FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Out of India theory

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Anatolian · Armenian
Baltic · Celtic · Dacian · Germanic
Greek · Indo-Iranian · Italic · Phrygian
Slavic · Thracian · Tocharian
 
Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Anatolians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans · Indo-Iranians
Iranians · Italic peoples · Slavs
Thracians · Tocharians
 
Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. This proposition has been rejected by scholars of the relevant academic fields.[1] The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... For the language group see Indo-European languages; for other uses see Indo-European (disambiguation) Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... http://www. ... This article is about the European people. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Kurgan hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956 in order to combine archaeology with linguistics in locating the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in or nearby Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


The predominant model of Indo-European origins is the Kurgan hypothesis,[2] which dates the introduction of the Indo-European language family to the Indian subcontinent to the 2nd millennium BC, thereby precluding the identification of the Indus Valley Civilization, which peaked in the 3rd millennium BC, as Indo-Aryan. A minority of scholars prefer the Anatolian hypothesis, which dates the emergence of the Indo-Aryan languages to between 4600 and 2900 BC.[3] The Kurgan hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956 in order to combine archaeology with linguistics in locating the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ...

Contents

History

See also: Aryan Invasion Theory (history and controversies)

This article is about historical, ideological and socio-political aspects of this controversy. ...

Early proposals

When the finding of connections between languages from India to Europe led to the creation of Indo-European studies in the late 1700s some Indians and Europeans believed that the Proto-Indo-European language must be Sanskrit, or something very close to it. A few early Indo-Europeanists, such as Friedrich Schlegel,[4] had a firm belief in this and essentially created the idea that India was the Urheimat of all Indo-European languages. Most scholars, such as William Jones, however realized from earliest times that instead, Sanskrit and related European languages had a common source, and that no attested language represented this direct ancestor. Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (March 10, 1772 - January 11, 1829), German poet, critic and scholar, was the younger brother of August Wilhelm von Schlegel. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ...


The development of historical linguistics, specifically the law of palatals and the discovery of the laryngeals in Hittite, dramatically shattered Sanskrit's preeminent status as the most venerable elder in this reconstructed family.[5] The demotion of Sanskrit from its status as the original tongue of the Indo-Europeans to a more secondary and reduced role as a daughter language led to the changing of India as the favored Indo-European homeland in the early nineteenth century and linguists and historians started looking for another homeland. Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ...


The ethnologist and philologist Robert Gordon Latham was the first to state that, according to the principles of natural science, a language family's most likely point of origin is in the area of its greatest diversity which, in the case of Indo-European, is roughly in Central-Eastern Europe, where the Italic, Venetic, Illyrian, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Thracian, and Greek branches of the Indo-European language family are attested, as opposed to South Asia, where only the Indo-Aryan branch is.[6] Lachhmi Dhar Kalla responded by arguing that the greater linguistic diversity of Indo-European in Europe is the result of absorbing foreign linguistic elements, and that a language family's point of origin should be sought in the area of least linguistic change, since it has been least affected by substrate interference. Dhar's line of argument has a history in Western debates in the Indo-European homeland (e.g. Feist 1932 and Pissani 1974 as cited in Bryant 2001, p. 142-143) where it has been used to locate the Indo-European homeland near the area where the Lithuanian and Anatolian branches of Indo-European are attested. Robert Gordon Latham (1812–1888) was an ethnologist and philologist. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the Veneto region of Italy, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps. ... The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by ethnic groups identified as Illyrians: Delmatae, Pannoni, Illyrioi, Autariates, Taulanti (see List of Illyrian tribes). ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Lachhmi Dhar Shastri Kalla was Reader of Sanskrit at St. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ...


1999 "revival"

An Indian Urheimat has been promoted more recently by Elst (1999) and Talageri (2000), which led to an exchange of criticisms with Michael Witzel.[7] Michael E. J. Witzel (born 1943) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit and Chair of the Committee on South Asian Studies at Harvard University. ...


Elst (1999) and Talageri (2000) were cited in the defence of the "Indigenous Indo-Aryan" viewpoint found in Kazanas (2002) and Kazanas (2003), for which the Journal of Indo-European Studies waived peer review—in what its editor J. P. Mallory (2002) described as "a sense of fair play"—in order to have a debate, which consisted of an article by Kazanas (2002), nine highly critical reviews by referees,[8] and Kazanas (2003) response to those criticisms. The Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) is a journal of Indo-European studies, established in 1973. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


Chronology

Neolithic and Bronze Age Indian history is periodized into the Pre-Harappan (ca. 7000 to 3300 BC), Early Harappan (3300 to 2600), Mature Harappan (2600 to 1900) and Late Harappan (1900 to 1300 BC) periods. The term Indus Valley Tradition is used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition. ... The term Indus Valley Tradition is used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition. ... The term Indus Valley Tradition is used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ...


The Indian Urheimat proposal put forward by Elst (1999), which he dubs the "emerging non-invasionist model," is as follows: During the 6th millennium BC, the Proto-Indo-Europeans were living in the Punjab region of Northern India. As the result of demographic expansion, they spread into Bactria as the Kambojas. The Paradas moved further and inhabited the Caspian coast and much of Central Asia while the Cinas moved northwards and inhabited the Tarim Basin in northwestern China, forming the Tocharians group of I-E speakers. These groups were Proto-Anatolian and inhabited that region by 2000 BC. These people took the oldest form of the Proto Indo-European (PIE) language with them and, while interacting with people of the Anatolian and Balkan region, transformed it into its own dialect. While inhabiting Central Asia they discovered the uses of the horse, which they later sent back to Urheimat.[9] Later on during their history, they went on to take Western Europe and thus spread the Indo-European languages to that region.[9] During the 4th millennium BC, civilization in India was evolving to become the urban Indus Valley Civilization. During this time, the PIE languages evolved to Proto-Indo-Iranian[9] Some time during this period, the Indo-Iranians began to separate as the result of internal rivalry and conflict, with the Iranians expanding westwards towards Mesopotamia and Persia, these possibly were the Pahlavas. They also expanded into parts of Central Asia. By the end of this migration, India was left with the Proto-Indo-Aryans. At the end of the Mature Harappan period, the Sarasvati river began drying up and the remainder of Indo-Aryans split into separate categories. Some travelled westwards and became the Mitanni people by around 1500 BC. The Mitanni are known for their links to Vedic culture, after assimilating and establishing a presence in the Hurrian homeland, they established a culture very similar to that of Vedic India. Thus the Mitanni language is still considered Indo-Aryan. Others travelled eastwards and inhabited the Gangetic basin while others travelled southwards and interacted with the Dravidian people.[9] Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... There are parishes that have the name in Portugal: Parada, a parish in the district of Alfândega da Fé Parada, a parish in the district of Almeida Parada, a parish in the district of Arcos de Valdevez Parada, a parish in the district of Bragança Parada, a parish... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Ganga basin is a part of the composite Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, which drains an area of 1,086,000 square kilometres. ... Languages Dravidian languages Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions Related ethnic groups Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of mainly Southern India, Northeastern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal who currently...


Linguistics

See also linguistics or historical linguistics.

