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Encyclopedia > Outsourcing

Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company.[1] The decision to outsource is often made in the interest of lowering firm costs, redirecting or conserving energy directed at the competencies of a particular business, or to make more efficient use of labor, capital, technology and resources. Outsourcing became part of the business lexicon during the 1980s. A subcontract is a contract that assigns part of an existing contract to a different party. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Third party is a term used in several contexts, including: Third party (politics) Third-party manufacturers: See aftermarket. ... The law of costs is typical of common law jurisdictions. ... A companys core competency is the one thing that it can do better than its competitors. ... In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... Efficient can relate to: Efficiency (and related topics; see link), the technical term often related to energy usage. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Classical economics distinguishes between three factors of production which are used in the production of goods: Land or natural resources - naturally-occurring goods such as soil and minerals. ...



Outsourcing involves the transfer of the management and/or day-to-day execution of an entire business function to an external service provider.[2] The client organization and the supplier enter into a contractual agreement that defines the transferred services. Under the agreement the supplier acquires the means of production in the form of a transfer of people, assets and other resources from the client. The client agrees to procure the services from the supplier for the term of the contract. Business segments typically outsourced include information technology, human resources, facilities, real estate management, and accounting. Many companies also outsource customer support and call center functions like telemarketing, customer service, market research, manufacturing, designing, web development, content writing, ghostwriting and engineering. Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ... The Centre for Facilities Management (CFM) defines Facilities Management as ‘the processes by which an organisation plans, delivers and sustains excellent support services in a quality environment to meet changing strategic business objectives at best cost’. See also See also Facility management External links Centre for Facilities Management ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... Tech Support is the modern term for assistance with electronics or software, usually computer related. ... A call centre (Commonwealth English) or call center (AmE) is a centralized office of a company that answers incoming telephone calls from customers(often for the purposes of product support) , or that makes outgoing telephone calls to customers (telemarketing). ... Telemarketing office Telemarketing is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson uses the telephone to solicit prospective customers to buy products or services. ... Customer service (also known as Client Service) is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase. ... Market research is the process of systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about customers, competitors and the market. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Design as a process can take many forms depending on the object being designed and the individual or individuals participating. ... Web development is a broad term for any activities related to developing a web site for the World Wide Web or an intranet. ... This article is about a ghostwriter, the type of writer. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ...

Outsourcing and offshoring are used interchangeably in public discourse despite important technical differences. Outsourcing involves contracting with a supplier, which may or may not involve some degree of offshoring. Offshoring is the transfer of an organizational function to another country, regardless of whether the work is outsourced or stays within the same corporation/company[3][4]. Offshore may refer to oil and natural gas production at sea; see oil platform. ...

With increasing globalization of outsourcing companies, the distinction between outsourcing and offshoring will become less clear over time. This is evident in the increasing presence of Indian outsourcing companies in the US and UK. The globalization of outsourcing operating models has resulted in new terms such as nearshoring, noshoring, and rightshoring that reflect the changing mix of locations. This is seen in the opening of offices and operations centers by Indian companies in the U.S. and UK.[5].[6] Nearshoring (or nearsourcing, nearshore outsourcing) is a concept for the form of outsourcing in which business processes are relocated to locations which are, generally, cheaper and yet geographically nearer. ...

Multisourcing refers to large (predominantly IT) outsourcing agreements. [7] Multisourcing is a framework to enable different parts of the client business to be sourced from different suppliers. This requires a governance model that communicates strategy, clearly defines responsibility and has end-to-end integration.[8] A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Look up responsibility in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up integration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Process of outsourcing

Deciding to outsource

The decision to outsource is taken at a strategic level and normally requires board approval. Outsourcing is the divestiture of a business function involving the transfer of people and the sale of assets to the supplier. The process begins with the client identifying what is to be outsourced and building a business case to justify the decision. Only once a high level business case has been established for the scope of services will a search begin to choose an outsourcing partner. Divestment (divestiture) is a term in finance and economics. ...

