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Encyclopedia > Outdoor Cannabis cultivation
Aerial view of illegal marijuana cultivation plot.

This article is about the method of cultivating Cannabis outdoors traditionally. Cannabis grown outdoors can be just as potent as its indoor counterpart if tended to properly. Image File history File links marijuana being grown in the open under cover. ... Image File history File links marijuana being grown in the open under cover. ...

Contents

Process

When cultivated outdoors, the chosen areas are those which receive twelve hours or more of sunlight in a given day. In North America, northern locations are preferred (Humboldt County, California, Québec and British Columbia being particularly notable), but southern locations (such as Maui, Hawaii) are also known to be good producers.[citation needed] Humboldt County is a county located on the northwest coast of the U.S. state of California, on the Pacific Ocean. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Maui is also the name of the mythological demigod of various Polynesian cultures, including that of ancient Hawai‘i; see Maui (mythology). ...


In instances where the local laws do not permit growing cannabis, cultivators may choose to grow in forests or rugged and rural areas where the local population are not likely to find the crop. Another technique is to grow cannabis in a crop that is larger and obscures the plants, such as maize. This is reported by the United States government to be common in the midwestern states.[citation needed] Bamboo and elderberry are also used as camouflage companion plants.[citation needed] “Corn” redirects here. ...


Some government organizations have claimed that in state and national parks, people have been injured by these "rebel farmers" protecting their crops, including a well documented developing problem with Mexican cartels growing cannabis in US national parks and forests.[citation needed] A cartel is a group of formally independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices. ...


Harvest and processing

Close-up of a female marijuana bud in flowering stage. White trichomes can be seen coating the surface, which will darken as flowering progresses.

Cannabis Buds are typically harvested when fully ripe. Generally, ripeness is defined as when the white pistils start to turn dark yellow, orange, light to mid red, etc. and the trichomes, "crystals", barely begin to turn milky from clear. These trichomes can range from completely clear (generally deemed underdeveloped), to amberish-red. Ideally, professionals will use a decent power magnifying glass, a brix meter (to measure "sugar" content), and a microscope. The potential seed pods swell with resins usually reserved for seed production, thus improving the quality of the buds (called colitas), which will swell to form full "colas". If harvested early on with only a few of the pistils turned color, the buds will have a more pure THC content and less of the cannabinoids CBD and CBN. The later, non-psychoactive cannabinoids contribute to create the bouquet of the marijuana, and modulate the overall nature of the high from anywhere from purely psychedelic to purely sedative. ImageMetadata File history File links Cannabis_female_flowers_close-up. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Cannabis_female_flowers_close-up. ... The Pistil is the part of the flower made up of one or more carpels. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabinol, also known as CBN, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


Contrary to sinsemilla (bud production focused cultivation), seeds are harvested when fully developed and often after the accompanying buds have begun to deteriorate. In contrast, hemp grown for fiber is harvested before flowering, and cannabis grown for cloning is not flowered at all.


Drying

The plants are dried slowly over 1-2 weeks at roughly room temperature. A stable temperature preserves cannabinoids well. Flowers are hung by their stalks, allowing the internal fluids of the plant to remain in the flowers. Roots are removed. When the stems in the middle of the largest buds can be snapped easily, the plant is dry enough to be cured. Drying is done in a dark place, as trichomes will deteriorate if exposed to light.


Curing

The curing process continues breaking down sugars and helps develop taste and smoothness of smoke. Usually, the dried product is packed (not compressed) into glass canning jars which are airtight. Initially the product is checked periodically (every few hours) to make sure it was properly dried and has not remoistened itself. After several days, when the product is dried to satisfaction, the jars are sealed off and opened just once a week. Curing is highly varied—the minimum is usually two weeks. Some growers even cure as long as six months, while others do not cure at all. As with tobacco, curing can make the cannabis more pleasant to smoke. For the same reasons as when drying, curing jars are stored in a cool, dark, place. In polymer chemistry and Process Engineering, curing refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical additives, ultraviolet radiation or heat. ... In computer science, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits, or information units, thanks to specific encoding schemes. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ...