OIT supporters argue that the linguistic evidence is either inconclusive or supports OIT. Talageri (2000) and Kazanas (2002) have adapted the language dispersal model proposed by Johanna Nichols (in Blench & Spriggs 1997) to support OIT by moving Nichols' proposed Indo-European point of origin from Bactria-Sogdiana to India. These ideas have not been accepted in mainstream linguistics. Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Linguist Johanna Nichols is a professor in the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at University of California, Berkeley. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ...


Elst (1999) argues that it is altogether more likely that the Urheimat was in satem territory. The alternative from the angle of an Indian Urheimat theory (IUT) would be that India had originally had the kentum form, that the dialects which first emigrated (Hittite, Italo-Celtic, Germanic, Tokharic) retained the kentum form and took it to the geographical borderlands of the IE expanse (Europe, Anatolia, China), while the dialects which emigrated later (Baltic, Thracian, Phrygian) were at a halfway stage and the last-emigrated dialects (Slavic, Armenian, Iranian) plus the staybehind Indo-Aryan languages had adopted the satem form. This would satisfy the claim of the so-called Lateral Theory that the most conservative forms are to be found at the outskirts rather than in the metropolis.[10]


Comparative linguistics

Diachronic map showing the Satem areal in red. The central area of Satemization is shown in darker red, corresponding to the Sintashta/Abashevo/Srubna cultures.

There are twelve accepted branches of the Indo-European family. The two Indo-Iranian branches, Indic (Indo-Aryan) and Iranian, dominate the eastern cluster, historically spanning Scythia, Iran and Northern India. While the exact sequence in which the different branches separated or migrated away from a homeland is disputed, linguists generally agree that Anatolian was the first branch to be separated from the remaining body of Indo-European. Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Indo-European languages Centum-Satem isogloss ... Image File history File links by en:User:Dbachmann File links The following pages link to this file: Indo-European languages Centum-Satem isogloss ... The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... In linguistics, an areal feature is any typological feature shared by languages within the same geographical area. ... The Andronovo culture in the context of late 3rd millennium Indo-European expansion The Andronovo culture, is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Bronze Age communities who lived in western Siberia, Russia and parts of Kazakhstan during the second and first millennium BC. The culture is named... Abashevo culture, ca. ... Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ...


Additionally, Graeco-Aryan isoglosses seem suggestive that Greek and Indo-Iranian may have shared a common homeland for awhile after the splitting of the other IE branches. Such a homeland could be northwestern India (which is preferred by proponents of the OIT) - or the Pontic steppes (as preferred by the mainstream supporters of the Kurgan hypothesis). Graeco-Aryan refers to a hypothesis that the Proto-Greek and the Proto-Indo-Iranian languages share a common history separate from the remaining Indo-European languages. ... The Pontic steppe refers to the steppelands to the north of the Black Sea and on its eastern side as far as the Caspian Sea. ...


According to Hock, linguistic isogloss patterns make OIT improbable but are not enough to unequivocally reject it.[11]


Substratum influences in Vedic Sanskrit

A concern raised by mainstream linguistic scholars is the extensive influence of the Dravidian language family on the Indic, a claim best developed by Emeneau (1956, 1969,1974). OIT proponents argue that the evidence of a linguistic substratum in Indo-Aryan is inconclusive.[12][13] Another concern raised is that there is large time gap between the comparative materials, which can be seen as a serious methodological drawback.[14] Some Indoeuropeanists (Such as Hock 1975, 1984, 1996, Hamp 1996, Tikkanen 1987, and Jamison 1989, as cited in Bryant 2001:78-84) maintain that the traits claimed as probably stemming from early Dravidian substrate influence can also be explained by other internal factors or adstratum influences, and that internal explanations for these traits should be preferred leaving the hypothesis of Substrata influence inconclusive. But Hock (1975, 1984) rejected the Dravidian substratum list of grammatical and syntactical features created by M.B. Emeneau (1956, 1969, 1974), F.B.J. Kuiper (1967) and Massica (1976). The presence of non-Indo-European vocabulary and retroflex consonants in Vedic Sanskrit is generally taken by linguists to indicate the influence of a non-Indo-European speaking substratum population, variously identified as Proto-Dravidian[1] or Proto- or Para-Munda. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Murray Barnson Emeneau (February 28, 1904 - August 29, 2005) was an emeritus professor of linguistics at the Department of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, which he also founded. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... Hans Heinrich Hock is a linguist who holds a Ph. ...


Burrow compiled a list of approximately 500 foreign words in the Ṛgveda that he considered to be loans predominantly from Dravidian. Kuiper identified 383 Ṛgvedic words as non-Indo-Aryan—roughly 4% of its liturgical vocabulary— borrowed from Old Dravidian, Old Munda, and several other languages. Thieme has questioned Dravidian etymologies proposed for Vedic words, most of which he gives Indoaryan or Sanskrit etymologies, and condemned what he characterizes as a misplaced “zeal for hunting up Dravidian loans in Sanskrit”. Das contends that there is “not a single case in which a communis opinio has been found confirming the foreign origin of a Rgvedic (and probably Vedic in general) word”. Burrow in turn has criticized the "resort to tortuous reconstructions in order to find, by hook or by crook, Indo-European explanations for Sanskrit words". Kuiper reasons that given the abundance of Indo-European comparative material—and the scarcity of Dravidian or Munda—the inability to clearly confirm whether the etymology of a Vedic word is Indo-European implies that it is not. Witzel (1999) argues that the earliest level of the Rigveda shows signs of para-Munda influence and only later levels of Dravidian, suggesting—against the older widespread two century old belief—that the original inhabitants of Punjab were speakers of para-Munda rather than speakers of Dravidian, whom the Indo-Aryans encountered only in middle Rgvedic times.[15] Thomas Burrow (29 June 1909 - 8 June 1986) was an Indologist and the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford from 1944 to 1976. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and northeastern Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and overseas in other countries such... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and northeastern Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and overseas in other countries such... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... Paul Thieme (1905-2001) was a scholar of Vedic Sanskrit. ... Zeal is a volunteer-built web directory, first appearing in 1999, and then acquired by LookSmart in October 2000 for $20 million. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Professor of South Asian studies at the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg. ... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... The Munda are a tribal (Adivasi) people of Jharkhand land which is spread over on five states e. ... Languages Dravidian languages Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Traditional religions Related ethnic groups Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Dravidian people, Dravidian race or Dravidians are terms that are some times given to people of mainly Southern India, Northeastern Sri Lanka, and parts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal who currently...


Elst (1999) proposes that any Dravidian in Sanskrit can still be explained via the OIT. He suggests through David McAlpin's Proto-Elamo-Dravidian theory, that the ancient homeland for Proto-Elamo-Dravidian was in the Mesopotamia region, from where the languages spread across the coast towards Sindh and eventually to South India where they still remain.[16] According the Elst, this theory would support the idea that Early Harappan culture was possibly bi- or multi-lingual. Elst (1999) claims that the presence of the Brahui language, similarities between Elamite and Harappan script as well as similarities between Indo-Aryan and Dravidian indicate that these languages may have interacted prior to the spread of Indo-Aryans southwards and the resultant intermixing of races and languages. The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The Brahui (بروہی) or Bravi (براوِ) language, spoken by the Brahui, is mainly spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan, although it is also spoken in Afghanistan and Iran. ...