Supplier proposals

A Request for Proposal (RFP) is issued to the shortlist suppliers requesting a proposal and a price. A Request for Proposal (referred to as RFP) is an invitation for suppliers, through a bidding process, to submit a proposal on a specific Commodity or Service. ...

Supplier competition

A competition is held where the client marks and scores the supplier proposals. This may involve a number of face-to-face meetings to clarify the client requirements and the supplier response. The suppliers will be qualified out until only a few remain. This is known as down select in the industry. It is normal to go into the due diligence stage with two suppliers to maintain the competition. Following due diligence the suppliers submit a "best and final offer" (BAFO) for the client to make the final down select decision to one supplier. It is not unusual for two suppliers to go into competitive negotiations. Due diligence is a term used for a number of concepts involving either the performance of an investigation of a business or person, or the performance of an act with a certain standard of care. ...


The negotiations take the original RFP, the supplier proposals, BAFO submissions and convert these into the contractual agreement between the client and the supplier. This stage finalizes the documentation and the final pricing structure.

Contract finalization

At the heart of every outsourcing deal is a contractual agreement that defines how the client and the supplier will work together. This is a legally binding document and is core to the governance of the relationship. There are three significant dates that each party signs up to the contract signature date, the effective date when the contract terms become active and a service commencement date when the supplier will take over the services.


The transition will begin from the effective date and normally run until four months after service commencement date. This is the process for the staff transfer and the take-on of services.


The transformation is the execution of a set of projects to implement the service level agreement (SLA), to reduce the total cost of ownership (TCO) or to implement new services. Emphasis is on 'standardisation' and 'centralisation'. Service Level Agreement (SLA) is that part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined. ... Total cost of ownership (TCO) is a financial estimate designed to help consumers and enterprise managers assess direct and indirect costs commonly related to software or hardware. ...

Ongoing service delivery

This is the execution of the agreement and lasts for the term of the contract.

Termination or renewal

Near the end of the contract term a decision will be made to terminate or renew the contract. Termination may involve taking back services (insourcing) or the transfer of services to another supplier. Insourcing is the opposite of outsourcing; that is insourcing (or contracting in) is often defined as the delegation of operations or jobs from production within a business to an internal (but stand-alone) entity (such as a subcontractor) that specializes in that operation. ...

Reasons for outsourcing

Organizations that outsource are seeking to realize benefits or address the following issues: [9][10][11]

  • Cost savings. The lowering of the overall cost of the service to the business. This will involve reducing the scope, defining quality levels, re-pricing, re-negotiation, cost re-structuring. Access to lower cost economies through offshoring called "labor arbitrage" generated by the wage gap between industrialized and developing nations.[12]
  • Cost restructuring. Operating leverage is a measure that compares fixed costs to variable costs. Outsourcing changes the balance of this ratio by offering a move from variable to fixed cost and also by making variable costs more predictable.
  • Improve quality. Achieve a step change in quality through contracting out the service with a new service level agreement.
  • Knowledge. Access to intellectual property and wider experience and knowledge.[13]
  • Contract. Services will be provided to a legally binding contract with financial penalties and legal redress. This is not the case with internal services.[14]
  • Operational expertise. Access to operational best practice that would be too difficult or time consuming to develop in-house.
  • Staffing issues. Access to a larger talent pool and a sustainable source of skills.
  • Capacity management. An improved method of capacity management of services and technology where the risk in providing the excess capacity is borne by the supplier.
  • Catalyst for change. An organization can use an outsourcing agreement as a catalyst for major step change that can not be achieved alone. The outsourcer becomes a Change agent in the process.
  • Reduce time to market. The acceleration of the development or production of a product through the additional capability brought by the supplier.
  • Commodification. The trend of standardizing business processes, IT Services and application services enabling businesses to intelligently buy at the right price. Allows a wide range of businesses access to services previously only available to large corporations.
  • Risk management. An approach to risk management for some types of risks is to partner with an outsourcer who is better able to provide the mitigation.[15]
  • Time zone. A sequential task can be done during normal day shift in different time zones - to make it seamlessly available 24x7. Same/similar can be done on a longer term between earth's hemispheres of summer/winter.
  • Customer Pressure. Customers may see benefits in dealing with your company, but are not happy with the performance of certain elements of the business, which they may not see a solution to except through outsourcing.