A recent method of curing is called water curing. This method is quicker and can improve a lower quality product. The buds are submersed in water for a period of 7 straight days, changing the water daily. The buds are then dried and are ready to use. When water curing, nutrients can be added to the plants up until they are harvested. The water will flush out harmful chemicals (such as the ones used to feed the plants) as well as proteins, sugars, pigments and some resins. This will also increase the THC to weight ratio.[1]


Well it says "Initially the product is checked periodically (every few hours) to make sure it was properly dried and has not remoistened itself," which is incorrect. Actually the whole point of curing is to remoisten the buds. When buds are dried, they dry from the outside in. When taken off the rack from drying, there is a very small amount of moisture left in the center of the buds. Curing is done to redistribute this minute amount of moisture throughout the bud, while continuing to destroy any remaining chlorophyll.


Hash

Main article: Hashish

Hashish can be expensive but like everything else in cannabis cultivation, it can be an investment that pays for itself. After a harvest, there are typically many green leaves- particularly large shade leaves- which themselves cannot be smoked, but have collected over time many fallen trichromes. Rather than letting them go to waste, these are soaked in a bucket of cold water. The liquid is then passed through a succession of bags with decreasing screen sizes which capture the trichromes, which are then pressed into shape and let dry. The result is called bubble hash, due to the bubbling which occurs when it is heated for smoking. This bubbling is due to its purity, as adulterants tend to cause hash not to bubble.[2] Confiscated hashish. ...


Hash Oil. Cannabinoids are soluble in some chemicals, notably butane and isopropyl alcohol. It is possible to take the leaves and stems of the plant, which are generally considered to be of low THC concentration, and immerse them in liquid butane. The butane is then captured through a filter, and evaporated. The resultant hash oil is often very strong in terms of THC content, and can be then smoked. Butane is highly combustible. Since it is heavier than air and will settle on the ground, hash oil is only made outdoors. Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hash oil is a solution of tetrahydrocannabinol, but is a misnomer in suggesting any resemblance to hashish. ...


Tincture. Strong grain alcohols, such as Everclear, can also be used to extract cannabinoids from the marijuana plant. The extraction process takes longer, but results in an edible product. Marijuana stems, leaves and buds can all be used. Strong grain alcohols evaporate very quickly. The resulting mixture can be eaten straight, mixed with food or even smoked. Many smokers prefer to dip cigarettes in the mixture, which allows them to smoke in public without detection. Contact with direct flame causes this liquid to lose its THC content. Smokers usually heat the liquid and inhale the heated vapors through a straw. Everclear may refer to: Everclear (alcohol), a brand of grain alcohol Everclear (band), a rock band founded in 1992 Everclear (album), an album by indie rock group American Music Club This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Detection

A young cannabis plant

Outdoor cultivation is common in both rural and urban areas, with outdoor cultivators tending to grow Cannabis indica-based strains because they have heavy yields, quick maturing time, and tend to stay shorter than sativa strains. Some growers prefer sativa to indica because of its clear headed high, better response to sunlight, and lower odor emissions. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1812 KB) Summary Male cannabis plant growing wild, about . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1812 KB) Summary Male cannabis plant growing wild, about . ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Binomial name Cannabis indica Lam. ...


Cannabis plants blend in easily with other plants and are unidentifiable by all but the most observant. Often simple camouflage techniques can avert detection, such as mixing cannabis plants with other bushy, leafy species. Plants started outdoors late in the season do not grow as tall, attracting less attention when placed next to plants of similar or taller stature. Even tall plants grown among trees can be almost invisible in their camouflage. Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ...


A common technique used by many outdoor growers is to dig a hole and put a potted plant in it. This can reduce a plant's height by at least a foot, reducing visibility to neighbours, visitors and guests. Also, some growers top the plant when it is only 12 inches (30 cm) high, and grow the 2 tops horizontally along a trellis. When using this technique, it is unlikely the plant will grow to be over 3 feet (1 m) tall. A trellis is a frame-like structure on which vined plants can grow. ...


Law enforcement agencies often monitor certain wider areas, particularly areas of countryside with a significant history of outdoor cannabis cultivation. In helicopters, they use infrared cameras and other equipment that can detect cannabis by measuring the heat and reflective signature of the vegetation below. Cannabis has higher reflectivity at certain wavelengths than other rural crops, such as corn. Law enforcement agencies have found that the use of this technology has become necessary in their detection efforts because many growers hide cannabis among other plants, making detection with the naked eye difficult even from the air. These techniques are effective and difficult to defeat because a plant's reflective signature is difficult to change or mask. Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ...

Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... There are many alternative Cannabis cultivation techniques. ... // Main article: Stoner Rock Many musicians attempt to recreate their experience with cannabis through the use of audio distortion, droning, echoes, or guitar effects. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Confiscated hashish. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In cannabis culture, shake refers to the small, leafy fragments of cannabis that gather at the bottom of a bag, which are said to result, putatively, of it having been shaken in handling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hash oil is a solution of tetrahydrocannabinol, but is a misnomer in suggesting any resemblance to hashish. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ... A blunt made from a Dutch Master cigarillo A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana Bowl is used by smokers of cannabis to indicate one of two different things: The bowl-shaped receptacle in which marijuana is placed prior to smoking which forms part of a marijuana pipe or bong. ... There is also a Chillum, Maryland, a suburb North of Washington, D.C. Two small glass chillums, with bottle cap for size comparison. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... This article is about a traditional smoking pipe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that bowl (drug culture) be merged into this article or section. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... Spots (also known as spotting, blades, dots or hot knives) is a method of smoking cannabis, where small pieces of the plant are placed between two very hot knives and the smoke produced is inhaled. ... A common glass steamroller. ... A conduction-style vaporizer. ... AK 47 is a strain of cannabis, and placed 2nd at the 2003 Cannabis Cup in the Indica Cup category. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... Afghan Kush is an expensive variety of cannabis with prices at around $5,000 per pound. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Chocolate Thai is a famous cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... Columbian Red is a cannabis sativa cultivar genetically related to Panama Red. ... Durban is a strain of cannabis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ... Yield: Large Flowering Time: 6 - 7 weeks Height: 100 cm - 150 cm Kali Mist is a strain of cannabis. ... Developed by THSeeds in Amsterdam, Kushage seeks to do for Kush what SAGE did for sativa. ... Lightstorm is a 100% indica strain, known mostly for its deep purple color. ... Very small Lowryder. ... Matanuska Tundra (Also known as Matanuska Thunderfuck, Alaskan Thunderfuck, Alaskan Tundra and Alaskan Snowdragon) is a strain of Marijuana grown in the Matanuska Valley, Alaska. ... Nevilles Haze is a strain of cannabis that has a slight touch of Northern Lights #5. ... Northern Lights is one of the most famous strains of Cannabis indica ever to have been bred. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Kush (herb). ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... Purple Haze is a common street name for marijuana that has predominately purple (as opposed to green) calyxes or flowers. ... Santa Maria is a variety of marijuana stemming from the Brazilian Amazon where it has been used in a spiritual context. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about a potent strain of cannabis. ... White Widow is a very potent strain of cannabis popular in coffee shops in the Netherlands. ... Cannabutter is an oil/fat/butter based solution which has been infused with cannabinoids. ... Hash cookies, Space Cookie, hash cakes or space cakes are relatively common in regions with liberal drugs policies, including much of Europe (particularly the Netherlands). ... This article is about the drink. ... A Leary biscuit is a snack consisting of a cracker, cheese, and ground up marijuana bud. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Magic Brownie Canabis foods are foods prepared with cannabis in herbal or resin form to enjoy the psycoactive effects of the drug for those who prefer not to smoke it. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... Cannabis Assembly emblem Cannabis Assembly is a non-profit UK based religious group open to all people who declare a sincere cantheist use of cannabis. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, to move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of cannabis prohibition so that the responsible use of this drug... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: Промена) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... The Spliff Committee logo The Spliff Committee is an organization of people who share a common interest of promoting public and political awareness/acceptance of marijuana and cannabis recreational use. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ...

See also

This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  • Cervantes, Jorge. Indoor Marijuana Horticulture. Van Patten Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-878823-29-9
  • Clarke, Robert Connell. Marijuana Botany. Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, 1981. ISBN 0-914171-78-X
  • Green, Greg. The Cannabis Grow Bible. San Francisco: Green Candy Press, 2003. ISBN 1-931160-17-1.
  • Herer, Jack. The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of Cannabis and the Conspiracy Against Marijuana. Ah Ha Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 1-878125-02-8
  • Starks, Michael. Marijuana Chemistry: Genetics, Processing & Potency. Ronin Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0914171399

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