Elfenbein (as cited in Witzel 2000) argues that the presence of Brahui in Baluchistan is explained by a late immigration that took place within the last thousand years.


Elst believes that there is evidence suggesting that Dravidian influences in Maharashtra and Gujarat were largely lost over the years. He traces this to linguistic evidence. Some occurrences in Sangam Tamil, or ancient forms of Tamil, indicate small similarities with Sanskrit or Prakrit. As the oldest recognizable form of Tamil have influences of Indo-Aryan, it is possible that they had Sanskrit influence through a migration through the coastal regions of western India.[17] , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... now. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ...


Writing specifically about language contact phenomena, Thomason & Kaufman (1988:141-144) maintain that while separate internal explanations are indeed possible for all of the innovative traits in Indic, early contact influence from Dravidian is the only one explanation that can explain all of the traits at once - it becomes a question of explanatory economy. Thomason & Kaufman (1988) likewise conclude that the situation of the Dravidian influence of Indic (a wide range of phonological and grammatical contact phenomena but no exchange loanwords) is symptomatic for contact situations where large populations shift from one language to the other, in this case from Dravidian to Proto-Indo-Aryan. The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... William of Ockham Occams razor (sometimes spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Erdosy (1995:18) states that the most plausible explanation for the presence of Dravidian structural features in Old Indo-Aryan is that the majority of early Old Indo-Aryan speakers had a Dravidian mother tongue which they gradually abandoned. The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ...


Hydronymy

Indo-Aryan languages are the oldest source of place and river names in northern India - which Shrikant G. Talageri sees as an argument in favor of seeing Indo-Aryan as the oldest documented population of that area.[18] The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. ... Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author & a bank clerk in his day-job. He is the author of a book on the Rigveda and on the Aryan Invasion Theory. His works include THE RIGVEDA - A Historical Analysis. ... Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each distrct in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing...


According to Witzel, river names are conservative, and "in northern India, rivers in general have early Sanskrit names from the Vedic period, and names derived from the daughter languages of Sanskrit later on."[19] Talageri cites this in support of the Out of India theory,[18] though Witzel himself would dispute jumping to that conclusion.[19]


Kazanas argues that this indicates that the Harappan civilization must have been dominated by Indo-Aryan speakers, supposing that the arrival of Indo-Aryan migrants in Late Harappan times to the remnants of a Indus Valley Civilization formerly stretching over vast area could not have resulted in the suppression of the entire native hydronymy.[20] The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ...


However, Witzel argues exactly that: "The failure to preserve old hydronomes even in the Indus Valley (with a few exceptions, noted above) indicates the extent of the social and political collapse experienced by the local population."[19]


Paralleling Witzel, Villar (2000) characterizes place names as the deepest ethnic and linguistic layer, and states that the first network of river and place names in Spain was created by very ancient Indo-European populations, and was dense enough to resist successive language changes. According to Villar (2000), even in those areas which are historically Basque (i.e. non-Indo-European), the ancient names of places and people have a prevailing Indo-European character, with very few names of non-Indo-European Basque etymology documented in ancient sources. Alinei (2003) cites this in support of the Paleolithic Continuity Theory. The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in or nearby Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ...


Sanskrit

Kazanas argues that Vedic has preserved most of the essential information of recorded Indo-European languages. He argues that this could suggest that Indo-Aryans were sedentary and remained in the original homeland while other groups left.[20] Kazanas quotes T Burrow - "Vedic is a language which in most respects is more archaic and less altered from original Indo-European than any other member of the family". [21] Elst argues that Sanskrit has preserved the language in many respects.[22] Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Kazanas further argues: [23]

It is a generally acknowledged principle of Historical Linguistics that “changes [of language] are quicker in unsettled communities than in more settled ones” (Lockwood 1969: 43; cf also Hock 1991: 467-9). According to the "Indo-Aryan immigration theory" the Indo-Aryans were on the move over many thousands of miles (from the Russian steppe, Europe and/or Anatolia) over a very long period of centuries encountering many different other cultures, they were “unsettled” and their language should have suffered faster and greater changes.

However most linguists maintain that no foolproof correlations can ever be made between linguistic conservatism or innovation and the lifestyle, prehistory of the group of speakers - this is one of the main arguments that the theory of glottochronology has been rejected by the scientific community. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Glottochronology refers to methods in historical linguistics used to estimate the time at which languages diverged, based on the assumption that the basic (core) vocabulary of a language changes at a constant average rate. ...


Philology

The determination of the age in which Vedic literature started and flourished has its consequences for the Indo Aryan question. The oldest text, the Rigveda, is full of precise references to places and natural phenomena in what are now Panjab and Haryana, and was unmistakably recorded in that part of India. The date at which it was composed is a firm terminus ante quem for the presence of the Vedic Aryans in India. In the academic mainstream view it was composed the mid to late 2nd millennium BC (Late Harappan)[24] and OIT proponent propose a pre-Harappan date. The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ...


OIT proponents propose that bulk of Rigveda was composed prior to Indus Valley Civilization by linking archaeological evidence with data from Vedic text and archaeo-astronomical evidence.


Sarasvati River

Main article: Sarasvati river

Many hymns in all ten Books of the Rig Veda (except the 4th) extol or mention a divine and very large river named the Sarasvati,[25] which flows mightily "from the mountains to the [Indian] Ocean”.[26][27][23] Talageri states that "the references to the Sarasvati far outnumber the references to the Indus" and "The Sarasvati is so important in the whole of the Rigveda that it is worshipped as one of the Three Great Goddesses".[28][29] The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... This article is about Saraswati, the Hindu goddess. ... Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author & a bank clerk in his day-job. He is the author of a book on the Rigveda and on the Aryan Invasion Theory. His works include THE RIGVEDA - A Historical Analysis. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ...


According to palaeoenvironmental scientists the desiccation of Sarasvati came about as a result of the diversion of at least two rivers that fed it, the Satluj and the Yamuna. "The chain of tectonic events … diverted the Satluj westward (into the Indus) and the Palaeo Yamuna eastward (into the Ganga) … This explains the ‘death’ of such a mighty river (the Sarasvati) … because its main feeders, the Satluj and Palaeo Yamuna were weaned away from it by the Indus and the Gangaa respectively”.[30][31] This ended at c 1750, but it started much earlier, perhaps with the upheavals and the large flood of 1900, or more probably 2100.[32][33] P H Francfort, utilizing images from the French satellite SPOT, finds[34] that the large river Sarasvati is pre-Harappan altogether and started drying up in the middle of the 4th millennium BC; during Harappan times only a complex irrigation-canal network was being used in the southern region of the Indus Valley. With this the date should be pushed back to c 3800 BC. The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... Not to be confused with Jamuna River. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Ganga may refer to: Ganges River, a river in India Ganga, the Hindu goddess that personifies the Ganges River The Gangas, an ancient southern Indian dynasty Ganga (music), a type of rural folk singing from Croatia and Herzegovina Daren Ganga, a West Indian cricketer Ganga, an alternate spelling of ganja... A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events Sumerian city of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC); Sumerian hegemony in Mesopotamia, with the invention of writing, base-60 mathematics, astronomy and astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, the wheel, and the potters wheel, 4000... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


The Rig Vedic hymn X,[35] however, gives a list of names of rivers where Sarasvati is merely mentioned while Sindhu receives all the praise.[36] This may well indicate that the Rig Veda could be dated to a period after the first drying up of Sarasvati (c 3500) when the river lost its preeminence.[23] It is agreed that the tenth Book of the Rig Veda is later than the others.[37][23] The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...


