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Encyclopedia > Overfishing
fisheries
sustainablity
overfishing
fishing capacity
sustainable yield
maximum yield
optimum yield
end of the line
commons tragedy
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The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate.

Overfishing occurs when fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptable level. This can occur in any body of water from a pond to the oceans. More precise biological and bioeconomic terms define 'acceptable level'. A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Download high resolution version (1085x724, 102 KB)Earth flag created solely from public domain sources and released into the public domain by Derrick Coetzee. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... Fishing Capacity is a problem in fisheries management. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... Binomial name Maccullochella ikei Rowland, 1986 Eastern Freshwater Cod (Maccullochella ikei), also known as Eastern Cod, are a freshwater fish belonging to the family Percichthyidae; they are not a true cod. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Individual fishing quotas (popularly abbreviated to IFQ) are a means by which many governments have tried to regulate fishing. ... Fishermen in the harbor of Kochi, India. ... Image File history File links Hcr. ... Image File history File links Hcr. ... The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the... Frog spawn Spawning is the production or depositing of eggs in large numbers by aquatic animals. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Fishermen in the harbor of Kochi, India. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Bioeconomics is a field of resource economics including the dynamics of living resources in economical modelling. ...


Biological overfishing occurs when fishing mortality has reached a level where the stock biomass has negative marginal growth (slowing down biomass growth), as indicated by the red area in the figure. (Fish are being taken out of the water so quickly that the replenishment of stock by breeding slows down. If the replenishment continues to slow down for long enough, replenishment will go into reverse and the population will decrease.)


Economic or bioeconomic overfishing additionally considers the cost of fishing and defines overfishing as a situation of negative marginal growth of resource rent. (Fish are being taken out of the water so quickly that the growth in the profitability of fishing slows down. If this continues for long enough, profitability will decrease.) Resource rent is an economic term of abnormal or supernormal profit which derives from the exploitation of natural resources. ...


A more dynamic definition of economic overfishing may also include a relevant discount rate and present value of flow of resource rent over all future catches.


Ultimately overfishing may lead to resource depletion in cases of subsidised fishing, low biological growth rates and critical low biomass levels (e.g. by critical depensation growth properties). Resource depletion is an economic term referring to the exhaustion of raw materials within a region. ... In population dynamics, depensation is the effect on a population (or stock) whereby, due to certain causes, a decrease in the breeding population (mature individuals) leads to reduced survival and production of eggs or offspring. ...


The ability of the fisheries to naturally recover also depends on whether the conditions of the ecosystems are suitable for population growth. Dramatic changes in species composition may establish other equilibrium energy flows that involve other species compositions than had been present before (ecosystem shift). (For example: remove nearly all the trout, the carp take over and make it near impossible for the trout to re-establish a breeding population.) A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ...

Contents

Fish production and demand

A major international scientific study released in November 2006 in the journal Science found that about one-third of all fishing stocks worldwide have collapsed (with a collapse being defined as a decline to less than 10% of their maximum observed abundance), and that if current trends continue all fish stocks worldwide will collapse within fifty years.[2] Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ...


The FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004 report estimates that in 2003, of the main fish stocks or groups of resources for which assessment information is available, "approximately one-quarter were overexploited, depleted or recovering from depletion (16%, 7% and 1% respectively) and needed rebuilding."[3] Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...


The threat of overfishing is not limited to the target species only. As trawlers resort to deeper and deeper waters to fill their nets, they have begun to threaten delicate deep-sea ecosystems and the fish that inhabit them, such as the coelacanth.[4] In the May 15, 2003 issue of the journal Nature, it is estimated that 10% of large predatory fish remain compared to levels before commercial fishing.[5] Many fisheries experts, however, consider this claim to be exaggerated with respect to tuna populations [6]. Categories: Water-transport stubs | Ship types ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... Families See text. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...