The operating leverage is the fixed cost operating expenses as a percentage of revenue: operating expense/revenue. ... For non-business risks, see risk or the disambiguation page risk analysis. ...

Criticisms of outsourcing

Public opinion

There is a strong public opinion regarding outsourcing (especially when combined with offshoring) that outsourcing damages a local labor market. Outsourcing is the transfer of the delivery of services which affects both jobs and individuals. It is difficult to dispute that outsourcing has a detrimental effect on individuals who face job disruption and employment insecurity; however, its supporters believe that outsourcing should bring down prices, providing greater economic benefit to all. There are legal protections in the European Union regulations called the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment). Labor laws in the United States are not as protective as those in the European Union. A study has attempted to show that public controversies about outsourcing in the U.S. have much more to do with class and ethnic tensions within the U.S. itself, than with actual impacts of outsourcing. [16] Offshore may refer to oil and natural gas production at sea; see oil platform. ... TUPE or Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) regulations are an important plank of employment law in Britain, and, under different names, in other EU countries. ...

Against shareholder views

For a publicly listed company it is the responsibility of the board to run the business for the shareholders. This means taking into consideration the views of the shareholders. Shareholders may be interested in return on investment and/or social responsibility. The board may decide that outsourcing is an appropriate strategy for the business. Shareholders have a responsibility to make their views known to the board of directors if they are against outsourcing. A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or company (including a corporation), that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company. ... In finance, the return on investment (ROI) or just return is a calculation used to determine whether a proposed investment is wise, and how well it will repay the investor. ... Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ...

Failure to realize business value

The main business criticism of outsourcing is that it fails to realize the business value that the outsourcer promised the client. In management, business value is an informal term that includes all forms of value that determine the health and well-being of the firm in the long-run. ...

Language skills

In the area of call centers end-user-experience is deemed to be of lower quality when a service is outsourced. This is exacerbated when outsourcing is combined with off-shoring to regions where the first language and culture are different. The questionable quality is particularly evident when call centers that service the public are outsourced and offshored.

There are a number of the public who find the linguistics features such as accents, word use and phraseology different which may make call center agents difficult to understand. The visual clues that are present in face-to-face encounters are missing from the call center interactions and this also may lead to misunderstandings and difficulties.[17] For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Look up Accent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Accent may refer to— in linguistics, a method of pronouncing words common to a certain region. ... A call centre (Commonwealth English) or call center (AmE) is a centralized office of a company that answers incoming telephone calls from customers(often for the purposes of product support) , or that makes outgoing telephone calls to customers (telemarketing). ... Face to Face may refer to interactions or meetings between people in real life. ...

Social responsibility

Some argue that the outsourcing of jobs (particularly off-shore) exploits the lower paid workers. A contrary view is that more people are employed and benefit from paid work.

Quality of service

Quality of service is measured through a service level agreement (SLA) in the outsourcing contract. In poorly defined contracts there is no measure of quality or SLA defined. Even when an SLA exists it may not be to the same level as previously enjoyed. This may be due to the process of implementing proper objective measurement and reporting which is being done for the first time. It may also be lower quality through design to match the lower price. Service Level Agreement (SLA) is that part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined. ...

There are a number of stakeholders who are affected and there is no single view of quality. The CEO may view the lower quality acceptable to meet the business needs at the right price. The retained management team may view quality as slipping compared to what they previously achieved. The end consumer of the service may also receive a change in service that is within agreed SLAs but is still perceived as inadequate. The supplier may view quality in purely meeting the defined SLAs regardless of perception or ability to do better. A corporate stakeholder is a party who affects, or can be affected by, the companys actions. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ...

