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Encyclopedia > Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 C56., D27.
ICD-9 183, 220
ICD-O: varied
DiseasesDB 9418
MedlinePlus 000889
eMedicine med/1698 

Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (a kind of neoplasm) located on an ovary. Although many ovarian tumors are benign, most have the potential to become malignant unless treated. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is sudden and abnormal growth in a tissue or organ. ... For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Look up Benign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Causes

Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women, the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy, and the second most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy [1]. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ...


It is idiopathic, meaning that the exact cause is usually unknown. The disease is more common in industrialized nations, with the exception of Japan. In the United States, females have a 1.4% to 2.5% (1 out of 40-60 women) lifetime chance of developing ovarian cancer. Idiopathic means arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause. ...


Older women are at highest risk. More than half of the deaths from ovarian cancer occur in women between 55 and 74 years of age and approximately one quarter of ovarian cancer deaths occur in women between 35 and 54 years of age.


The risk for developing ovarian cancer appears to be affected by several factors. The more children a woman has, the lower her risk of ovarian cancer. Early age at first pregnancy, older ages of final pregnancy and the use of low dose hormonal contraception have also been shown to have a protective effect. Ovarian cancer is reduced in women after tubal ligation. Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Tubal ligation is a permanent, but sometimes reversible form of female sterilization, in which the fallopian tubes are severed and sealed, in order to prevent fertilization. ...


The link to the use of fertility medication, such as Clomiphene citrate, has been controversial. An analysis in 1991 raised the possibility that use of drugs may increase the risk for ovarian cancer. Several cohort studies and case-control studies have been conducted since then without providing conclusive evidence for such a link. [2] It will remain a complex topic to study as the infertile population differs in parity from the "normal" population. Fertility medication may in a larger sense include any medication that enhances fertility, but in a specific sense consists of agents that stimulate follicle development of the ovary. ... Categories: Stub | Selective estrogen receptor modulators ... Cohort may mean: Cohort (military unit), a Roman legion. ... Case-control studies are one type of epidemiological study design. ... In medicine, parity is a technical term that refers to the number of times a woman has given birth. ...


There is good evidence that in some women genetic factors are important. Carriers of certain mutations of the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene, more frequent in some populations (e.g. Ashkenazi Jewish women) are at a higher risk of both breast cancer and ovarian cancer, often at an earlier age than the general population. Patients with a personal history of breast cancer or a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, especially if at a young age, may have an elevated risk. A strong family history of uterine cancer, colon cancer, or other gastrointestinal cancers may indicate the presence of a syndrome known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, also known as Lynch II syndrome), which confers a higher risk for developing ovarian cancer. Patients with strong genetic risk for ovarian cancer may consider the use of prophylactic oophorectomy after completion of child-bearing. BRCA 1 (named for breast cancer 1) is a human gene located on the long arm of the 17th chromosome (17q21). ... BRCA2 refers to either a gene (BReast-CAncer susceptibility gene 2, located on human chromosome 13, 13q12-13) or the protein coded for by that gene. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Endometrial cancer. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, liver, biliary system, pancreas, bowels, and anus. ... Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is characterized by an increased risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers such as endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin. ... Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is characterized by an increased risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers such as endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin. ... Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. ...


A Swedish study, which followed more than 61,000 women for 13 years, has found a significant link between milk consumption and ovarian cancer. According to the BBC, "[Researchers] found that milk had the strongest link with ovarian cancer - those women who drank two or more glasses a day were at double the risk of those who did not consume it at all, or only in small amounts." [3] Recent studies have shown that women in sunnier countries have a lower rate of ovarian cancer, which may have some kind of connection with exposure to Vitamin D. [citation needed]


Other factors that have been investigated, such as talc use, asbestos exposure, high dietary fat content, and childhood mumps infection, are controversial and have not been definitively proven. Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... It has been suggested that Asbestos fibers be merged into this article or section. ...