Graph showing shark catch from 1950 to 2006. Overfishing of sharks has led to the upset of entire marine ecosystems.[1]
Graph showing shark catch from 1950 to 2006. Overfishing of sharks has led to the upset of entire marine ecosystems.[1]

From 1950 (18 million tonnes) to 1969 (56 million tonnes) fishfood production grew by about 5% each year; from 1969 onward production has raised 8% annually.[7] It is expected that this demand will continue to rise, and MariCulture Systems estimated in 2002 that, by 2010, seafood production would have to increase by over 15.5 million tonnes to meet the desire of Earth's growing population.[8] This is likely to further aggravate the problem of overfishing, unless aquaculture technology expands to meet the needs of human population. Image File history File links Global_shark_catch_graph_1950_to_2004. ... Image File history File links Global_shark_catch_graph_1950_to_2004. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ...


Overfishing has depleted fish populations to the point that large scale commercial fishing, on average around the world, is not economically viable without government assistance. By the 1980s, economists estimated that for every $1 earned fishing, $1.77 had to be spent in catching and marketing the fish.[9] Some species' stocks are so depleted that consumers are often unlikely to get what they think they are purchasing, due to a phenomenon called "species substitutions," where less desirable species are labeled and marketed under the names of more expensive ones. For example, genetic analysis shows that approximately 70% of fish sold as the highly-prized "red snapper" (Lutjanus campechanus) are other species.[10] In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... Binomial name Lutjanus campechanus Poey, 1860 The red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, is a reef fish found off the Atlantic coast of The Americas and in the Gulf of Mexico. ...


Mitigation

With present and forecast levels of the world population it is not possible to solve the overfishing issue; however, there are mitigation measures that can save selected fisheries and forestall the collapse of others.


In order to meet the problems of overfishing, a precautionary approach and Harvest Control Rule (HCR) management principles have been introduced in the main fisheries around the world. The Traffic Light colour convention introduces sets of rules based on predefined critical values, which could be adjusted as more information is gained.


The "United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea" treaty deals with aspects of overfishing in articles 61, 62, and 65.[11] United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ...

  • Article 61 requires all coastal states to ensure that the maintenance of living resources in their exclusive economic zones is not endangered by over-exploitation. The same article addresses the maintenance or restoration of populations of species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened.
  • Article 62 provides that coastal states: "shall promote the objective of optimum utilization of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone without prejudice to Article 61"
  • Article 65 provides generally for the rights of, inter alia, coastal states to prohibit, limit, or regulate the exploitation of marine mammals.

Overfishing can be viewed as a case of the tragedy of the commons; in that sense, solutions would promote property rights, such as privatization and fish farming. Daniel K. Benjamin, in Fisheries are Classic Example of the "Tragedy of the Commons", cites research by Grafton, Squires, and Fox to support the idea that privatization can solve the overfishing problem[12]: Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ...

According to recent research on the British Columbia halibut fishery, where the commons has been at least partly privatized, substantial ecological and economic benefits have resulted. There is less damage to fish stocks, the fishing is safer, and fewer resources are needed to achieve a given harvest.

Another possible solution, at least for some areas, is fishing quotas, so fishermen can only legally take a certain amount of fish. A more radical possibility is declaring certain areas of the sea "no-go zones" and make fishing there strictly illegal, so the fish in that area have time to recover and repopulate. Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the flatfish species; for the United States Navy ships named Halibut see USS Halibut. ... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ...


Controlling consumer behavior and demand is a key in mitigating action. Worldwide a number of initiatives emerged to provide consumers with information regarding the conservation status of the seafood available to them. The Guide to Good Fish Guides lists a number of these.


Marine Stewardship Council

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent, global, non-profit organization which was set up in 1997 to find a solution to the problem of overfishing. It has developed an environmental standard for sustainable and well-managed fisheries. Environmentally responsible fisheries management and practices are rewarded with the use of its blue product ecolabel. Consumers concerned about overfishing and its consequences are increasingly able to choose seafood products which have been independently assessed against the MSC's environmental standard and labeled to prove it. This enables consumers to play a part in reversing the decline of fish stocks. As of December 2007, 26 fisheries around the world have been independently assessed and certified as meeting the MSC standard, and there are over 1000 seafood products sold by retailers in 35 countries around the world. Their `where to buy' page lists all currently available certified seafood. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... Ecolabel is a labelling system for consumer products (including foods) that are made in fashion to avoid detrimental effects on the environment. ... Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are considered to be insignificant. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ...