Quality in terms of end-user-experience is best measured through customer satisfaction questionnaires which are professionally designed to capture an unbiased view of quality. Surveys can be one of research[18]. This allows quality to be tracked over time and also for corrective action to be identified and taken.

Staff turnover

The staff turnover of employee who originally transferred to the outsourcer is a concern for many companies. Turnover is higher under an outsourcer and key company skills may be lost with retention outside of the control of the company.

In outsourcing offshore there is an issue of staff turnover in the outsourcer companies call centers. It is quite normal for such companies to replace its entire workforce each year in a call center.[19] This inhibits the build-up of employee knowledge and keeps quality at a low level.

Company knowledge

Outsourcing could lead to communication problems with transferred employees. For example before transfer staff have access to broadcast company e-mail informing them of new products, procedures etc. Once in the outsourcing organization the same access may not be available. Also to reduce costs, some outsource employees may not have access to e-mail, but any information which is new is delivered in team meetings. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Qualifications of outsourcers

The outsourcer may replace staff with less qualified people or with people with different non-equivalent qualifications.[20]

In the engineering discipline there has been a debate about the number of engineers being produced by the major economies of the United States, India and China. The argument centers around the definition of an engineering graduate and also disputed numbers. The closest comparable numbers of annual gradates of four-year degrees are United States (137,437) India (112,000) and China (351,537). [21][22] Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ...

Work, labour, and economy

Net labour movements


Offshore outsourcing for the purpose of saving cost can often have a negative influence on the real productivity of a company. Rather than investing in technology to improve productivity, companies gain non-real productivity by hiring fewer people locally and outsourcing work to less productive facilities offshore that appear to be more productive simply because the workers are paid less. Sometimes, this can lead to strange contradictions where workers in a third world country using hand tools can appear to be more productive than a U.S. worker using advanced computer controlled machine tools, simply because their salary appears to be less in terms of U.S. dollars.

In contrast, increases in real productivity are the result of more productive tools or methods of operating that make it possible for a worker to do more work. Non-real productivity gains are the result of shifting work to lower paid workers, often without regards to real productivity. The net result of choosing non-real over real productivity gain is that the company falls behind and obsoletes itself overtime rather than making real investments in productivity.

Standpoint of labor

From the standpoint of labor within countries on the negative end of outsourcing this may represent a new threat, contributing to rampant worker insecurity, and reflective of the general process of globalization (see Krugman, Paul (2006). "Feeling No Pain." New York Times, March 6, 2006). While the "outsourcing" process may provide benefits to less developed countries or global society as a whole, in some form and to some degree - include rising wages or increasing standards of living - these benefits are not secure. Further, the term outsourcing is also used to describe a process by which an internal department, equipment as well as personnel, is sold to a service provider, who may retain the workforce on worse conditions or discharge them in the short term. The affected workers thus often feel they are being "sold down the river." Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... Paul Krugman Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The U.S.

'Outsourcing' became a popular political issue in the United States during the 2004 U.S. presidential election. The political debate centered on outsourcing's consequences for the domestic U.S. workforce. Democratic U.S. presidential candidate John Kerry criticized U.S. firms that outsource jobs abroad or that incorporate overseas in tax havens to avoid paying their fair share of U.S. taxes during his 2004 campaign, calling such firms "Benedict Arnold corporations". Criticism of outsourcing, from the perspective of U.S. citizens, by-and-large, revolves around the costs associated with transferring control of the labor process to an external entity in another country. A Zogby International poll conducted in August 2004 found that 71% of American voters believed that “outsourcing jobs overseas” hurt the economy while another 62% believed that the U.S. government should impose some legislative action against companies that transfer domestic jobs overseas, possibly in the form of increased taxes on companies that outsource.[23] One given rationale is the extremely high corporate income tax rate in the U.S. relative to other OECD nations [24][25][26], and the peculiar practice of taxing revenues earned outside of U.S. jurisdiction, a very uncommon practice. It is argued that lowering the corporate income tax and ending the double-taxation of foreign-derived revenue (taxed once in the nation where the revenue was raised, and once from the U.S.) will alleviate corporate outsourcing and make the U.S. more attractive to foreign companies. Sarbanes-Oxley has also been cited as a factor for corporate flight from U.S. jurisdiction. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Taxes redirects here. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... United States citizenship is membership of the United States political system. ... John Zogby (born 1948) is a noted American political pollster. ... Before the signing ceremony of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, President George W. Bush meets with Senator Paul Sarbanes, Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao and other dignitaries in the Blue Room at the White House July 30, 2002. ...