"Associations were also found between alcohol consumption and cancers of the ovary and prostate, but only for 50 g and 100 g a day."[4]


Classification

Ovarian tumors can be classified by their [[ presumed cell of origin. The main categories are:

  • surface epithelial-stromal tumours
  • sex cord-stromal tumours (ICD-O 8590)
  • germ cell tumours (ICD-O 9060-9090)
  • secondary or metastatic tumours

Surface epithelial-stromal tumours are a class of ovarian neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. ... Sex cord-stromal tumours are a group of sex cord ovarian neoplasms which accounts for 8% of all reported cases. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Germ cell tumours are neoplasms derived from germ cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...

Histology

Ovarian cancer is classified according to the histology of the tumor (ICD-O codes). Histology dicates many aspects of clincal treatment, management, and prognosis. A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ...

  • Surface epithelial-stromal tumours are the most common and prototypic ovarian cancers. They are thought to originate from the ovarian surface lining, and include serous cystadenocarcinoma (8441/3), and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (8470/3). The abdominal cavity is lined with the same cells that make up the ovarian surface lining, and it is possible to have cancer begin there, in which case, it is called primary peritoneal cancer. Treatment, however, is basically the same as treatment for ovarian cancer.
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors (8590) include lesions that are hormonally active such as the estrogen-producing granulosa cell tumor (8620/3) and the virilizing Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor or arrhenoblastoma.
  • Germ cell tumors (9060-9090) of the ovary originate from germ cells and tend to occur in young women and girls. These tumors represent approximately 5% of ovarian cancers.[citation needed] They tend to be well encapsulated and many are benign, hence prognosis than for other ovarian tumors.
  • mixed tumors
  • secondary or metastatic tumors

Surface epithelial-stromal tumours are a class of ovarian neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. ... Cystadenocarcinoma is a malignant form of a surface epithelial-stromal tumor, a type of ovarian cancer. ... Primary peritoneal cancer is a cancer of the cells lining the peritoneum, or abdominal cavity. ... Sex cord-stromal tumours are a group of sex cord ovarian neoplasms which accounts for 8% of all reported cases. ... Granulosa cell tumours are part of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms. ... Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours are part of the sex cord-stromal tumour group of ovarian neoplasms. ... The arrhenoblastoma is a rare ovarian stromal neoplasm that secretes testosterone. ... Germ cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms derived from germ cells. ... A germ cell is part of the germline and is involved in the reproduction of organisms. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...

Natural history

Ovarian cancer often is primary, but can also be secondary, the result of metastasis from primary cancers elsewhere in the body. For example, from breast cancer, or from gastrointestinal cancer (in which case the ovarian cancer is a Krukenberg cancer). Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, liver, biliary system, pancreas, bowels, and anus. ... // Definition A Krukenberg tumor is the name given to tumors of the ovaries. ...


Symptoms

Studies on the accuracy of symptoms

Two case-control studies, both subject to results being inflated by spectrum bias,have been reported. The first found that women with ovarian cancer had symptoms of increased abdominal size, bloating, urinary urgency, and pelvic pain.[5] The smaller, second study found that women with ovarian cancer had pelvic/abdominal pain, increased abdominal size/bloating, and difficulty eating/feeling full.[6] The latter study created a symptom index that was considered positive if any of the 6 symptoms "occurred >12 times per month but were present for <1 year".They reported a sensitivity of 57% for early-stage disease and specificity 87% to 90%. Case-control studies are one type of epidemiological study design. ... Initially identified in 1978[1], spectrum bias refers to evaluating the ability of a diagnostic test in a biased group of patients which leads to an overestimation of the sensitivity and specificity of the test. ... The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ...


Ovarian Cancer Symptoms Consensus Statement

In 2007, the Gynecologic Cancer Foundation, Society of Gynecologic Oncologists and American Cancer Society originated the following consensus statement regarding the symptoms of ovarian cancer.[7]


Historically ovarian cancer was called the “silent killer” because symptoms were not thought to develop until the chance of cure was poor. However, recent studies have shown this term is untrue and that the following symptoms are much more likely to occur in women with ovarian cancer than women in the general population. These symptoms include:

  • Bloating
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain
  • Difficulty eating or feeling full quickly
  • Urinary symptoms (urgency or frequency)

Women with ovarian cancer report that symptoms are persistent and represent a change from normal for their bodies. The frequency and/or number of such symptoms are key factors in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Several studies show that even early stage ovarian cancer can produce these symptoms. Women who have these symptoms almost daily for more than a few weeks should see their doctor, preferably a gynecologist. Prompt medical evaluation may lead to detection at the earliest possible stage of the disease. Early stage diagnosis is associated with an improved prognosis.