The 414 archeological sites along the bed of Saraswati dwarf the number of sites so far recorded along the entire stretch of the Indus River, which number only about three dozen. About 80 percent of the sites are datable to the fourth or third millennium B.C.E., suggesting that the river was in its prime during this period.[38] If this date were used, then the Indo-Aryan migration scenario would not be able to logically occur. If the Indo-Europeans were in India in the 4th millennium BC, it would be likely for that the spread of Indo-European languages after this point began within India. Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events Sumerian city of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC); Sumerian hegemony in Mesopotamia, with the invention of writing, base-60 mathematics, astronomy and astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, the wheel, and the potters wheel, 4000...


Items not in the Rigveda

The Indus Valley Civilization was quite advanced and urbanized for its era. Based on the IAM, the migrating Aryans, who wrote the Rig Veda, would have had some contact with the Harappans before settling in their lands. The Aryans would also have begun to use some of the resources the Harappans possessed, however, the Rig Veda possesses some gaps which indicate it was composed prior to the first use of these resources in India.[23] Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...

  • The Rig-Veda knows no silver. It knows ayas (metal or copper/bronze) and candra or hiran-ya (gold) but not silver. Silver is denoted by rajatám híran-yam literally ‘white gold’ and appears in post-Rigvedic texts. There is a generally accepted demarcation line for the use of silver at around 4000 BC and this metal is archaeologically attested in the Harappan Civilization[39][40][41][23]
  • The Harappan culture is also unknown to the RV. The characteristic features of the Harappan culture are urban life, large buildings, permanently erected fire altars and bricks. There is no word for brick in the Rig Veda and iswttakaa (brick) appears only in post-Rigvedic texts. (Kazanas 2000:13)[23] The Rigvedic altar is a shallow bed dug in the ground and covered with grass (e.g. RV 5.11.2, 7.43.2-3; Parpola 1988: 225). Fixed brick-altars are very common in post-Rigvedic texts.[42]
  • The RV mentions no rice or cotton, as the Vedic Index shows. Rice was found in at least three Harappan sites: Rangpur (2000 BCE - 1500 BCE), Lothal (c 2000 BCE) and Mohenjodaro (c 2500 BCE) as Piggott,[43] Grist[44] and others testify.[45] Yet, despite the importance of the rice in ritual in later times, the Rig Veda knows nothing of it. The cultivation of cotton is well attested in the Harappan civilization and is found at many sites thereafter.[46][23][47][48]
  • Nakshatra were developed in 2400 BCE, they are important in a religious context yet the Rig Veda does not mention this, which suggests the Rig Veda is before 2400 BCE. The youngest book only mentions constellations,[49] a concept known to all cultures, without specifying them as lunar mansions.[50]
  • On the other hand, it has been claimed that the Rigveda has no term for "sword", while Bronze swords were used aplenty in the Bactrian culture and in Pirak. Ralph Griffith uses “sword” twelve times in his translation, including in the old books 5 and 7, but in most cases a literal translation would be more generic "sharp implement" (e.g. vāśī), the transition from "dagger" to "sword" in the Bronze Age being a gradual process.

The fore-mentioned features are found in post Rigvedic texts – the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and fully in the Sutra literature. For instance, brick altars are mentioned in Satapatha Brahmanaṇa 7.1.1.37, or 10.2.3.1 etc. Rice ( vrihi ) is found in AV 6.140.2; 7.1.20; etc. Cotton karpasa appears first in Gautama’s (1.18) and in Bandhāyana's (14.13.10) Dharmasūtra. The fact of the convergence of the post-Rigvedic texts and the Harappan culture was noted long ago by archaeologists. B.and R. Allchin stated unequivocally that these features are of the kind “described in detail in the later Vedic literature” (1982: 203).[42] The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit á¹›gveda from á¹›c praise + veda knowledge) is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a Rucha.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... The term urban contemporary was coined by the late New York DJ Frankie Crocker in the mid 1970s. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, frost, and releases energy in varying intensities. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction and sized to be layed with one hand using mortar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Rangpur, city in Bangladesh, not to be confused with Rampur, the names of a city and a former state in India. ... (Redirected from 2000 BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... (Redirected from 1500 BCE) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... (Redirected from 2000 BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... (Redirected from 2500 BCE) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... A nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र) or lunar mansion is one of the 27 or 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle, as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Orion is a remarkable constellation, visible from most places on the globe (but not always the whole year long). ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... three Bronze Age swords (not to scale): from Hajdusamson, Hungary (ca. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Pirak is an located in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, B.A. of Queens College was elected to the vacant Sanskrit Scholarship on Nov 24, 1849. ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


Based on these set of statements, OIT proponets argue that the whole of the RV, except for some few passages which may be of later date, must have been composed prior to Indus Valley Civilization.[23][48]


Memories of an Urheimat

The fact that the Vedas[51] do not mention the Aryans' presence in India as being the result of a migration or mention any possible Urheimat, has been taken as an argument in favour of the OIT. The reasoning is that it is not uncommon for migrational accounts to be found in early mythological and religious texts, a classical example being the book of Exodus in the Torah, describing the legendary migration of the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan. Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... “Tora” redirects here. ...


Proponents of the OIT, such as Koenraad Elst, argue that it would have been expectable that migrations, and possibly an Urheimat were mentioned in the Rigveda if the Aryans had only arrived in India some centuries before the composition of the earliest Rigvedic hymns. They argue that other migration stories of other Indo-European people have been documented historically or archaeologically, and that the same would be expectable if the Indo-Aryans had migrated into India. According to Shrikant Talageri, mention of Airyanam Vaejo, first of sixteen holy lands rendered unfit for man by Angra Manyu, the evil spirit of Zend Avesta, in the Zoroastrian scripture Vendidad and three ancient Indian lands with Rigvedic references identifies Airyanam Vaejo with Kashmir.[52]. He further adds that if there is any doubt that Airyanam Vaejo refers to Kashmir, the designation of the next as Hapta Hindu, that is Sapta-Sindhu should remove it. The argument is then that the absence of migration stories and mentions of a homeland outside of India suggests that there were no such migrations and no such homeland for the Indo-Aryans.[53][48] Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author. ... Airyanəm Vaējah is the Avestan name of the original homeland of the Iranian peoples, referred to in the Avesta (Zoroastrian holy texts) and other legends of Persian mythology. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi, as mentioned in the Yasna, Yashts and Vendidad The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