Policy solutions to outsourcing are also criticized.


Before outsourcing an organization is responsible for the actions of all their staff and liable for their actions. When these same people are transferred to an outsourcer they may not change desk but their legal status has changed. They no-longer are directly employed or responsible to the organization. This causes legal, security and compliance issues that need to be addressed through the contract between the client and the suppliers. This is one of the most complex areas of outsourcing and requires a specialist third party adviser.


Fraud is a specific security issue that is criminal activity whether it is by employees or the supplier staff. It can be argued that fraud is more likely when outsourcers are involved. In April 2005, a high-profile case involving the theft of $350,000 from four Citibank customers occurred when call center workers acquired the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts opened under fictitious names. Citibank did not find out about the problem until the American customers noticed discrepancies with their accounts and notified the bank.[27]. Citibank is a major international bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York. ...

See also

The business process outsourcing industry in India refers to the Services Outsourcing Industry in India, catering mainly to Western operations of MNCs (Multinational Corporations). ... Business process outsourcing or BPO is an emerging industry in the Philippines. ... Business process outsourcing (BPO) contains the transmission of processes along with the associated operational activities and responsibilities, to a third party with at least a guaranteed equal service level and where the client contains a firm grip over the (activities of the) vendor for mutual long term success. ... In economics, David Ricardo is credited for the principle of comparative advantage to explain how it can be beneficial for two parties (countries, regions, individuals and so on) to trade if one has a lower relative cost of producing some good. ... A compromise agreement is a contract between an employer and its employee (or ex-employee) that can be used in redundancy and dismissal situations. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Crowdsourcing is a neologism for the act of taking a job traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people, in the form of an open call. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... According to Macmillan English Dictionary homeshoring is the transfer of service industry employment from offices to home-based employees with appropriate telephone and Internet facilities [1] Homeshoring is best thought of as a combination of outsourcing and telecommuting. ... Hot desking is the temporary physical occupation of a work station or surface by a particular employee. ... This article is about the office environment. ... Information technology consulting (IT consulting or business and technology services) is a field that focuses on advising businesses on how best to use information technology to meet their business objectives. ... Insourcing is the opposite of outsourcing; that is insourcing (or contracting in) is often defined as the delegation of operations or jobs from production within a business to an internal (but stand-alone) entity (such as a subcontractor) that specializes in that operation. ... Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) is a form of outsourcing. ... // Engineering Process Outsourcing(EPO) for Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry a vertical domain for built environment. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics. ... Nearshoring (or nearsourcing, nearshore outsourcing) is a concept for the form of outsourcing in which business processes are relocated to locations which are, generally, cheaper and yet geographically nearer. ... feydey 10:10, 12 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Offshoring. ... Offshore may refer to oil and natural gas production at sea; see oil platform. ... Service Level Agreement (SLA) is that part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined. ... Supply chain management (SCM) is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the operations of the supply chain as efficiently as possible. ... A supply chain, logistics network, or supply network is a coordinated system of organizations, people, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service in physical or virtual manner from supplier to customer. ... A telecentre is a public place where people can access computers, the Internet and other technologies that help them gather information and communicate with others at the same time as they develop digital skills. ... It has been suggested that Nomad Workers be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Vertical expansion be merged into this article or section. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


