 million and country is projected to have a population of 289 million by 2050.[139] According to the United Nations, Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world. By UN projections, Nigeria will be one of the countries in the world that will account for most of the world's total population increase by 2050.[140] Health, health care, and general living conditions in Nigeria are poor. Life expectancy is 47 years (average male/female) and just over half the population has access to potable water and appropriate sanitation. Nigeria, like many developing countries, suffers from a polio crisis as well as periodic outbreaks of cholera, malaria, and sleeping sickness.[141] Between 1990 and 2005, the Nigeria lost a staggering 79% of its old-growth forests.[142] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ...


Nigeria is losing 1,355 square miles of rangeland and cropland to desertification each year. About 35 million people in northern Nigeria are currently suffering from the effects of desertification. While Nigeria’s human population was growing from 33 million in 1950 to 140 million in 2006, a fourfold expansion, its livestock population grew from 6 million to 66 million, an 11-fold increase. With the food needs of its people and land and the forage needs of cattle, sheep and goats exceeding the carrying capacity of its grasslands, the country is slowly turning to desert[143] and Nigeria’s fast-growing population is being squeezed into an ever-smaller area.[144] Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... An Inner Mongolia Grassland. ...


Ethiopia

Ethiopia has more fertile land per person than the United Kingdom. In the 1970s, the Ethiopian government seized the farmland from the farmers. This contributed to a 1984 - 1985 famine in Ethiopia. Ethiopia's famine is aggravated by high population growth, bad governance, inefficient agricultural policies, misplaced budgetary priorities,[145] abject poverty, poor infrastructure, lack of access to fertilizers and pesticides, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and internal conflicts.[146] High population growth is a major factor.[147] Location of Ethiopia, as Ethiopian borders were as of the famine, prior Eritrean independence in 1993. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about large epidemics. ...


Ethiopia's population has grown from 18 million in 1950 to an estimated 77 million today[148] and is projected to be about 170 million by 2050.[149] FAO estimated on January 6, 2006, that more than 11 million people in the Horn of Africa countries may be affected by an impending widespread famine, largely attributed to a severe drought, and exacerbated by military conflicts in the region.[150] These conditions of drought, together with other factors including high cereal prices, overpopulation in the region, and conflict, lead to 2006 Horn of Africa food crisis. Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Horn of Africa. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Affected countries The 2006 Horn of Africa food crisis is an acute shortage of food affecting four Horn of Africa countries: Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti and Ethiopia. ...


In a 2005 interview with the BBC, Ethiopian prime minister Meles Zenawi said, "There is a lot of fertile land in the low lands of Ethiopia which is not being utilised."[151] A 2005 article in The Economist states, "The state owns all the land in Ethiopia... One of two newly formed opposition groups, the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD), offered a liberal alternative: campaigning, among other things, for land to be privatised."[152]


Sudan

The combination of decades of drought, desertification, and fast population growth are among the causes of the Darfur conflict, because the Arab Baggara nomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south, to land mainly occupied by non-Arab farming communities.[153] Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Baggara or Baqqarah (Arabic: البقارة) are a nomadic Bedouin people inhabiting Africa from between Lake Chad and the Nile, in the states of Sudan (particularly Darfur), Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and the Central African Republic. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...


Niger

In Niger, people cutting down trees for firewood contributed to problems of deforestation and desertification. But then the country changed its economic policy, and started to allow private ownership of trees. Once the trees were treated as private property, people had an incentive to take care of them. People could now make more money by caring for the trees and selling the fruit, instead of cutting the trees down for firewood. As a result, the deforestation was reversed, and the forest grew bigger. This happened, despite the fact that the human population was growing. By adopting property rights, the environment benefitted, and the people became wealthier and better fed, even while the human population was growing.[154] This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ...