From the mainstream academic viewpoint, concern is the degree of historical accuracy that can be expected from the Rigveda, which is a collection of hymns, not an account of tribal history, and those hymns assumed to reach back to within a few centuries of the period of Indo-Aryan arrival in Gandhara make for just a small portion of the text.[54]


Regarding migration of Indo-Aryans and imposing language on Harappans, Kazanas notes that " The intruders would have been able to rename the rivers only if they were conquerors with the power to impose this. And, of course, the same is true of their Vedic language: since no people would bother of their own free will to learn a difficult, inflected foreign language, unless they had much to gain by this, and since the Aryan immigrants had adopted the “material culture and lifestyle” of the Harappans[55] and consequently had little or nothing to offer to the natives, the latter would have adopted the new language only under pressure. Thus here again we discover that the substratum thinking is invasion and conquest." "But invasion is the substratum of all such theories even if words like ‘migration’ are used. There could not have been an Aryan immigration because (apart from the fact that there is no archaeological evidence for this) the results would have been quite different. Immigrants do not impose their own demands or desires on the natives of the new country: they are grateful for being accepted, for having the use of lands and rivers for farming or pasturing and for any help they receive from the natives; in time it is they who adopt the language (and perhaps the religion) of the natives. You cannot have a migration with the results of an invasion."[56]


Indo Iranian and Avesta

The Iranian Avesta is the oldest literary text of Zoroastrianism, which was prominent in the Iranian regions in ancient times. The Avesta and Rig Veda have much in common, which suggests that they both originated from the one culture (Proto-Indo-Iranian). The point at contention is the direction of the split. Supporters of the Indo-Aryan migration hypothesis believe it was a split from Central Asia in two waves. The Out of India theory, on the other hand, suggests that it was a split in the Indian subcontinent after internal conflict between the Proto-Indo-Iranians. See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ...


Talageri[57][29] argues that the documented evidence shows Indo-Iranian were present earlier in Eastern region. Talageri quotes P. Oktor Skjærvø "the earliest evidence for the Iranians is 835 BC in the case of Iran, and 521 BC in the case of Central Asia.[58] The earliest geographical names … inherited from Indo-Iranian times” indicate an area in southern Afghanistan, as per Skjærvø’s".[59] He also quotes Gnoli[60] as stating that "very clearly [...] the oldest regions known to the Iranians were Afghanistan and areas to its east". Gnoli repeatedly stresses "the fact that Avestan geography, particularly the list in Vd. I, is confined to the east,"[61] and points out that this list is "remarkably important in reconstructing the early history of Zoroastrianism". Talageri[62] states that The Rigveda and the Avesta are united in testifying to the fact that the Sapta Sindhu or Hapta-HAndu was one of the land of the Iranians on their way to Afghanistan..[52] Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi, as mentioned in the Yasna, Yashts and Vendidad The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Sapta Sindhu are the seven sacred rivers in Hindu mythology. ...


Talageri states "The development of the common Indo-Iranian culture, reconstructed from linguistic, religious, and cultural elements in the Rigveda and the Avesta, took place in the 'later Vedic period'." He quotes J.C. Tavadia[63] and Helmut Humbach[64] to show the period of RV 8 is the period of composition of the major part of the Avesta. Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ...


The Iranian Avesta is considered to be a literary indication of Proto-Iranian culture after they were split from Vedic culture sometime during the 3rd millennium BC. The Vedic deva "god" is cognate with the Avestan daeva "demon" while the Vedic asura "demon" is cognate with the Avestan ahura "god", which Burrow explained as a reflection of religious rivalry between Indo-Aryans and Iranians.[65] The Avesta also shows that Iranians of the time called themselves Dahas, a term also used by other ancient authors to refer to peoples in the area occupied by Indo-Iranian tribes..[66]. The Rig Veda (see previous section) depicts conflict with Dasas and Dasyus.[67] See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Deva can refer to: Deva (Hinduism), a Hindu deity. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... Thomas Burrow (29 June 1909 - 8 June 1986) was an Indologist and the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford from 1944 to 1976. ... Luftwaffe Tornado ECR Deutsche Aerospace AG Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG Founded May 19, 1989 as Deutsche Aerospace AG, bundling space and aeronautic elements of Daimler-Benz (including Dornier Luftfahrt), Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB), MTU München, and Telefunken Systemtechnik (TST) In 1992, the helicopter division was... The Dasa are a tribe identified as the enemies of the Aryans in the Rig-Veda. ...


Material archaeology

Ancient Lothal, dating 2400 BCE, as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. The OIT suggests that the Indo-Aryans had built this advanced city.[68]

According to the archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer (as quoted in Bryant 2001:190): Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency under the Department of Culture that is responsible about archaeological studies and preservation of cultural monuments. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ...

Although the overall socioeconomic organization changed, continuities in technology, subsistence practices, settlement organization, and some regional symbols show that the indigenous population was not displaced by invading hordes of Indo-Aryan speaking people. For many years, the ‘invasions’ or ‘migrations’ of these Indo-Aryan-speaking Vedic/Aryan tribes explained the decline of the Indus civilization and the sudden rise of urbanization in the Ganga-Yamuna valley. This was based on simplistic models of culture change and an uncritical reading of Vedic texts... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Not to be confused with Jamuna River. ...

The vast majority of the professional archaeologists Bryant (2001:231) interviewed in India insisted that there was no convincing archaeological evidence whatsoever to support any claims of external Indo-Aryan origins. The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ...


Bryant (2001:236) grants that "there is at least a series of archaeological cultures that can be traced approaching the Indian subcontinent, even if discontinuous, which does not seem to be the case for any hypothetical east-to-west emigration." The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ...


Physical anthropology

Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red)

According to Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (in Erdosy 1995), the biological continuity of prehistoric human remains from the Indian subcontinent with living peoples of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the border regions is well established. A study of Harappan skeletal remains shows two periods of biological discontinuity in the prehistoric skeletal record: the first between 6000 and 4500 BC, and the second between 800 and 200 BC, neither of which corresponds with a scenario of mid-second millennium BC Indo-Aryan intrusions.[69][70] There has been significant progress in genetic and archaeogenetic studies of the Indian caste populations in the last five years (as of 2006); this has implications for the Indo-Aryan migration/invasion theory. ... Image File history File links Y-Haplogroup_R1_distribution. ... Image File history File links Y-Haplogroup_R1_distribution. ... Kenneth Adrian Raine Kennedy (born June 26, 1930) is an anthropologist who studied at the University of California, Berkeley. ...