  1. ^ Terms and Definitions. ventureoutsource.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  2. ^ Overby, S (2007) ABC: An Introduction to Outsourcing. CIO.com.
  3. ^ Norwood et al (2006) Off-Shoring: An Elusive Phenomenon. National Academy of Public Administration
  4. ^ Babu, M. (2005) Myth: All Outsourcing Is Offshoring www.computerworld.com
  5. ^ McCue, A. (2006) Indian outsourcers to launch European invasion www.silicon.com.
  6. ^ Gibson (2006) India 2.0 Aims to Sustain Its Global IT Influence eWeek
  7. ^ (Q4 2006)Mandatory Multisourcing Discipline Business Trends Quarterly
  8. ^ (2006) Mandatory Multisourcing Discipline
  9. ^ Gareiss, R (2002, 18 Nov) Analyzing The Outsourcers. Information Week.
  10. ^ Drezner, D.W. (2004) The Outsourcing Bogeyman www.foreignaffairs.org
  11. ^ Engardio, P. (2006) Outsourcing: Job Killer or Innovation Boost? Business Week
  12. ^ Engardio, P. & Arndt, M. & Foust, D. (2006) The Future Of Outsourcing Business Week
  13. ^ Engardio, P. & Kripalani, M. (2006) The Rise Of India Business Week
  14. ^ Rothman, J. (2003) 11 Steps to Successful Outsourcing: A Contrarian's View www.computerworld.com
  15. ^ Roehrig, P (2006) Bet On Governance To Manage Outsourcing Risk. Business Trends Quarterly
  16. ^ Ganesh, S. (2007). Outsourcing as Symptomatic. Class visibility and ethnic scapegoating in the US IT sector.. Journal of Communication Management, 11.1: 71-83.
  17. ^ Alster, N (2005) Customer Disservice. www.CFO.com.
  18. ^ Maddock, B. & Warren, C. & Worsley A. (2005) Survey of canteens and food services in Victorian schools
  19. ^ Kobayashi-Hillary, M. (2007) India faces battle for outsourcing news.bbc.co.uk
  20. ^ Stein, R (2005) Hospital Services Performed Overseas. www.washingtonpost.com
  21. ^ Wadhwa, V (2005) About That Engineering Gap. www.businessweek.com
  22. ^ Gereffi, G. & Wadhwa, V. Framing the Engineering Outsourcing Debate: Placing the United States on a Level Playing Field with China and India. Duke University.
  23. ^ Zogby International survey results online at zogby.com
  24. ^ Veronique de Rugy on Corporate Flight & Taxes on NRO Financial
  25. ^ The Tax Foundation - U.S. Lagging Behind OECD Corporate Tax Trends
  26. ^ John Tamny on Hillary Clinton Economics on NRO Financial
  27. ^ Ribeiro, J (2005) Indian call center workers charged with Citibank fraud. www.infoworld.com

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ...