Fish & Kids is an MSC project to teach schoolchildren about marine environmental issues, including overfishing.


Instances of overfishing

Examples of the outcomes from overfishing exist in areas such as the North Sea of Europe and the Grand Banks off the east coast of North America. In these locations, overfishing has not only proved disastrous to fish stocks but also to the fishing communities relying on the harvest. Like other extractive industries such as forestry and hunting, fishery is susceptible to economic interaction between ownership or stewardship and sustainability, otherwise known as the tragedy of the commons. The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... North American redirects here. ... The primary sector of industry generally involves the changing process of natural resources into primary products. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ...


The Peruvian coastal anchovy fisheries crashed in the 1970s after overfishing, following an El Niño season [13] which largely depleted anchovies from its waters.[14][15] Anchovies had previously been a major natural resource in Peru; indeed, 1971 alone yielded 10.2 million metric tons of anchovies. However, in the following year, and the four after that, the Peruvian fleet's catch amounted to only about 4 million tons.[7] This was a major loss to Peru's economy. Binomial name Engraulis ringens The Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a fish of the anchovy family, Engraulidae. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ...


The collapse of the cod fishery off Newfoundland, and the 1992 decision by Canada to impose an indefinite moratorium on the Grand Banks, is a dramatic example of the consequences of overfishing. [1] COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ...


The sole (Solea solea) fisheries in the Irish Sea, the west English Channel, and other locations have become overfished to the point of virtual collapse, according to the UK government's official Biodiversity Action Plan. The United Kingdom has created elements within this plan to attempt to restore this fishery, but the expanding human population and the expanding demand for fish has reached a point where demand for food threatens the stability of these fisheries, if not the species' survival. Binomial name Solea solea The common sole, Solea solea, is a species of fish in the Soleidae family. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


Benefits of underfishing

Deliberately underfishing in order to increase long term fish stocks has been proposed as a way fisherman can maximize their yields in the long run.[2]


See also

The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... Catch and release is a term given to the recreational fishing where releasing the fish (catch) is believed to be a technique of conservation. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... A fish processing vessel or fish factory ship is a vessel primarily intended for fish processing. ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... Fishermen in the harbor of Kochi, India. ... Fishing Capacity is a problem in fisheries management. ... Bold text For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Bold text For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... The Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976, also known as the big fat boner, established regional fishery management councils comprised of federal and state officials, including the Fish and Wildlife Service. ... The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... In population ecology, maximum sustainable yield or MSY is the largest long-term average yield/catch that can be taken from a species stock without depressing the species ability to reproduce. ... Resource depletion is an economic term referring to the exhaustion of raw materials within a region. ... Shark fin soup (or sharks fin soup) is a Cantonese cuisine delicacy commonly served as part of a Chinese feast, usually at special occasions such as weddings and banquets as a symbol of wealth and prestige. ... Sustainable seafood is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... World Ocean Day began on 8 June 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ...

References

  1. ^ ch 11-12. Mark Kurlansky (1997). Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. New York: Walker. ISBN 0-8027-1326-2.
  2. ^ Tierney, John (2007-12-06). A Win-Win for Fish and Fishermen. The New York Times.
  1. ^  "'Only 50 years left' for sea fish", BBC News. 2 November 2006.
  2. ^  "The Status of the Fishing Fleet," The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: 2004.
  3. ^  "Dinosaur fish pushed to the brink by deep-sea trawlers", The Observer Newspaper, 2006.
  4. ^  "Rapid Worldwide Depletion of Predatory Fish Communities," Nature. 2003.
  5. ^  "Decline of Pacific tuna populations exaggerated," Nature 434:E1-E2, 28 April 2005.
  6. ^  "World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture," The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: 2000.
  7. ^  Text of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Part V
  8. ^  Aquaculture, MariCulture Systems. 2004.
  9. ^  Benjamin, Daniel K (2001). "Fisheries are Classic Example of the Tragedy of the Commons," PERC Reports, 19(1).
  10. ^  "Peruvian Anchovy Case: Anchovy Depletion and Trade," Trade and Environment Database, 1999.
  11. ^  "Foreign Assistance Legislation for Fiscal Year 1982," Committee on Foreign Affairs, 1981.
  12. ^  "Peru - Fishing," Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress.
  13. ^  "Shark Declines Threaten Shellfish Stocks, Study Says", National Geographic News. 29 March 2007.
  14. ^  "Scientists Find 75 Percent Of Red Snapper Sold In Stores Is Really Some Other Species, Sciencedaily.com. 2004.
  15. ^  Platt McGinn A (1998). "Promoting Sustainable Fisheries," State of the World, pp.59-78.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  • Kurlansky, Mark. (1997). Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. New York: Walker. ISBN 0-8027-1326-2.
  • Loder, Natasha. 2005. Point of No Return. Conservation in Practice 6(3):28-34. On overfishing as an evolutionary force and the "Darwinian debt" for future generations.