Several other symptoms have been commonly reported by women with ovarian cancer. These symptoms include fatigue, indigestion, back pain, pain with intercourse, constipation and menstrual irregularities. However, these other symptoms are not as useful in identifying ovarian cancer because they are also found in equal frequency in women in the general population who do not have ovarian cancer.


Diagnosis

Ovarian cancer at its early stages(I/II) is difficult to diagnose until it spreads and advances to later stages(III/IV). This is due to the fact that most of the common symptoms are non-specific.


When an ovarian malignancy is included in the list of diagnostic possibilities, a limited number of laboratory tests are indicated. A complete blood count (CBC) and serum electrolyte test should be obtained in all patients. Coagulation tests are not indicated in the absence of a suggestive history of bleeding after minor trauma or increased bruisability. Similarly, routine liver function tests are rarely helpful.


The serum hCG level should be measured in any female in whom pregnancy is a possibility. In addition, a serum AFP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) should be measured in young girls and adolescents who present with adnexal masses because the younger the patient, the greater the likelihood of a malignant germ cell tumor.


The blood test called CA-125 is useful in differential diagnosis and in follow up of the disease, but it has not been shown to be an effective method to screen for early-stage ovarian cancer and is currently not recommended for this use. CA-125 is a substance that is produced by cancer cells. ...


Other blood tests are currently under investigation. For example, a study funded by the American Cancer Society conducted at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute has found a correlation between high levels of lysophospholipids (a type of lipid) with ovarian cancer patients and low levels of lysophospholipids with healthy women. This potential biomarker can be detected by a simple blood test. The blood test was 93% accurate as predictor of ovarian cancer with less than 4% false positives of the 117 women studied.[8] As with CA-125, this blood test has not been incorporated into standard practice for diagnosing ovarian cancer. The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... The H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute is a cancer treatment and cancer research center located in north Tampa, Florida. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... Type I errors (or α error, or false positive) and type II errors (β error, or a false negative) are two terms used to describe statistical errors. ...


Current research is looking at ways to combine tumor markers along with other indicators of disease (i.e. radiology and/or symptoms) to improve accuracy. The challenge in such an approach is that the very low population prevalence of ovarian cancer means that even testing with very high sensitivity and specificity will still lead to unacceptable numbers of false positive results (i.e. performing surgical procedures in which cancer is not found intra-operatively). This is exemplified by the recent discovery of proteomic predictors that showed 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity. [9]


A pelvic examination, including CT scan, trans-vaginal ultrasound, is also of utility. Physical examination may reveal increased abdominal girth and /or ascites (fluid within the abdominal cavity). Pelvic examination may reveal an ovarian or abdominal mass. The pelvic exam can include a rectovaginal component for better palpation of the ovaries. For very young patients, magnetic resonance imaging may be preferred to rectal and vaginal examination. Magnetic Resonance Image showing a median sagittal cross section through a human head. ...


Staging

Ovarian cancer staging is by the FIGO staging system and uses information obtained after surgery, which can include a total abdominal hysterectomy, removal of (usually) both ovaries and fallopian tubes, (usually) the omentum, and pelvic (peritoneal) washings for cytology. The AJCC stage is the same as the FIGO stage. Figo and his wife, the Swedish top-model Helen Svedin Luís Filipe Madeira Caeiro, Luís Figo, November 4, 1972 - in Cova da Piedade - Almada, Portugal, is a Portuguese international footballer, who plays as a midfielder. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... Cytology (also known as Cell biology) is the scientific study of cells. ... The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) is an organization best known for defining and popularizing cancer staging standards. ...