2005-06 Niger food crisis was caused by an early end to the 2004 rains, desert locust damage to some pasture lands, high food prices, and chronic poverty. The food shortage impacts some 3.3 million people — including 800,000 children under age five — in some 3,815 villages. In January 16, 2006, the UN directed an appeal for US$ 240 million of food aid for West Africa to feed at least 10 million people affected by the food crisis, with Niger being the worst-affected country.[155][156] Niger vegetation maps. ... Binomial name Schistocerca gregaria ForsskÃ¥l, 1775 Plagues of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) have threatened agricultural production in Africa, the Middle East and Asia for centuries. ... A famine is an phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country are undernourished and death by starvation becomes increasingly common. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


Haiti

Haiti averages approximately 250 people per square kilometre (650 per sq. mi.). Fertility rate (TFR) in Haiti is 4.86 lifetime births per woman (2007 est.).[157] In 1925, Haiti was a lush tropical paradise, with 60% of its original forest covering the lands and mountainous regions. Since then, the population has cut down all but 2% of its forest cover, and in the process has destroyed fertile farmland soils, while contributing to desertification.[158] Haiti remains one of the least-developed countries in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti now ranks 154th of 177 countries in the UN’s Human Development Index (2006). According to the CIA World Factbook, about 80% of the population lives in poverty. Haiti is the only country in the Americas on the WHO list of Least Developed Countries. Unemployment staying high, rising sharply in the mid to late 90's peaking at 70% in 1999 (2000 CIA World Factbook is the source for that number), and then decreasing to the usual rates of around 50% in recent years. Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of the Least Developed Countries as defined by the United Nations Least Developed Countries (LDCs or Fourth World countries) are countries which according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


United States

Americans constitute approximately 5% of the world's population, but they produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2,[159] consume about 25% of world’s resources,[160] including approximately 26% of the world's energy,[161] although having only around 3% of the world’s known oil reserves,[162] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[163] [164] The average American's impact on the environment is approximately 250 times greater than the average Sub-Saharan African's.[165] [166] Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... The United States is the worlds largest energy consumer in terms of total use, and ranks 7th on a per-capita basis. ... Waste inside a wheelie bin Waste in a bin bag Waste, rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


U.S. Census Bureau figures show the U.S. population grew by 2.8 million between July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2005. If current birth rate and immigration rates were to remain unchanged for another 60 to 70 years, US population would double to approximately 600 million people.[167] The Census Bureau's latest estimates actually go as high as predicting that there will be 1 billion Americans in 2100.[168] United States had approximately one million people in 1700, and approximately five million in 1800.[169] The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ...


Some people, such as Julian Simon, counter this with the claim that through innovation, science, and technology, the United States creates more resources than it uses.[170] Likewise, in an article in The New York Times, John Tierney said that all of the garbage produced in the United States fills up less than 10 square miles of landfill per year, and that after the landfills are full, much of that land gets turned into parks.[171] Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932–February 8, 1998) was professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Arizona

Paul Ehrlich made the point that a state or nation may have a large land area or considerable wealth (which implies, by conventional wisdom, that overpopulation should not be at play), and yet be overpopulated.[172] The U.S. state of Arizona, for example, has enormous land area, but has neither the carrying capacity of arable land or potable water[173][174] to support its population. While it imports food, using its wealth to offset this shortfall, that only serves to illustrate that it has insufficient carrying capacity. The only way that Arizona (and Southern California) obtains sufficient water is by extraction of water[175] from the Colorado River beyond its fair share[176] (and beyond its own carrying capacity of innate water resources), based on international standards of fair use per lineal mile of river.[177][178][179] Recently Arizona has considered desalination as a way to eliminate water shortages. [10] Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


