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Encyclopedia > Ovary

Contents

Major Function

Ovary
Internal reproductive organs of human female
Latin ovarium
Gray's subject #266 1254
Artery ovarian artery, uterine artery
Vein ovarian vein
Lymph lumbar lymph nodes
MeSH Ovary
Dorlands/Elsevier o_09/12603251
For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants)

An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. It is often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system. Ovaries in females are homologous to testes in males. The term gonads refers to the ovaries in females and testes in males. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the ovarian artery is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the ovary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The ovarian vein, the female gonadal vein, carries deoxygenated blood from its corresponding ovary to inferior vena cava or one of its tributaries. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... The lumbar lymph nodes are a group of lymph nodes residing in the lumbar region. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... Look up Female in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The reproductive system is the ensembles and interactions of organs and/or substances within an organism that strictly pertain to reproduction. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ...


Production of eggs (exocrine)

As female mammals develop within the womb, each ovary develops a number of immature eggs associated with groups of other cells called follicles. While mammals were thought to develop their entire supply of eggs prenatally and soon after birth, new evidence from laboratory mice has called this into question, showing that female mice in fact produce new eggs throughout their reproductive lifetime[1], However, there is no direct evidence showing that human females produce new eggs after birth. As the animal becomes reproductively mature (the process called puberty in humans), eggs will periodically mature and be released from the ovary (a process called ovulation) so that they will be available for fertilization by sperm. A fertilized egg resulting from union with a sperm becomes a zygote and then an embryo as it develops. Ovarian follicles or Graafian follicles (after Regnier de Graaf) are the roughly spherical cell aggregations in the ovary containing an ovum and from which the egg is released during ovulation. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Different types of sperm cells: A) spermatozoon (motile), B) spermatium (non-motile), C) fertilization tube with sperm nuclei The term sperm is derived from the Greek word spermos (Latin: sperma) meaning seed and refers to the male reproductive cells. ... It has been suggested that Biparental zygote be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ...


In humans, an egg launched from an ovary has to traverse a slight space before entering the fallopian tube and moving gradually down to the uterus. If fertilized, it performs implantation into the lining of the uterus and develops as the pregnancy continues. If the fertilized egg settles into the fallopian tube instead of the uterus an ectopic pregnancy will result. Ectopic pregnancy can also happen if a fertilized egg settles onto the cervix or onto the ovary itself, or if a fertilized egg passes through the gap between the ovary and the fallopian tube into the abdomen. The Fallopian tubes, also known as oviducts, uterine tubes, and salpinges (singular salpinx) are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Implantation is a phenomenon in prenatal development, i. ... The cervix (from Latin neck) is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ...


Hormone secretion (endocrine)

Animal and human ovaries also produce various steroid and peptide hormones. Estrogen and progesterone are the most important of these in mammals. Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones which interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ...


These hormones serve many functions:

Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of human beings and other great apes. ...

Human anatomy

Ovaries are oval shaped and, in the human, measure approximately 3 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm. The ovary (for a given side) is located in the lateral wall of the pelvis in a region called the ovarian fossa. The fossa usually lies beneath the external iliac artery and in front of the ureter and the internal iliac artery. The ovary lies in a shallow depression, named the ovarian fossa, on the lateral wall of the pelvis. ... The external iliac arteries are large arteries that connect the femoral arteries to the common iliac arteries. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... The Internal iliac artery, formerly known as the hypogastric artery, supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. ...


Ligaments

In the human the paired ovaries lie within the pelvic cavity, on either side of the uterus, to which they are attached via a fibrous cord called the ovarian ligament. The ovaries are uncovered in the peritoneal cavity but are tethered to the body wall via the suspensory ligament of the ovary. The part of the broad ligament of the uterus that covers the ovary is known as the mesovarium. This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... The ovarian ligament (also called the utero-ovarian ligament or proper ovarian ligament) is a fibrous ligament that connects the ovary to the lateral surface of the uterus. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... The suspensory ligament of the ovary (also infundibulopelvic ligament) is a fold of peritoneum that surrounds the ovarian artery and vein as they extend out from the ovary. ... The broad ligament of the uterus refers to the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis. ... At first the mesonephros and genital ridge are suspended by a common mesentery, but as the embryo grows the genital ridge gradually becomes pinched off from the mesonephros, with which it is at first continuous, though it still remains connected to the remnant of this body by a fold of...