Further reading

  • Bharat Vagadia, "Outsourcing to India: A Legal Handbook", August 2007, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-72219-9
  • Mario Lewis, IT Application Service Offshoring: An Insider's Guide, Sage Publications, 2006, ISBN-10: 0761935258 ISBN-13: 978-0761935254
  • Ganesh, S. 2007. "Outsourcing as Symptomatic: Class visibility and ethnic scapegoating in the US IT Sector." Journal of Communication Management. 11.1: 71-83.
  • Tim R. Holcomb, Michael A. Hitt. 2007. "Toward a model of strategic outsourcing". Journal of Operations Management, volume 25, issue 2: pp. 464-481
  • Thomas Kern, Leslie P. Willcocks: „The Relationship Advantage“ Oxford University Press 2002, ISBN 0199241929
  • Thomas Kern, Leslie P. Willcocks, Mary C. Lacity: „Netsourcing “ Prentice Hall PTR 2002, ISBN 0130923559
  • Peter Bendor-Samuel (author), Turning Lead Into Gold: The Demystification of Outsourcing (2000), ISBN 1-890009-87-3
  • A.D. Bardhan and C. Kroll, The New Wave of Outsourcing (2003).
  • Peter Brudenall (editor), Technology and Offshore Outsourcing Strategies (2005), ISBN 1-4039-4619-1
  • Lou Dobbs, Exporting America Why Corporate Greed is Shipping American Jobs Overseas, 2004 ISBN 0-446-57744-8
  • Christopher M. England, Outsourcing the American Dream, October 2001, Writer's Club Press, ISBN 0-595-20148-2
  • Georg Erber, Aida Sayed-Ahmed, Offshore Outsourcing - A Global Shift in the Present IT Industry , in: Intereconomics, Volume 40, Number 2, March 2005, S. 100 - 112, [1]
  • Gary Gereffi and Vivek Wadhwa, Framing the Engineering Outsourcing Debate: Placing the United States on a Level Playing Field with India and China (2006).
  • Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century 2005 ISBN 0-374-29288-4
  • Ron Hira and Anirl Hira, with forward by Lou Dobbs Outsourcing America, What's Behind our national crisis and how we can reclaim American Jobs 2005 ISBN 0-8144-0868-0
  • Mark Kobayashi-Hillary. 2004. (2nd ed 2005) Outsourcing to India. ISBN 3-540-23943-X.
  • Mark Kobayashi-Hillary, 'Building a Future with BRICs: The Next Decade for Offshoring' (Nov 2007). ISBN 978-3-540-46453-2.
  • Mark Kobayashi-Hillary & Dr Richard Sykes, 'Global Services: Moving to a Level Playing Field' (May 2007). ISBN 978-1-902505-83-1.
  • William Lazonick, Globalization of the ICT Labor Force, in: The Oxford Handbook on ICTs, eds. Claudio Ciborra, Robin Mansell, Danny Quah, Roger Solverstone, Oxford University Press, (forthcoming)
  • Baziotopoulos A. Leonidas (2006), "Logistics Innovation and Transportation", Work-in-Progress Conference paper, EuroCHRIE Thessaloniki, 2006.
  • Catherine Mann, Accelerating the Globalization of America: The Role for Information Technology, Institute for International Economics, Washington D.C., June 2006, [2], ISBN paper 0-88132-390-X
  • Stephen Haag, Maeve Cummings, Donald J. McCubbrey, Alain Pinsonneault, Richard Donovan "Management Information Systems For The Information Age", 2006, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, ISBN 0-07-095569-7
  • National Academy of Public Administration. (2006). "Off-Shoring: An Elusive Phenomenon". Report for the U.S. Congress and the Bureau of Economic Analysis: Washington.
  • McDonald, SM and Jacobs, TJ (2005) Brand Name ‘India’: The Rise of Outsourcing, Int. J. Management Practice, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.152-174.
  • Toledo, Mario, Outsourcing and Offshoring: Companies immerged in a complex environment, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management Project Work, Hamburg University of Technology.
  • Peter Wiggers, Maritha de Boer-de Wit, and Henk Kok, "IT Performance Management", 2003, ISBN 0750659262

For other uses, see The World Is Flat (disambiguation). ... Louis Carl Dobbs (born September 24, 1945), is the CNN anchor and managing editor for Lou Dobbs Tonight. ...

External links

Industry bodies

Journals and publications



  • Trade and the Future of American Workers
  • Difference between Outsourcing and Worldsourcing

  Results from FactBites:
Outsourcing Information and Resources - Outsourcing Center (895 words)
Outsourcing the highly specialized area of revenue accounting had a major impact on cash flow.
Outsourcing printing needs is not the same as outsourcing procurement, especially where it may impact creativity in marketing.
Outsourcing solved its recruitment problems and cut costs—an RPO reduced the cost per hire 57 percent.
outsourcing: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (7291 words)
Outsourcing can free the entrepreneur from tedious and time-consuming tasks, such as payroll, so that he or she can concentrate on the marketing and sales activities that are most essential to the firm's long-term growth and prosperity.
Outsourcing (or contracting out) is often defined as the delegation of non-core operations or jobs from internal production within a business to an external entity (such as a subcontractor) that specializes in that operation.
Outsourcing is a business decision that is often made to lower costs or focus on competencies.
  More results at FactBites »



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