California

According to the California Department of Water Resources, if more supplies aren’t found by 2020, residents will face a shortfall nearly as great as the amount consumed today. Los Angeles is a coastal desert able to support at most 1 million people on its own water; the Los Angeles basin now is the core of a megacity that spans 220 miles from Santa Barbara to the Mexican border. The region’s population is expected to reach 22 million by 2020, 28 million in 2035, and 33 million in 2050. The population of California continues to grow by more than a half million a year and is expected to reach 48 million in 2030. Water shortage issues are likely to arise well before then. California is considering using energy-expensive desalination to solve this problem.[180][181][182] The California Department of Water Resources is responsible for the management of water resources in California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This article is about megacities in general. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - City 111. ... Mexico shares international borders with three nations: To the north, the United States–Mexico border, which extends for a length of 3141 km through the states of Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. ... Water shortage may refer either to natural or social topics, or both: Drought Water crisis Category: ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


Uganda

Uganda had a population of approximately seven million people at independence in 1962, and in 45 years the population of Uganda has grown to 30 million. By 2050, there will be a projected 130 million Ugandans, making Uganda the 12th most populated country in the world, with more people than Russia or Japan. Its population will have increased 18-fold in less than 90 years. Many people think that population growth is no longer a problem, and many consider it is politically incorrect to discuss it. In 1968, when Paul Ehrlich produced his book The Population Bomb, overpopulation was seen by many as the gravest long-term threat facing the human race, but now it scarcely gets a mention, even in discussions on climate change: as if the number of people producing and consuming on this planet had no relevance to the magnitude of stress on the environment.[183] Politically Incorrect was a late-night, half-hour political talk show hosted by Bill Maher that ran from 1993 to 2002. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ...


Uganda has 120 people per square km. By comparison, Denmark has 126, Switzerland has 176, Italy has 193, Germany has 232, The United Kingdom has 246, Israel has 302, Japan has 333, Belgium has 341, the Netherlands has 392, South Korea has 480, and Mauritius has 610 - and all of those other countries have a rich, first world standard of living. This suggests that Uganda's problems are aggavated by underdevelopment. Underdevelopment is the state of an organism or of an organisation (e. ...


It should be noted that if developing countries were to consume resources and produce pollution at the current U.S. per-capita level, it would require several planet Earths just to sustain their economies.[184][185] A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


Zimbabwe

During the late 20th century, farmers in Zimbabwe were growing enough food to feed the country. The country also grew enough extra food for export that it was known as "the breadbasket of southern Africa."[186] Since that time period, President Robert Mugabe seized the farmland and exiled white and foreign farmers from the country[187] labelling white farmers as "enemies of the state."[188] This later resulted in severe famine. However, the population growth of Zimbabwe is lower than many other African nations [11] , thus the famine is more often attributed to poor governing, underdevelopment, corruption and other factors rather than overpopulation. Mugabe redirects here. ... This article is about the color. ...


Malawi

Malawi cannot feed its present population of 13 million, and it's population is expected to rise to 32 million in 2050, leaving country almost certainly permanently dependent on international food aid to keep millions of its people alive.[189] 2050 (MML) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Effects of overpopulation

Some problems associated with or exacerbated by human overpopulation: This article is about modern humans. ...