  • Stage I - limited to one or both ovaries
    • IA - involves one ovary; capsule intact; no tumor on ovarian surface; no malignant cells in ascites or peritoneal washings
    • IB - involves both ovaries; capsule intact; no tumor on ovarian surface; negative washings
    • IC - tumor limited to ovaries with any of the following: capsule ruptured, tumor on ovarian surface, positive washings
  • Stage II - pelvic extension or implants
    • IIA - extension or implants onto uterus or fallopian tube; negative washings
    • IIB - extension or implants onto other pelvic structures; negative washings
    • IIC - pelvic extension or implants with positive peritoneal washings
  • Stage III - microscopic peritoneal implants outside of the pelvis; or limited to the pelvis with extension to the small bowel or omentum
    • IIIA - microscopic peritoneal metastases beyond pelvis
    • IIIB - macroscopic peritoneal metastases beyond pelvis less than 2 cm in size
    • IIIC - peritoneal metastases beyond pelvis > 2 cm or lymph node metastases
  • Stage IV - distant metastases--in the liver, or outside the peritoneal cavity

Para-aortic lymph node metastases are considered regional lymph nodes (Stage IIIC). A capsule, in anatomy, is a cover or envelope partly or wholly surrounding a structure. ...


Treatment

Surgery is the preferred treatment and is frequently necessary for differential diagnosis via histology. Studies have shown that surgery performed by a specialist in gynecologic oncology usually result in an improved outlook. Improved survival is attributed to more accurate staging of the disease and a higher rate of aggressive surgical excision of tumor in the abdomen by gynecologic oncologists as opposed to general gynecologists and general surgeons. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses only on cancers of the female reproductive system, notably ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer and vulvar cancer. ...


The type of surgery depends upon how widespread the cancer is when diagnosed (the cancer stage), as well as the type and grade of cancer. The surgeon may remove one (unilateral oophorectomy) or both ovaries (bilateral oophorectomy), the fallopian tubes (salpingectomy), and the uterus (hysterectomy). For some very early tumors (stage 1, low grade or low-risk disease), only the involved ovary and fallopian tube will be removed (called a "unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy," USO), especially in young females who wish to preserve their fertility. In advanced disease as much tumor as possible is removed (debulking surgery). In cases where this type of surgery is successful, the prognosis is improved compared to patients where large tumor masses (more than 1 cm in diameter) are left behind.


Chemotherapy is used after surgery to treat any residual disease, if appropriate. This depends on the histology of the tumor; some kinds of tumor (particularly teratoma) are not sensitive to chemotherapy. At present many oncologists are still recommending systemic chemotherapy including a platinum derivative with a taxane as a preferred method of treating advanced ovarian cancer. However, randomized, multicenter clinical trials are beginning to clearly show that Intra-peritoneal chemotherapy produces longer survival times. As this therapy may not always be available in local hospitals, women should consult doctors based in nationally recognized centers as soon after diagnosis as possible in order to select the most effective treatment plan. Chemotherapy can also be used to treat women who have a recurrence. Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The taxanes are NOT alkaloids (not every molecule coming from a plant and bearing a nitrogen is an alkaloid!). They are diterpenes produced by the plants of the genus Taxus (yews). ...


Three large randomized studies of the Gynecologic Oncology Group have suggested that chemotherapy regimens delivered partly via direct infusion into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal or "IP") improve median survival time over regimens that are only given intravenously (in the vein or "IV"). Reported toxicities are generally higher and the advantages of IP chemotherapy are still debated among specialists. The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) is a non-profit organization funded by the National Cancer Institute with the purpose of supporting research for the prevention and treatment of all gynecologic cancers, such as ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, vulvar cancer, and vaginal cancer. ...


Radiation therapy is not effective for advanced stages because when vital organs are in the radiation field, a high dose cannot be safely delivered. Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


Pre-clinical chemosensitivity and chemoresistance testing is being done by laboratories in the USA, Europe, and Asia.


Immunotherapy, such as the therapeutic vaccine Abagovomab - which is currently under experimental clinical evaluation in the MIMOSA study - might represent an innovative approach as consolidation therapy for the prevention of recurrences of ovarian cancer. Abagovomab is a mouse monoclonal antibody which is an anti-idiotype. ...