On the whole, it is undisputed that the main component the South Asian genome is "autochthonous", and that it is unnecessary "to look beyond South Asia for the origins of the paternal heritage of the majority of Indians at the time of the onset of settled agriculture."[71]so that "out of India" supporters argue that if there is no evidence of an "out of India" migration, nor is there substantial evidence of the assumed migration into India. What little evidence for a prehistoric intrusive component there is is obscured by the numerous historical invasions (Hellenistic, Indo-Scythian, Kushan, Islamic), while the only known historical migration "out of India" is that of the Roma people (ca. 11th century AD). Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Islamic conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


There is no clear genetic evidence for a prehistoric migration out of India. A large scale population movement out of India is precluded by Chaubey et al. (2007) who note the virtual absence of India-specific mtDNA haplogroups outside the subcontinent.[72] Discussion of a possible "out of India" migration focusses on Y chromosome DNA, in particular on the origin of the defining mutation M17 of the R1a1 haplogroup. Several genetic studies have argued that, in contrast to the relative uniformity of mtDNA, the Y chromosomes of Indian populations display relatively small genetic distances to those of West Eurasians,[73] with a particularly high incidence of R1a1 along the classical "invasion" route along the Punjab. This haplogroup may originate in "southern and western Asia" (Kivisild 2003). Haplogroup R2 (Y-DNA) appears to have originated in South Asia some 25,000 years ago. Outside of India, notable concentrations of R2 were found among the Chechens and the Kurmanji of Georgia. Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red), after McDonald (2005). ... Haplogroup R2 (M124) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There is no evidence of widespread genetic displacement of the male population in South Asia after the onset of settled agriculture,[71] nor is there evidence of widespread genetic displacement in Europe after the Paleolithic.[74][75]


Physical anthropology does not preclude a gradual infiltration of foreigners, but that constitutes neither an invasion nor a mass migration.[70] Cavalli-Sforza (2000) offers the introduction of Indo-European languages to India as an example of language replacement, when the language of a population changes accompanied by only minimal changes in its genetics. According to Witzel (in Erdosy 1995:113), 'their genetic impact would have been negligible and, as was the case in the Normans in England, would have been "lost" in a few generations in the much larger gene pool of the Indus people.' Vijendra Kashyap, one of the authors of Sahoo et al. (2006), states that the people of the Indian subcontinent are indigenous to South Asia, but that Indo-European languages aren't, and that language change resulted from the migration of numerically small superstrate groups that are difficult to trace genetically.[76] The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Criticism

  • The linguistic center of gravity principle states that a language family's most likely point of origin is in the area of its greatest diversity. Only one branch of Indo-European, Indo-Aryan, is found in India, whereas the Italic, Venetic, Illyrian, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Thracian, and Greek branches of Indo-European are all found in Central-Eastern Europe. Because it requires a greater number of long migrations, an Indian Urheimat is far less likely than one closer to the center of Indo-European linguistic diversity.[6][77]
  • The Indic languages show the influence of the Dravidian and Munda language families. No other branch of Indo-European does. If the Indo-European homeland was located in India, then all Indo-European languages would show influence from Dravidian and Munda. Therefore, Indic contact with Dravidian and Munda speakers can only have occurred after Indic branched off from the rest of Indo-European meaning that proto-Indic speakers moved into contact with Dravidians and Mundans.[78][79]
  • To postulate the migration of PIE speakers out of India necessitates an earlier dating of the Rigveda than is normally accepted by Vedic scholars in order to make a deep enough period of migration to allow for the longest migrations to be completed.(Mallory 1989)[page # needed]