  • Inadequate fresh water[190] for drinking water use as well as sewage treatment and effluent discharge. Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, use energy-expensive desalination to solve the problem of water shortages. [191][192]
  • Depletion of natural resources, especially fossil fuels[193]
  • Increased levels of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution. Once a country has industrialized and become wealthy, a combination of government regulation and technological innovation causes pollution to decline substantially, even as the population continues to grow.[194]
  • The chronic inability of many of these countries to escape from the "Malthusian trap" via economic growth exceeding population growth. Many Third World countries simply lack the economic or infrastructural base to provide a rising standard of living for most of their people, especially in Africa, the Arab world, and parts of Latin America.
  • Deforestation and loss of ecosystems[195] that sustain global atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide balance; about eight million hectares of forest are lost each year.[196]
  • Changes in atmospheric composition and consequent global warming[197]
  • Irreversible loss of arable land and increases in desertification[198] Deforestation and desertification can be reversed by adopting property rights, and this policy is successful even while the human population continues to grow.[199]
  • Immigration (legal and illegal) to the developed world on an unprecedented scale, creating an unprecedented demographic and political problem in Europe and the United States. Even the controlled and legal migration of talented and well-educated people from the Third World to the developed world denudes it of its limited skills base.
  • Mass species extinctions.[200] from reduced habitat in tropical forests due to slash-and-burn techniques that sometimes are practiced by shifting cultivators, especially in countries with rapidly expanding rural populations; present extinction rates may be as high as 140,000 species lost per year.[201] The IUCN Red List lists a total of 698 animal species having gone extinct during recorded human history. [202]
  • High infant and child mortality[203]. High rates of infant mortality are caused by poverty. Rich countries with high population densities have low rates of infant mortality. [12]
  • Increased incidence of hemorrhagic fevers and other infectious diseases from crowding, lack of adequate sanitation and clean potable water, and scarcity of available medical resources.
  • Starvation, malnutrition[204] or poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e.g. rickets). Famine is aggravated by poverty. Rich countries with high population densities do not have famine.[205][206]
  • Poverty coupled with inflation in some regions and a resulting low level of capital formation. Poverty and inflation are aggravated by bad government and bad economic policies. Many countries with high population densities have eliminated absolute poverty and keep their inflation rates very low.[207]
  • Low birth weight due to the inability of mothers to get enough resources to sustain a fetus from fertilization to birth
  • Low life expectancy in countries with fastest growing populations[208]
  • Unhygienic living conditions for many based upon water resource depletion, discharge of raw sewage[209] and solid waste disposal
  • Elevated crime rate due to drug cartels and increased theft by people stealing resources to survive[210]
  • Conflict over scarce resources and crowding, leading to increased levels of warfare[211]
  • Over-utilization of infrastructure, such as mass transit, highways, and public health systems
  • Higher land prices

Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... In the context of creating Plutonium at the Hanford Site, effluent refers to the cooling water that is discharged from a nuclear reactor that may or may not be radioactive. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Malthusian catastrophe, sometimes known as a Malthusian check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian dilemma, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian trap, or Malthusian limit is a return to subsistence-level conditions as a result of agricultural (or, in later formulations, economic) production being eventually outstripped by growth in population. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ... Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Extraterrestrial population projections

Even as far back as 1798, Thomas Malthus stated in An Essay on the Principle of Population: Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798. ...

"The germs of existence contained in this spot of earth, with ample food, and ample room to expand in, would fill millions of worlds in the course of a few thousand years."

In the 1970s, Gerard O'Neill suggested building space habitats that could support 30,000 times the carrying capacity of Earth using just the asteroid belt and that the solar system as a whole could sustain current population growth rates for a thousand years.[212] Marshall Savage (1992, 1994) has projected a population of five quintillion throughout the solar system by 3000, with the majority in the asteroid belt.[213] Inhabitants of the asteroid belt may risk disaster caused by their home world colliding with other asteroids. Arthur C. Clarke, a fervent supporter of Savage, now argues that by 2057 there will be humans on the Moon, Mars, Europa, Ganymede, Titan and in orbit around Venus, Neptune and Pluto.[214] Freeman Dyson (1999) favours the Kuiper belt as the future home of humanity, suggesting this could happen within a few centuries.[215] In Mining the Sky, John S. Lewis suggests that the staggering resources of the solar system could support 10 quadrillion (10^16) people. Gerard Kitchen ONeill (1927 - 1992) was a U.S. physicist and space pioneer. ... A pair of ONeill cylinders Interior of a Torus (doughnut-shaped) station A space habitat, also called space colony or orbital colony, is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility. ... Marshall T. Savage is an advocate of space travel who wrote The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps and founded the Living Universe Foundation, which was designed to make plans for stellar exploration over the next 1,000 years. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... This article is about Earths moon. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... Mining the Sky: Untold Riches from the Asteroids, Comets, and Planets by John S. Lewis is a book on Space industrialization. ... John S. Lewis is a professor of planetary science at the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. ...