Extremities

There are two extremities to the ovary:

  • The end to which the uterine tube attach is called the tubal extremity.
  • The other extremity is called the uterine extremity. It points downward, and it is attached to the uterus via the ovarian ligament.

Female internal reproductive anatomy The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ...

Vessels and nerves

Each ovary receives blood from the ovarian artery, which arises directly from the anterior abdominal aorta and the ovarian branch of the uterine artery that enters the ovary by way of the broad ligament and thus the mesovarium. The right ovarian vein drains to the inferior vena cava and the left ovarian vein drains to the left renal vein. The ovarian artery and vein are within the suspensory ligament of the ovary (infundibulopelvic ligament). Sources of innervation include the ovarian plexus. In human anatomy, the ovarian artery is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the ovary. ... AORTA can also mean always-on real-time access, referring to WAN computer networks. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In the female, the ovarian plexus arises from the renal plexus, and is distributed to the ovary, and fundus of the uterus. ...


Histology

Section of the ovary of a newly born child. Germinal epithelium is seen at top. Primitive ova are seen in their cell-nests. The Genital cord or genital ridge is still discernable in this young child. A blood vessel and an ovarian follicle is also seen
Section of the ovary of a newly born child. Germinal epithelium is seen at top. Primitive ova are seen in their cell-nests. The Genital cord or genital ridge is still discernable in this young child. A blood vessel and an ovarian follicle is also seen

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An oocyte, ovocyte, or rarely oöcyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ... In embryology, the gonadal ridge (or genital ridge) is the precursor to the gonads. ... Ovarian follicles or Graafian follicles (after Regnier de Graaf) are the roughly spherical cell aggregations in the ovary containing an ovum and from which the egg is released during ovulation. ... The surface of the ovary is covered by a layer of columnar cells which constitutes the germinal epithelium of Waldeyer. ... On the surface of the ovary this tissue is much condensed, and forms a layer, the tunica albuginea, composed of short connective-tissue fibers, with fusiform cells between them. ... In anatomy and zoology the cortex is the outermost (or superficial) layer of an organ. ... Ovarian follicles are the basic unit of female reproductive biology, they are roughly spherical aggregations of cells found in the ovary. ... The stroma of the ovary is a peculiar soft tissue, abundantly supplied with bloodvessels, consisting for the most part of spindle-shaped cells with a small amount of ordinary connective tissue. ... At one part of the mature follicle the cells of the membrana granulosa are collected into a mass which projects into the cavity of the follicle. ... The larger ovarian follicles consist of an external fibrovascular coat, connected with the surrounding stroma of the ovary by a net-work of bloodvessels; and an internal coat, which consists of several layers of nucleated cells, called the membrana granulosa. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and are sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... For the structure in neuroanatomy, see Corona radiata. ... The zona pellucida (or zona striata in older texts) is a glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte. ... An oocyte, ovocyte, or rarely oöcyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ... The zona pellucida (or zona striata in older texts) is a glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte. ... The theca of follicle is a layer of the ovarian follicles which appear as the follicles become tertiary follicles. ... The follicular antrum is the portion of an ovarian follicle filled with liquor folliculi. ... Follicular fluid is a liquid which fills the follicular antrum and surrounds the ovum in an ovarian follicle UIUC Histology Subject 1083 MeSH Follicular+fluid Diagram at med. ... The corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body) is a small, temporary endocrine structure in animals. ... The medulla of ovary (or Zona vasculosa of Waldeyer) is a highly vascular stroma in the center of the ovary. ...

Pathology

Benign ovarian cyst. ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, also known clinically as Stein-Leventhal syndrome), is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately one in ten women. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (a kind of neoplasm) located on an ovary. ... Hypogonadism is a medical term for a defect of the reproductive system which results in lack of function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). ...

Additional images

References

  1. ^ Johnson J, Canning J, Kaneko T, Pru JK, Tilly JL. (March 2004). "Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary.". Nature 428 (6979): 145-50. PMID 15014492. 

External links

  • Your Shriveling Ovaries From SirensMag.com

See also

Look up Ovary in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ovary definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms (228 words)
Ovary: The female gonad, the ovary is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women.
Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond.
The ovaries are the main source of female hormones, which control the development of female body characteristics, such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair.
Ovary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (475 words)
Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms.
Ovaries (aka tomkuns) are part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
Ovaries in females are homologous to testes in males.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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