The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the Veneto region of Italy, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps. ... The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by ethnic groups identified as Illyrians: Delmatae, Pannoni, Illyrioi, Autariates, Taulanti (see List of Illyrian tribes). ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and northeastern Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and overseas in other countries such... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mallory 1989 "the great majority of scholars insist that the Indo-Aryans were intrusive into northwest India"
  2. ^ Mallory 1989 "The Kurgan solution is attractive and has been accepted by many archaeologists and linguists, in part or total. It is the solution one encounters in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and the Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Larousse...there is no alternative homeland from which archaeologists would derive all of the cultures of our late Indo-European territory."
  3. ^ Gray & Atkinson 2003, Figure 1
  4. ^ Friedrich von Schlegel: Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier (1808)
  5. ^ Bryant 2001, p. 69
  6. ^ a b Mallory 1989
  7. ^ Witzel, Michael (April 2001). Westward Ho!: The Incredible Wanderlust of the Ṛgvedic tribes Exposed by S. Talageri (English) (PDF). Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
    Talageri 2000:"Chapter 9 (Appendix 2): Michael Witzel - An Examination of Western Vedic Scholarship".
    Elst, Koenraad (2005-10-19). Petty Professorial Politicking in The Indo-Aryan Controversy (English). The Koenraad Elst Site. Voice of Dharma. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  8. ^ Journal of Indo-European Studies 30, 2002.
    Journal of Indo-European Studies 31, 2003.
  9. ^ a b c d The Aryan Non-Invasionist Model by Koenraad Elst
  10. ^ Elst 1999:"3.2 Origin of the Linguistic Argument"
  11. ^ Hock, H.H. (1996), "Out of India? The linguistic evidence", in Bronkhorst, J. & M.M. Deshpande, Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia: Evidence, Interpretation, and Ideology, Harvard Oriental Series, 1999, ISBN 1888789042. On p 14 is Fig 1, the cladistic tree of the IE branches. On p 15 is Fig 2, the diagram of isoglosses. On p 16 he states that if only the model in Fig 1 is accepted, then the hypothesis of an Out-of-India migration would be "relatively easy to maintain", i.e. provided the evidence of Fig 2 were ignored.
  12. ^ Edwin F. Bryant, Linguistic Substrata and the Indigenous Aryan Debate (1996)
  13. ^ Bryant 2001, p. 77-107
  14. ^ Bryant 2001, p. 82 - the syntax of the Rigveda is being compared with a reconstructed proto-Dravidian. The first completely intelligible, datable, and sufficiently long and complete epigraphs that might be of some use in linguistic comparison are the Tamil inscriptions of the Pallava dynasty of about 550 c.e. (Zvelebil 1990), two entire millennia after the commonly accepted date for the Rgveda. Similarly there is much less material available for comparative Munda and the interval in their case at least is a staggering thirty-five hundred years.
  15. ^ Thieme, Burrow, Kuiper, and Das, as cited in Bryant (2001:86–88)
    Kuiper, as cited in Witzel (1999) and Bryant (2001:87)
  16. ^ D. McAlpin Linguistic Prehistory: The Dravidian Situation 1979
  17. ^ Elst (1999)[page # needed]; Influence of Sanskrit or Prakrit on Sangam Tamil can be seen in some particular terms. For example, AkAyam (meaning sky) is thought to be derived from AkAsha, while Ayutham (meaning weapon) is thought to be derived from Ayudha.
  18. ^ a b Talageri 2000:"Chapter 7: The Indo-European Homeland"
  19. ^ a b c Witzel. "Early Indian history: Linguistic and textual parametres", in Erdosy (1995)
  20. ^ a b Kazanas, Nicholas 2001b - Indigenous Indoaryans and the Rgveda - Journal of Indo-European Studies, volume 29, pages 257-93
  21. ^ T Burrow - The Sanskrit Language (1973): "Vedic is a language which in most respects is more archaic and less altered from original Indo-European than any other member of the family" (34: emphasis added); he also states that root nouns, "very much in decline in the earliest recorded Indo-European languages", are preserved better in Sanskrit, and later adds, "Chiefly owing to its antiquity the Sanskrit language is more readily analysable, and its roots more easily separable from accretionary elements than… any other IE language" (123, 289).
  22. ^ BEEKES, R.S.P., 1990: Vergelijkende Taalwetenschap cited by K Elst 2005. Tussen Sanskrit en Neder­lands, Het Spectrum, Utrecht, "The distribution [of the two stems as/s for "to be"] in Sanskrit is the oldest one" (Beekes 1990:37); "PIE had 8 cases, which Sanskrit still has" (Beekes 1990:122); "PIE had no definite article. That is also true for Sanskrit and Latin, and still for Russian. Other languages developed one" (Beekes 1990:125); "[For the declensions] we ought to reconstr­uct the Proto-Indo-Iranian first,... But we will do with the Sanskrit because we know that it has preserved the essential information of the Proto-Indo-Iranian" (Beekes 1990:148); "While the accentuation systems of the other languages indicate a total rupture, Sanskrit, and to a lesser extent Greek, seem to continue the original IE situation" (Beekes 1990:187); "The root aorist... is still frequent in Indo-Iranian, appears sporadically in Greek and Armenian, and has disappeared elsewhe­re" (Beekes 1990:279)
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i A new date for the Rgveda by N Kazanas published in Philosophy and Chronology, 2000, ed G C Pande & D Krishna, special issue of Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research (June, 2001)
  24. ^ But Indo-Aryan presence may predate the Rigveda by several centuries even in the immigrationist view; according to Asko Parpola's scenario , the Rigvedic Aryans were not the first wave to reach India; his Indo-Aryan "Indian Dasa" were the bearers of the Cemetery H culture from around 1900 BC; Asko Parpola, 'The formation of the Aryan branch of Indo-European', in Blench and Spriggs (eds), Archaeology and Language III, London and New York (1999).
  25. ^ BBC India's miracle river
  26. ^ Rig Veda VII, 95, 2. giríbhya aaZ samudraZat
  27. ^ Kazanas 2000:4
  28. ^ Talageri, 2000: Ch 4: The Rigvedic Rivers
  29. ^ a b The RigVeda - A Historical Analysis by Shrikant G. Talageri
  30. ^ Rao 1991: 77-9
  31. ^ Feuerstein et al 1995: 87-90
  32. ^ Elst 1993: 70
  33. ^ Allchins 1997: 117
  34. ^ Francfort 1992
  35. ^ Rig Veda, Hymn X, 75
  36. ^ Rig Veda, Hymn X, verses 2-4 and 7-9
  37. ^ (Kazanas 2000:4, 5)
  38. ^ Bryant 2001, p. 167
  39. ^ Allchins 1969: 285
  40. ^ Rao 1991: 171
  41. ^ Allchins et. all cited by Kazanas 2000:1
  42. ^ a b Rig-Veda is pre-Harappan by N Kazanas
  43. ^ Piggott 1961: 259
  44. ^ Grist 1965
  45. ^ Rao 1991: 24, 101, 150 etc
  46. ^ Piggott et. all cited by Kazanas 2000:13
  47. ^ Elst 1999: Ch 5.3.10
  48. ^ a b c Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate by Koenraad Elst
  49. ^ RV 10:85:2
  50. ^ Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, 1997 p.118 cited by Elst 1999: Ch 5.5) Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate by Koenraad Elst
  51. ^ Cardona 2002: 33-35; Cardona, George. The Indo-Aryan languages, RoutledgeCurzon; 2002 ISBN 0-7007-1130-9
  52. ^ a b The Indo-Iranian Homeland Ch.6 by Shrikant Talageri
  53. ^ Elst 1999: Ch 4.6
  54. ^ e.g. Thomas Oberlies, Die Religion des Rgveda, Wien 1998, p. 188.
  55. ^ Allchins 1997: 223
  56. ^ `The AIT and scholarship' by Kazanas July 2001 Page 2,3
  57. ^ Talageri, 2000: Ch 6: The Indo-Iranian Homeland
  58. ^ ibid.,p. 160 pp.166-67 - The earliest mention of Iranians in historical sources is, paradoxically, of those settled on the Iranian plateau, not those still in Central Asia, their ancestral homeland. The Persians are first mentioned in the 9th century BC Assyrian annals. There are no literary sources for Iranians in Central Asia before the Old Persian Behistun inscription
  59. ^ ibid., p.163
  60. ^ Gnoli, 1980
  61. ^ Zoroaster’s Time and Homeland: A Study on the Origins of Mazdeism and Related Problems by Gherardo Gnoli, Instituto Universitario Orientale, Seminario di Studi Asiatici, (Series Minor VII), Naples, 1980., p.45.
  62. ^ Talageri, 2000: Ch 6: The Indo-Iranian Homeland
  63. ^ Indo-Iranian Studies: by J.C. Tavadia, Vishva Bharati, Santiniketan, 1950, pp.3-4; mentioning metric relationship between the Rigveda and the Avesta, in particular the special similarity of the Avesta and RV 8
  64. ^ The Gathas of Zarathushtra and the Other Old Avestan Texts, Part I: Introduction, Texts and Translation by Helmut Humbach (in collaboration with Josef Elfenbein and P.O. Skjærvø), Carl Winter, Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg (Germany), 1991., p.23 - It must be emphasised that the process of polarisation of relations between the Ahuras and the DaEvas is already complete in the GAthAs, whereas, in the Rigveda, the reverse process of polarisation between the Devas and the Asuras, which does not begin before the later parts of the Rigveda, develops as it were before our very eyes, and is not completed until the later Vedic period. Thus, it is not at all likely that the origins of the polarisation are to be sought in the prehistorical, the Proto-Aryan period. More likely, Zarathushtra’s reform was the result of interdependent developments, when Irano-Indian contacts still persisted at the dawn of history. With their Ahura-DaEva ideology, the Mazdayasnians, guided by their prophet, deliberately dissociated themselves from the Deva-Asura concept which was being developed, or had been developed, in India, and probably also in the adjacent Iranian-speaking countries… All this suggests a synchrony between the later Vedic period and ZarathuStra’s reform in Iran.
  65. ^ Burrow, as cited in Mallory (1989).
  66. ^ e.g., Asko Parpola (1988), Mayrhofer (1986-1996), Benveniste (1973), Lecoq (1990), Windfuhr (1999)
  67. ^ Demise of the Aryan Invasion Theory by Dr. Dinesh Agarwal. So called facts in support of Invasion theory
  68. ^ Lothal
  69. ^ Hemphill, Lukacs & Kennedy 1991
  70. ^ a b Kennedy. "Have Aryans been identified in the prehistoric skeletal record from South Asia? Biological anthropology and concepts of ancient races", in Erdosy (1995), at p. 58.
  71. ^ a b Sahoo, Sanghamitra, et al. (January 2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (4): 843-848. news full text.
  72. ^ G Chaubey et al. (2007). "Peopling of South Asia: investigating the caste-tribe continuum in India". Bioessays 29 (1). 
  73. ^ e.g. Wells et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 10244–10249.
  74. ^ Richards et al. (1996), "Paleolithic and neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool", American journal of human genetics 59 (1): 185-203.
  75. ^ Semino et al. (2000), "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective", Science 290 (5494): 1155 - 1159.
  76. ^ Handwerk, Brian. "India Acquired Language, Not Genes, From West, Study Says", National Geographic, 2006-01-10. Retrieved on 2007-07-14. (in English) 
  77. ^ Isidore Dyen, as quoted in Bryant 2001, p. 142
  78. ^ Parpola 2005, p. 48. "...numerous loanwords and even structural borrowings from Dravidian have been identified in Sanskrit texts composed in northwestern India at the end of the second and first half of the first millennium BCE, before any intensive contact between North and South India. External evidence thus suggests that the Harappans most probably spoke a Dravidian language."
  79. ^ Mallory 1989, p. 44. "The most obvious explanation of this situation is that the Dravidian languages once occupied nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and it is the intrusion of Indo-Aryans that engulfed them in north India leaving but a few isolated enclaves."