K. Eric Drexler, famous inventor of the futuristic concept of Molecular Nanotechnology, has suggested in Engines of Creation that colonizing space will mean breaking the Malthusian limits to growth forever for the human species. K. Eric Drexler in 2001. ... Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale. ... Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology Engines of Creation (ISBN 0-385-19973-2) is a seminal molecular nanotechnology book written by K. Eric Drexler in 1986. ... Malthusian catastrophe, sometimes known as a Malthusian check, Malthusian crisis, Malthusian dilemma, Malthusian disaster, Malthusian trap, or Malthusian limit is a return to subsistence-level conditions as a result of agricultural (or, in later formulations, economic) production being eventually outstripped by growth in population[1]. Theories of Malthusian catastrophe are...


Many authors (eg. Carl Sagan, Arthur C. Clarke,[216] Isaac Asimov[217]) have argued that shipping the excess population into space is no solution to human overpopulation, saying that (Clarke, 1999) "the population battle must be fought or won here on Earth." It is not the lack of resources in space that they see as the problem (as books such as Mining the sky demonstrate[218]); it is the sheer physical impracticality of shipping vast numbers of people into space to "solve" overpopulation on Earth that these authors and others regard as absurd. However, Gerard O'Neill's calculations show that the Earth could offload all new population growth with a launch services industry about the same size as the current airline industry in O'Neill, Gerard K. (1981). 2081: A Hopeful View of the Human Future. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-44751-3. . Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Mining the Sky: Untold Riches from the Asteroids, Comets, and Planets by John S. Lewis. ... Gerard Kitchen ONeill (1927 - 1992) was a U.S. physicist and space pioneer. ...


Overpopulation in fiction

In 1729, Jonathan Swift wrote the satirical essay A Modest Proposal where he suggests one solution for both the problem of overpopulation and the growing numbers of undernourished people in Ireland: cannibalism, particularly the raising of infants as food. Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written and published by Jonathan Swift in 1729. ... Cannibal redirects here. ...


Science fiction writers have frequently made famous predictions in which they portrayed dystopian futures in which the world has become massively overpopulated. This became a major theme in the 1950s and 1960s. One of the first depictions of future megacities was The Caves of Steel by Isaac Asimov (1954). The 1960s saw increasing anxiety about the prospect of the exponential growth of world population, underscored by the publication of Paul R. Ehrlich's non-fiction The Population Bomb, in 1968. The 1969 Star Trek: The Original Series episode entitled The Mark of Gideon dealt with a race of overpopulated aliens who abducted Captain Kirk to solve their population problem. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... There have been many Famous predictions of different kinds, such as predictions made by scientists based on the scientific method, the theoretical non-fiction predictions of social and technological change of futurologists, the economic forecasts of economists regarding financial markets, wealth and resources, philosophical predictions of the perfectibility of man... A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... The Caves of Steel is a book by Isaac Asimov. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... In mathematics, exponential growth (or geometric growth) occurs when the growth rate of a function is always proportional to the functions current size. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... The Mark of Gideon is a third season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, and was broadcast on January 17, 1969. ...