Prognosis

Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis. It is disproportionately deadly because symptoms are vague and non-specific, hence diagnosis is late. More than 60% of patients presenting with this cancer already have stage III or stage IV cancer, when it has already spread beyond the ovaries.


Ovarian cancers that are malignant shed cells into the naturally occurring fluid within the abdominal cavity. These cells can implant on other abdominal (peritoneal) structures included the uterus, urinary bladder, bowel, lining of the bowel wall (omentum) and can even spread to the lungs. These cells can begin forming new tumor growths before cancer is even suspected. In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ...


More than 50% of women with ovarian cancer are diagnosed in the advanced stages of the disease because no cost-effective screening test for ovarian cancer exists. The five year survival rate for all stages is only 35% to 38%. If, however, diagnosis is made early in the disease, five-year survival rates can reach 90% to 98%. Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ...


Germ cell tumors of the ovary have a much better prognosis than other ovarian cancers, in part because they tend to grow rapidly to a very large size, hence they are detected sooner. Germ cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms derived from germ cells. ...


Complications

  • spread of the cancer to other organs
  • progressive function loss of various organs
  • ascites (fluid in the abdomen)
  • Intestinal obstruction

References

  1. ^ The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Section 18. Gynecology And Obstetrics Chapter 241. Gynecologic Neoplasms
  2. ^ Brinton LA, Moghissi KS, Scoccia B, Westhoff CL, Lamb EJ (2005). "Ovulation induction and cancer risk". Fertil. Steril. 83 (2): 261-74; quiz 525-6. DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.09.016. PMID 15705362. 
  3. ^ BBC News Milk link to ovarian cancer risk 29 November 2004
  4. ^ Alcohol consumption and cancer risk
  5. ^ Goff BA, Mandel LS, Melancon CH, Muntz HG (2004). "Frequency of symptoms of ovarian cancer in women presenting to primary care clinics". JAMA 291 (22): 2705-12. DOI:10.1001/jama.291.22.2705. PMID 15187051. 
  6. ^ Goff BA, Mandel LS, Drescher CW, et al (2007). "Development of an ovarian cancer symptom index: possibilities for earlier detection". Cancer 109 (2): 221-7. DOI:10.1002/cncr.22371. PMID 17154394. 
  7. ^

    You must specify title = and url = when using {{cite web}}. Available parameters: A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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    (pdf). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  8. ^ Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention July 7, 2004
  9. ^ Petricoin EF, Ardekani AM, Hitt BA, et al (2002). "Use of proteomic patterns in serum to identify ovarian cancer". Lancet 359 (9306): 572-7. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07746-2. PMID 11867112. 

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See also

Glenda Adams, Australian novelist and writer (died at age 68) Evelyn Ankers, American film actress (died at age 67) Eileen Barton, Brooklyn-born American singer (died at age 81, according to her family) Raelene Boyle, Australian athlete; surviving Laurie Beechman, actress/singer (died at age 43) Marcheline Bertrand, actress and... Germ cell tumours are ovarian neoplasms derived from germ cells. ... Display of small round blue cells characteristic of desmoplastic small round cell tumor. ... Benign ovarian cyst. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ovarian cancer (2155 words)
Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries).
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women, the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy, and the second most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy [1].
Ovarian cancer staging is by the FIGO staging system and uses information obtained after surgery, which can include a total abdominal hysterectomy, removal of (usually) both ovaries and fallopian tubes, (usually) the omentum, and pelvic (peritoneal) washings for cytology.
Ovarian Cancer - OncologyChannel.com (1060 words)
Ovarian cancer is a disease produced by the rapid growth and division of cells within one or both ovaries—reproductive glands in which the ova, or eggs, and the female sex hormones are made.
Ovarian cancer most frequently appears in women who are older than 60 (about 50% of patients are over age 65), although it may occur in younger women who have a family history of the disease.
Ovarian cancer is responsible for 5% of all cancer deaths among women.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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