The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943 at Schwiebus, Poland) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans Heinrich Hock is a linguist who holds a Ph. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Pallava Dynasty (300s-early 900s) were the rulers of the northern part of what is now the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. ... For the Hindu monster, see Munda (Hinduism), for Caesars battle see battle of Munda, and for the language family see Munda languages. ... Paul Thieme (1905-2001) was a scholar of Vedic Sanskrit. ... Thomas Burrow (29 June 1909 - 8 June 1986) was an Indologist and the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford from 1944 to 1976. ... Professor of South Asian studies at the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ... Kenneth Adrian Raine Kennedy (born June 26, 1930) is an anthropologist who studied at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Bioessays is a journal concerned with news, reviews and commentary on low-level biology. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography and References

  • Alinei, Mario (2003), "Linguistic and interdisciplinary evidence for Indo-European, Uralic and Altaic indigenism in Eurasia", Quaderni di semantica XXIV (2).
  • Blench, Roger & Matthew Spriggs, eds. (1997), Archaeology and Language, vol. I: Theoretical and Methodological Orientations, London: Routledge.
  • Bryant, Edwin (2001), The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195137779.
  • Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca (2000), Genes, Peoples, and Languages, New York: North Point Press.
  • Diakonoff, Igor M. (1995), "Two Recent Studies of Indo-Iranian Origins", Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (3): 473-477.
  • Dyen, Isidore (1965), "A Lexostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages", International Journal of American Linguistics (suppl.) 31: 1–64
  • Elst, Koenraad (1999), Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, ISBN 81-86471-77-4.
  • Erdosy, George, ed. (1995), The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3110144476.
  • Gray, Russell D. & Quentin D. Atkinson (2003), "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin", Nature 426: 435-439, DOI:10.1038/nature02029.
  • Handwerk, Brian (January 10, 2006), "India Acquired Language, Not Genes, From West, Study Says", National Geographic.
  • Hemphill, Brian E.; John R. Lukacs & K.A.R. Kennedy (1991), "Biological Adaptations and Affinities of the Bronze Age Harappans", in Meadow, Richard H., Harappa Excavations 1986–1990: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Third Millennium Urbanism, Madison, WI: Prehistory Press.
  • Kazanas, Nicholas (June, 2001). "A new date for the Rgveda" (PDF). special issue of Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research.
  • Kazanas, N. (2002), "Indigenous Indo-Aryans and the Rigveda", Journal of Indo-European Studies 30: 275-334.
  • Kazanas, N. (2003), "Final Reply", Journal of Indo-European Studies 31: 187-240.
  • Kivisild, Toomas et al. 2003b. "The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations" Am J Hum Genet 72: 313–332[1], [2]
  • Kuz'mina, E. E. (1994), Откуда пришли индоарии? (Whence came the Indo-Aryans), Moscow: Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences).
  • Mallory, JP. 1998. A European Perspective on Indo-Europeans in Asia. In: The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern and Central Asia. Ed. Mair. Washingion DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
  • Mallory, J. P. (2002), "Editor's Note", Journal of Indo-European Studies 30: 274.
  • Parpola, Asko (1998), "Aryan Languages, Archaeological Cultures, and Sinkiang: Where Did Proto-Iranian Come into Being and How Did It Spread?", in Mair, The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern and Central Asia, Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man
  • Parpola, Asko (2005), "Study of the Indus script", Transactions of the 50th International Conference of Eastern Studies, Tokyo: The Tôhô Gakkai, at pp. 28-66.
  • Sahoo et al. (2006), "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (4): 843-848.
  • Talageri, Shrikant G. (2000), The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis, New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, ISBN 8177420100. Retrieved on May 2007.
  • Thomason, Sarah Grey & Terrence Kaufman (1988), Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics, University of California Press (published 1991), ISBN 0-520-07893-4.
  • Villar, Francisco (2000), Indoeuropeos y no indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, ISBN 84-7800-968-X.
  • Witzel, Michael (1999), "Substrate Languages in Old Indo-Aryan (Ṛgvedic, Middle and Late Vedic)", Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 5 (1).
  • Witzel, Michael (2000-02-17), "The Languages of Harappa", at Madison, in Kenoyer, J., Proceedings of the conference on the Indus civilization.

Edwin Bryant arrived in San Francisco by overland route in 1846, served as a lieutenant in Frémont’s Battalion, and in February 1847 succeeded Bartlett and Hyde as alcalde of San Francisco. ... The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture is a book by Edwin Bryant published at Oxford University Press (ISBN 0195137779). ... Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov (Russian: ) (born December 30, 1914 in Petrograd) is a Russian historian who should be ranked among the greatest authorities on Ancient East and its languages. ... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... Biblia Impex India (also Aditya Prakashan, named after the Adityas, a group of Vedic solar deities) is a New Delhi publishing company founded by influential Hindu nationalist Sita Ram Goel in 1963. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Kenneth Adrian Raine Kennedy (born June 26, 1930) is an anthropologist who studied at the University of California, Berkeley. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Nicholas Kazanas is an Indologist. ... Nicholas Kazanas is an Indologist. ... Toomas Kivisild, born on august, 11 1969 in Tapa, is a Estonian geneticist. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ... JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ... Asko Parpola, professor of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki, Finland has specialized on the Indus script. ... Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author & a bank clerk in his day-job. He is the author of a book on the Rigveda and on the Aryan Invasion Theory. His works include THE RIGVEDA - A Historical Analysis. ... Biblia Impex India (also Aditya Prakashan, named after the Adityas, a group of Vedic solar deities) is a New Delhi publishing company founded by influential Hindu nationalist Sita Ram Goel in 1963. ... Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943 at Schwiebus, Poland) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University, United States. ... Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943 at Schwiebus, Poland) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University, United States. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ...

See also

This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about historical, ideological and socio-political aspects of this controversy. ... Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Indomania is often used by the historians to explain the special interest India has generated in the west. ... Indophobia is essentially the opposite of Indomania: It often refers as antipathy towards of Indian concepts, in particular Hindu culture, especially in the Western world. ... In Search of the Cradle of Civilization: New Light on Ancient India is a 1995 book by Georg Feuerstein, Subhash Kak, and David Frawley that argues against the theories that Indo-European peoples only arrived in India in the middle of the second millennium BC (the Aryan invasion theory and...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m