In the same year, John Brunner's science-fictional Stand on Zanzibar was published. This is perhaps the definitive overpopulation novel to date, though Harry Harrison's Make Room! Make Room! also became a powerful film (Soylent Green). Logan's Run is a novel by William F. Nolan and George Clayton Johnson (1967), describing a dystopian future society in which the population is kept young by euthanizing everyone who reaches a certain age, thus neatly avoiding the problem of overpopulation. A 1972 film called Z.P.G.[219] featured an overpopulated, very polluted future Earth, whose world government practices Zero Population Growth, executing persons who violate the 30-year ban on procreation. Another 1971 film, called The Last Child[220] also took a stub at laws in the future where families are only allowed to have 1 child and people over 65 are forbidden medical care. John Brunner John Kilian Houston Brunner (September 24, 1934 – August 26, 1995) was a prolific British author of science fiction novels and stories. ... Cover art. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... Make Room! Make Room! is a 1966 science fiction novel written by Harry Harrison, and later used as the basis for the 1973 science fiction movie Soylent Green (although the movie changed the plot and theme). ... For the metal band, see Soilent Green. ... This article is about the 1967 novel and certain adaptations. ... William F. Nolan is one of The Group of United States science fiction authors responsible for most of the scripts for the television show The Twilight Zone. ... George Clayton Johnson is a science fiction writer most famous for his novel and screenplay Logans Run but also known for his work in television, writing screenplays for such noted series as The Twilight Zone and Star Trek. ... A dystopia (or alternatively cacotopia) is a fictional society, usually portrayed as existing in a future time, when the conditions of life are extremely bad due to deprivation, oppression, or terror. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία - ευ good, θανατος death) refers to assisted dying. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... Zero Population Growth (ZPG) is a concept coined by American sociologist Kingsley Davis. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ...


J. G. Ballard's story Billennium pictures a future in which every individual has four, then just three, square meters of living space. Frederik Pohl in The Space Merchants described a future in which even public staircases are rented out as living spaces. Robert Silverberg's The World Inside imagines a future with mile high towers holding a million people each. James Blish and Norman L. Knight in A Torrent of Faces imagine a nightmarish future of 1,000 billion living in just 100,000 cities on Earth. James Graham Ballard (born 15 November 1930 in Shanghai) is a British writer. ... The Unix Billennium is the point in time represented by a Unix time value of 109: 01:46:40 UTC on September 9, 2001. ... Frederik George Pohl, Jr. ... The Space Merchants, by Frederik Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth, 1953. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Robert Silverberg (January 15, 1935, Brooklyn, New York) is a prolific American author best known for writing science fiction, a multiple winner of both the Hugo and Nebula Awards. ... The World Inside is a science fiction novel, written by Robert Silverberg and published in 1971. ... James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ...


A similar point, from the opposite point of view, is made by Ursula K. LeGuin in the utopian part of her novel Always Coming Home, in which the visiting anthropologist recognises that one of the reasons for the success and stability of the Kesh culture is simply that there are fewer of them (in the post-apocalyptic future) than previously. Ursula K. Le Guin at an informal bookstore Q&A session, July 2004 Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (born October 21, 1929), is an American author. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Always Coming Home is a novel by Ursula K. Le Guin published in 1985. ...


From the 1980s on, there has been an evident lessening of such fears in science fiction[citation needed]. Cyberpunk fiction, such as that of William Gibson, often depicts huge, sprawling cities. Yet these are as remarkable for their energy and diversity as for their more dystopian characteristics. Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ...


One of the reasons for this may be the rise of environmental fiction with The End of Nature (1990) by Bill McKibben, the environmental trilogy Ishmael (1992), The Story of B (1996), and My Ishmael (1997) by Daniel Quinn. With the host of environmental problems caused by overpopulation, almost by definition, talking about one is talking about the other. Bill McKibben attending a 2006 summit via HDTV uplink Bill McKibben is an American environmentalist and writer who frequently writes about global warming, alternative energy, and the risks associated with human genetic engineering. ... Ishmael is a novel by Daniel Quinn. ... The Story of B a 1996 novel written by Daniel Quinn and published by Bantam Publishing. ... My Ishmael is a sequel to the novel Ishmael by Daniel Quinn. ... For other uses, see Daniel Quinn (disambiguation). ...


The Shadow Children sequence is a fictional account of a totalitarian government attempting to quell overpopulation by exterminating all children born third or later in a family. Ages 9-14 (suggested) The Shadow Children Sequence is a series of books by Margaret Peterson Haddix about a futuristic, overpopulated, resource-deprived Earth, and the effects of the governments attempts to quell overpopulation. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ...