External links

  • FAO Fisheries Department and its SOFIA report
  • Seafood Watch from Monterey Bay Aquarium
  • Greenpeace facts about overfishing
  • National Geographic
  • Newfoundland Crisis
  • The Starving Ocean
  • Fishing
  • Fished Out: The Rise and Fall of the North-American Cod Fishery (CBC Archives)
  • Marine Stewardship Council
  • New science sheds light on rebuilding fisheries
The Monterey Bay Aquarium, which is located in a former sardine cannery on Cannery Row in Monterey, California, is one of the largest and most respected aquariums in the world. ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... A Long Island fisherman cleans his nets A fisherman is someone who gathers fish, shellfish, or other animals from a body of water. ... For fishing by dragging a baited line after a boat, see troll (angling). ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... // Trawling Double-rigged shrimp trawler hauling in the nets Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. ... Long-line fishing is a commercial fishing technique that uses hundreds or even thousands of baited hooks hanging from a single line. ... The desktop where the word processor and the spreadsheets are running. ... Fishing with a cast net. ... Oil painting of gillnetting, The salmon fisher by Eilif Peterssen. ... Drift nets are nets used in oceans. ... A drifter is a type of fishing boat. ... Fishermen catching salmon on the Columbia River using a seine. ... Kochi fishing net Cheena vala (Chinese fishing net), Kochi Raising the net The Chinese fishing nets (Cheena vala) of Kochi (formerly known as Cochin), a city in Kerala, south India are fixed land installations for an unusual form of fishing. ... Small glass float from southern tip of Taiwan Glass floats, glass fishing floats, or Japanese glass fishing floats are popular collectors’ items. ... Ghost nets are fishing nets that have been lost by fishermen. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fishing. ... Fishing Weir- a piece of early technology used by North American Natives and early settlers to catch fish for trade and to feed their communities. ... A turtle excluder device. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Genera Amazonsprattus Anchoa Anchovia Anchoviella Cetengraulis Coilia Encrasicholina Engraulis Jurengraulis Lycengraulis Lycothrissa Papuengraulis Pterengraulis Setipinna Stolephorus Thryssa The anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small, common salt-water fish. ... {{Otheruses Carp: Committee supporting Petanacs reconstruction in Huehuetenago, Guatemala} see http://carp. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a well-known food fish belonging to the family Gadidae. ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... Flounder or flukes are flatfish that live in ocean waters ie. ... For other uses, see Haddock (disambiguation). ... This article is about the flatfish species; for the United States Navy ships named Halibut see USS Halibut. ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small, oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. ... Binomial name Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), also known as dolphin fish or dorado, are a species of surface-dwelling fish found in tropical and subtropical waters. ... Genera Agonostomus Aldrichetta Cestraeus Cahaenomugil Chelon Crenimugil Joturus Liza Moolgarda Mugil Myxus Neomyxus Oedalechilus Rhinomugil Sicamugil Valaomugil Xenomugil The mullets are a family (Mugilidae) of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water also. ... Binomial name Hoplostethus atlanticus Collett, 1889 The orange roughy, red roughy, or deep sea perch[2][3] Hoplostethus atlanticus, is a relatively large deep-sea fish belonging to the slimehead family (Trachichthyidae). ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Sardines in the Pacific An open Sardines can Sardines on a plate grilled Sardines For the hide and seek-like game, see Hide and seek. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Whitefish (white fish, demersal fish) is a fisheries term referring to several species of oceanic deep water finfish, particularly cod (Gadus morhua), whiting (Merluccius bilinearis), and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), but also hake (Urophycis), pollock (Pollachius), or others. ... Fish served with vegetables and herbs. ... Seafood Watch is a program designed to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. ... Shark fin soup (or sharks fin soup) is a Cantonese cuisine delicacy commonly served as part of a Chinese feast, usually at special occasions such as weddings and banquets as a symbol of wealth and prestige. ... Species Many, see species section. ... A woman holding a red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) Alaskan king crab fishing is carried out during the winter months in the waters off the coast of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Clam digging is a common means by which to harvest clams from below the surface of the tidal mud flats where they live. ... A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp1 for human consumption. ... Krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. ... A traditional Maine lobster boat, used to haul and maintain the lobster traps. ... A lobster trap (British English: lobster pot) is an effective way for fishermen to catch many lobsters at once when lobster fishing. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Genera See text. ... Pandalus borealis is a popular food source. ... Shrimp growout pond on a farm in South Korea. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Trepanging is the collection or harvesting of sea cucumbers, also called trepang. One who does this activity is called a trepanger. ... A fish aggregating (or aggregation) device (FAD) is a man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). ... A fishing light attractor is an underwater light that can be used to attract fish of many species, including baitfish, and larger fish. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ... Genera Nannopterum Phalacrocorax Leucocarbo The Phalacrocoracidae family of birds is represented by about thirty species of cormorants and shags. ... Cormorant Fishing on the Nagara River Cormorant Fishing on the Nagara River ) has played a vital role in the history of Gifu City, Gifu, Japan. ... Portuguese Water Dogs are a dog breed bred by the Portuguese at least 500 years ago to help with fishing. ... Pearl diver in Japan Pearl hunting or pearl diving refers to a now largely obsolete method of retrieving pearls from oysters and, on rare occasions, other nacre-producing creatures, such as abalone. ... Ice fishing in the Finnish Miljoonapilkki fishing competition. ... Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ... Blast fishing or dynamite fishing describes the practice of using dynamite, homemade bombs or other explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection. ... A Flosser is an angler who uses the method of flossing to catch fish mainly from the Salmon species. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... The National Fish Hatchery System was established by the U.S. Congress in 1871 through the creation of a U.S. Commissioner for Fish and Fisheries. ... Individual fishing quotas (popularly abbreviated to IFQ) are a means by which many governments have tried to regulate fishing. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) are used in commercial fishing to allow environmental and fisheries regulatory organizations to monitor, minimally, the position, time at a position, and course and speed of fishing vessels. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ... Cetacean bycatch is the technical term for the incidental capture of non-target cetacean species by fisheries. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... Fishing Capacity is a problem in fisheries management. ... The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... Egyptians bringing in fish, and splitting for salting In fishing industry, fish processing or fish products industry refers to processing fish delivered by fisheries, which are the supplier of the fish products industry. ... A fish processing vessel or fish factory ship is a vessel primarily intended for fish processing. ... Slurry ice with propylene glycol as depressant viewed through a Microscope . ... Stockfish is air-dried cod. ... This article is about the structures used for drying cod; for the flaked foods given to aquarium fish, see fish food. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... Fish served with vegetables and herbs. ... This is a list of fish that are considered as suited for human consumption. ... Fish Meal - Menhaden, Herring, Anchovy, Redfish, and Whitefish meal Menhaden is the major source of fish meal produced in the U.S. The fish are taken in Atlantic coastal waters from Maine to Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico. ... Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal industrially. ... Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal industrially. ... Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal industrially. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Retail fish market: Chinatown, Sydney. ... Situated now in East London, Billingsgate Fish Market is the United Kingdoms largest inland fish market. ... The Busan Cooperative Fish Market, or BCFM, is the largest fish market in South Korea. ... The Fish Church in Gothenburg Feskekôrka (The Fish Church) is an indoor fish market in Gothenburg, Sweden, which got its name from the buildings resemblance to a Gothic church. ... The Markets Interior The Fulton Fish Market is a fish market in New York, United States. ... Fresh seafood laid out on one of several floating barge vendors. ... Russ & Daughters is a well known fish market opened in 1914. ... The annual Scania Market for herring was a major event in the Hanseatic world around the Baltic Sea, and the cornerstone of the Hanseatic Leagues wealth. ... Sydney Fish Market The Sydney Fish Market is a commercial enterprise in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Tsukiji as seen from Shiodome End of the fresh tuna auction at Tsukiji. ... Members of the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission The Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC) is an interstate compact among the five U.S. states that border the Gulf of Mexico: Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. ... The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... Scottish fishing boats moored in Fraserburgh. ... Aerial view of the museum complex, with the twin masted Reaper seen moored in the harbour to the left. ... The Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) is an autonomous intergovernmental body established as a regional treaty organization in 1967 to promote fisheries development in Southeast Asia. ... The Agulhas Bank is known as the best fishing ground in South Africa. ... Location of the Dogger Bank Dogger Bank (from dogge, an old Dutch word for fishing boat) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 km off the coast of the United Kingdom. ... Map showing the Flemish Cap at far right The Flemish Cap is an area of shallow waters in the north Atlantic Ocean centered roughly at 47° north, 45° west or about 350 miles (560 km) east of St. ... Georges Bank is a large elevated area of the sea floor which separates the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean and is situated between Cape Cod, Massachusetts and Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia. ... A fishing vessel is any ship used to catch fish on seas, lakes or rivers. ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... The F/V Andrea Gail was a commercial fishing vessel which was lost at sea during the so-called Perfect Storm of 1991. ... The F/V Cornelia Marie is one of the commercial fishing boats featured on the Discovery Channel series Deadliest Catch. ... Mogaveeras(also written as Mogavira) are the major fishing community in coastal Karnataka, India. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The fundamental meaning of un chasse-marée was a wholesale fishmonger, originally on the Channel coast of France and later, on the Atlantic coast as well. ... The Cod Wars (also called the Iceland Cod Wars) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland over Icelands claims of authority over tracts of ocean off their coastline as being their exclusive fishery zone. ... The Oyster Injustice of 1834-1835 was the result of an unusually poor oyster season in the Chesapeake Bay fishery and President Andrew Jacksons withdrawing of federal funding from the national bank. ... The Escuminac Hurricane (or Escuminac Disaster) is the name given for a rare June hurricane which struck Canadas Gulf of St. ... Crew of the Ariel Gazelle, which survived the storm The Eyemouth Disaster was a severe European windstorm that struck the southern coast of Scotland, specifically Berwickshire, on October 14, 1881. ... The Scottish east coast fishery has been in existence for more than a thousand years, spanning the Viking period right up to the present day. ... The Stotfield fishing disaster was the first of several fishing disasters of the 19th century on the east coast of Scotland. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Fishing from a Pier Fishing is both the recreation and sport of catching fish (for food or as a trophy), and the commercial fishing industry of catching or harvesting seafood (either fish or other aquatic life-forms, such as shellfish). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are considered to be insignificant. ... In aquaculture, the broodstock is a group of sexually mature individuals of a cultured species that is kept separate for breeding purposes. ... A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp1 for human consumption. ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artifical conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... The U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish Industry began in the early 1960s in Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. ... Tailwater refers to a type of trout fishery. ... Hirudiculture is the culture, or farming, of leeches in both natural and artificial environments. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Sea louse is the designation of ectoparasitic copepods Lepeoptheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus both parasitic on salmonids ... The National Fish Hatchery System was established by the U.S. Congress in 1871 through the creation of a U.S. Commissioner for Fish and Fisheries. ... Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN) is a viral disease of penaeid shrimp that causes mass mortality (up to 90%) among the Western Blue Shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) and severe deformations in the Pacific White Shrimp (). It occurs in Pacific farmed and wild shrimp, but not in wild shrimp on the... The Yellowhead disease (YHD) is a viral infection of shrimp, in particular of the Giant Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon), one of the two major species of farmed shrimp. ... White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral infection of penaeid shrimp. ... Taura syndrome is one of the more devastating diseases affecting the shrimp farming industry worldwide. ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... The WorldFish Center (originally International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management or ICLARM) is an international research center specializing in fisheries and related aquatic resources. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology—one that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... Often referred to by the acronym VPA, is a modelling technique commonly used in fisheries science for reconstructing historical fish numbers at age using information on death of individuals each year. ... Trophic cascades occur when predators in a food chain suppress the abundance of their prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation (or herbivory if the intermediate trophic level is an herbivore). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Population dynamics. ... Functional ecology is the branch of ecology that focuses on the roles, or functions, that species play in the community or ecosystem in which they occur. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... The Sea Around Us Project is devoted to studying the impact of fisheries on the worlds marine ecosystems. ... Earthtrust is a non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to wildlife protection. ... The FRV Scotia Fisheries Research Services (FRS) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive, part of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The National Fisheries Research and Development Institute or NFRDI, is a scientific body operated by the South Korean government, under the authority of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Fishing Capacity is a problem in fisheries management. ... The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... Seafood Watch is a program designed to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... A fish aggregating (or aggregation) device (FAD) is a man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). ... A fishing light attractor is an underwater light that can be used to attract fish of many species, including baitfish, and larger fish. ... Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ... Blast fishing or dynamite fishing describes the practice of using dynamite, homemade bombs or other explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection. ... A Flosser is an angler who uses the method of flossing to catch fish mainly from the Salmon species. ... Drift nets are nets used in oceans. ... Ghost nets are fishing nets that have been lost by fishermen. ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... A piscicide is a substance which is poisonous to fish. ... ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... EconMult is a general fleet model to be used in fisheries modelling. ... EconSimp is a bioeconomic management model of the Barents Sea fisheries. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Individual fishing quotas (popularly abbreviated to IFQ) are a means by which many governments have tried to regulate fishing. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) are used in commercial fishing to allow environmental and fisheries regulatory organizations to monitor, minimally, the position, time at a position, and course and speed of fishing vessels. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ... Cetacean bycatch is the technical term for the incidental capture of non-target cetacean species by fisheries. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... Marine reserve is an area of the sea which has legal protection against fishing or development. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Founded in 1973 by fishermen, the National Coalition for Marine Conservation (NCMC) is the USAs oldest public advocacy group dedicated exclusively to conserving ocean fish and their environment. ... The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for the management and conservation of tunas and tuna-like species in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas. ... The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... The Pacific Whiting Conservation Cooperative (PWCC) is a harvest and research cooperative formed by four companies that participate in the catcher/processor sector of the Pacific whiting (aka hake, Merluccius productus) fishery -- Alaska Ocean Seafoods, American Seafoods, Glacier Fish Co. ... opened for signature - 29 April 1958 entered into force - 20 March 1966 objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, considering that because of the development of modern technology some of these resources are in danger of being overexploited... Walther Herwig (February 25, 1838 - December 16, 1912) was a Prussian administrative lawyer, and the founder of the German fisheries science. ... Dr. Daniel Pauly is a Professor and Director of the Fisheries Centre. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... A turtle excluder device. ... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... Fishing from a Pier Fishing is both the recreation and sport of catching fish (for food or as a trophy), and the commercial fishing industry of catching or harvesting seafood (either fish or other aquatic life-forms, such as shellfish). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
oceans campaign, global overfishing (14608 words)
Overfishing is increasingly suspected as the primary culprit in the steep declines in many wildlife populations of the North Pacific and Bering Sea.
The overfishing level is defined for each species as the fishing mortality rate that reduces the level of spawning biomass per recruit to some percentage of its original, pristine level.
Some investigators believe that overfishing of the Pacific ocean perch may be responsible for the increased abundance of the faster-growing pollock in parts of the North Pacific ecosystem in the 1970s.
Overfishing (1170 words)
Overfishing not only affects the size of harvestable stocks but can lead to major shifts, direct and indirect, in community structure, both of fish species and reef communities as a whole.
Overfishing can lead to short-term losses in biodiversity, the loss of species with critical roles in the ecosystem, and may also lower the resilience of the reef to other threats.
The Reefs at Risk indicator for the overfishing threat identified highly populated areas and areas where coastal shelves are narrow (such as in the Eastern Caribbean) as being under high threat, based on the large numbers of fishers and relatively small fishing area (see Map 6: Reefs Threatened by Overfishing).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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