See also

National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM200) was completed on December 10, 1974 by the U.S. National Security Council under the direction of Henry Kissinger. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rientrodolce is an association contiguous to Radicali Italiani, which concerns itself with overpopulation, environment and energy. ... The World Population Foundation (WPF) was founded in 1987 in the Netherlands by a British couple Diana and Roy W Brown. ... The Ultimate Resource is a 1981 book written by Julian Lincoln Simon challenging the notion that humanity was running out of natural resources. ... Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932–February 8, 1998) was professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute. ...

Concepts

The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Over-consumption is a concept coined in developing nations to counter the rhetoric of over-population by which developed nations judge them as consuming more than their economy can support. ... Population ageing or population aging (see English spelling differences) occurs when the median age of a country or region rises. ... Population biology is a study of biological populations of organisms, especially in terms of biodiversity, evolution, and environmental biology. ... Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... Population decline is the reduction over time in a regions census. ... Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology—one that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... This distribution is named for the pyramidal shape of its graph. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... Zero Population Growth (ZPG) is a concept coined by American sociologist Kingsley Davis. ...

Global Issues

<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Immigration reduction refers to movements active within the United States that advocate a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into the United States or other countries. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... A megalopolis is defined as an extensive metropolitan area or a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas. ... The transmigration program (transmigrasi in Indonesia) was an initiative by the government of Indonesia to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the Indonesian archipelago. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late 17th century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ...

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is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Ishmael is a novel by Daniel Quinn. ... The Toronto Star is Canadas highest-circulation newspaper, though its print edition is distributed almost entirely within Ontario. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Gerard Kitchen ONeill (1927 - 1992) was a U.S. physicist and space pioneer. ... Marshall T. Savage is an advocate of space travel who wrote The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps and founded the Living Universe Foundation, which was designed to make plans for stellar exploration over the next 1,000 years. ... The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps by Marshall Savage is a book (reprinted in 1994) that gives a series of concrete stages the author believes will lead to interstellar colonization. ... Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Mining the Sky: Untold Riches from the Asteroids, Comets, and Planets by John S. Lewis is a book on Space industrialization. ... John S. Lewis is a professor of planetary science at the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. ...

Further reading

  • Virginia Abernethy, professor (emerita) of psychiatry and anthropology, Population Politics, (1993)
  • Albert Bartlett, emeritus professor of physics, Arithmetic, Population, and Energy: The Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis, (1978)
  • Joel E. Cohen, Chair, Laboratory of Populations at the Rockefeller University, How Many People Can the Earth Support? (1996)
  • Barry Commoner, American biologist and college professor Making Peace with the Planet (1990)
  • Herman Daly, professor at the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park Ecological Economics and the Ecology of Economics (1999)
  • Paul R. Ehrlich, Bing Professor of Population Studies, The Population Bomb, (1968) The Population Explosion, (1990) The Population Bomb, (1995) reprint
  • Garrett Hardin, 1941 Stanford University - Ph.D. Microbiology, Living Within Limits, (1995) reprint
  • Steven LeBlanc, Constant battles: the myth of the peaceful, noble savage, (2003) ISBN 0312310897 argues that local overpopulation has been the major cause of warfare since paleolithic times.
  • Bjørn Lomborg, Masters in political science at the University of Aarhus in 1991, The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World, (2001)
  • Andrew Mason, Professor, head of the University of Hawaii's population studies program, Population change and economic development in East Asia: Challenges met, opportunities seized (2001)
  • Donella Meadows, lead author Ph.D. in biophysics from Harvard, Jorgen Randers, professor of policy analysis at the Norwegian School of Management, Dennis Meadows, director of the Institute for Policy and Social Science Research Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update (Paperback) (2004)
  • Thomas Malthus, English demographer and political economist, An Essay on the Principle of Population, (1798)
  • Julian Lincoln Simon, professor of Business Administration The Ultimate Resource 2, (1998)"
  • Ben J. Wattenberg, senior fellow at the neoconservative American Enterprise Institute, The Birth Dearth (1989) ??? Fewer: How the New Demography of Depopulation Will Shape Our Future, (2005)
  • Daniel Quinn, author The Story of B, pp 304-305 (1996)

Virginia Abernethy as a keynote speaker at the 2004 National Conference of the Council of Conservative Citizens, along side Jared Taylor, Wayne Lutton, and Paul Fromm. ... Albert A. Bartlett is a retired Emeritus Professor of Physics University of Colorado, Boulder, USA. Professor Bartlett has lectured over 1,500 times on Arithmetic, Population, and Energy. He has famously stated that The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function. ... Joel E. Cohen is a mathematical biologist. ... Barry Commoner (born May 28, 1917) was an American biologist and college professor. ... Herman Daly is an ecological economist and professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States. ... Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... Garrett Hardin Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was a controversial ecologist from Dallas, Texas who was most known for his 1968 paper, The Tragedy of the commons. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Bjørn Lomborg (born January 6, 1965) is an Adjunct Professor at the Copenhagen Business School and a former director of the Environmental Assessment Institute in Copenhagen. ... Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... Dennis Meadows is an economist and co-author of Limits to Growth. ... Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing world population and finite resource supplies, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ... Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... This article is about the economist Julian Simon. ... Ben J. Wattenberg is a prominent American neo-conservative commentator and writer. ... For other uses, see Daniel Quinn (disambiguation). ... The Story of B a 1996 novel written by Daniel Quinn and published by Bantam Publishing. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Overpopulation
  • The Population Project
  • Chart: World Population Growth Through History
  • AAAS Atlas of Population and Environment
  • U.S. Population Reaches 300 Million, Heading for 400 Million -- No Cause for Celebration
  • Earth Policy Institute Resources on POPULATION and HEALTH
  • DIE OFF - a population crash resource page
  • VOA News - World Population Growth to be Concentrated in Developing Nations
  • Map over population density
  • Population Research Institute
  • Population-Environment Balance (organization)
  • Ecofuture.org Population and Sustainability Website
  • A Crusade Against Overpopulation
  • Is World Population a Concern? Robert Heilbroner, Thomas Malthus, and the Application of Both
  • The Food Bubble Economy
  • Agriculture - how peak oil could lead to starvation
  • Overpopulation and Happiness
  • Eating Fossil Fuels
  • Lecture on population growth over human history
  • Negative Population Growth (organization)
  • LAND, ENERGY AND WATER (ideal US population size)
  • Overpopulation.com: Overpopulation FAQ
  • Planned Parenthood mission and population stance
  • Sustainable Population Australia
  • Population Action International (organization)
  • Population Connection (formerly Zero Population Growth; organization)
  • Appeal to Marco Pannella on overpopulation
  • Humanity has no enemies apart from itself (English and Lithuanian)
  • Sierra Club's Population Campaign (organization)
  • SUSPS (concerned with the Sierra Club's immigration policy; organization)
  • Voluntary Human Extinction Movement
  • World population projections by the United Nations "World Population to 2300"
  • World Population Balance (organization)
  • Article about overpopulation
  • Introduction to Social Macrodynamics
  • MOBUTOBE by art group monochrom. A satirical art activism initiative for the "accomplishment of total population".
  • Population and the Environment: The Global Challenge
  • World Scientists' Warning to Humanity
  • Too Many People? By Dr Jacqueline Kasun
  • Catholic Social Teaching On Population Growth An unofficial summary
  • Theories of population - from the Catholic Encyclopedia
  • National Geographic article on overpopulation

  Results from FactBites:
 
Overpopulation - Magazine - Central - British Council - LearnEnglish (1227 words)
overpopulation: see an article, a story, a cartoon, some trivia and links, and play a word game
An obvious consequence is we have not enough space for living if overpopulation keeps happening longer.
China ranks first in largest number of population, where the figure is over 1,2 billion and expected to be higher in future.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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