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Encyclopedia > Our Lady of Guadalupe
An image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
An image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

Our Lady of Guadalupe, also called the Virgin of Guadalupe (Spanish: Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe or Virgen de Guadalupe) is a 16th century Roman Catholic Mexican icon depicting an apparition of the Virgin Mary. It is Mexico's most beloved religious and cultural image. Our Lady of Guadalupe is known in Mexico as "La Virgen Morena", which means "The brown-skinned Virgin". Guadalupe's feast day is celebrated on December 12, commemorating the traditional account of her appearances to Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin on the hill of Tepeyac near Mexico City from December 9, 1531 through December 12, 1531. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (788x1226, 278 KB) This is also the Virgin of Guadalupe, a 16th century painting of unknown provenance. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (788x1226, 278 KB) This is also the Virgin of Guadalupe, a 16th century painting of unknown provenance. ... The shrine to Our Lady of Guadalupe was the most important Marian shrine in the medieval kingdom of Castile, located in todays Cáceres province of the Extremadura autonomous community of Spain. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Apparition of The Virgin to St Bernard by Filippino Lippi (1486) Oil on panel, 210 x 195 cm Church of Badia, Florence A Marian apparition is an event in which the Virgin Mary is believed to have supernaturally appeared to one or more persons, typically Catholics, although not always devout... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tradition maintains that Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin (1474 – May 30, 1548) was an indigenous Mexican who witnessed an apparition of the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... Tepeyac or the Hill of Tepeyac, historically known by the names Tepeyacac and Tepeaquilla, is located inside Gustavo A. Madero, the northernmost delegación or borough of the Mexican Federal District. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ...


The Virgin of Guadalupe is a cultural symbol of significant importance to the Mexican identity. Mexican Catholics believe that Guadalupe was a manifestation of the Virgin Mary in the Americas. The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Some historians speculate the icon was meant to syncretically represent both the Virgin Mary and the indigenous Mexican goddess Tonantzin, providing a way for 16th century Spaniards to gain converts among the indigenous population of early Mexico. It may have provided a method for 16th century indigenous Mexicans to covertly practice their native religion, although the contrary was asserted in the canonization process of Juan Diego.[1] Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... In Aztec mythology, Tonantzin was a lunar mother goddess. ...


The Virgin of Guadalupe has also symbolized the Mexican nation since Mexico's War of Independence. Both Miguel Hidalgo and Emiliano Zapata's armies traveled underneath Guadalupan flags, and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe is generally recognized as a symbol of all Mexicans. The Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes once said that "...one may no longer consider himself a Christian, but you cannot truly be considered a Mexican unless you believe in the Virgin of Guadalupe."[2] Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Miguel Hidalgo. ... For other uses, see Emiliano Zapata (disambiguation). ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ...

Contents

History

Traditional account of the apparition

Etching by Jose Guadalupe Posada, depicting St. Juan Diego and the Virgin image miraculous imprinted on the cloth where he collected the roses.
Etching by Jose Guadalupe Posada, depicting St. Juan Diego and the Virgin image miraculous imprinted on the cloth where he collected the roses.
Spanish bishop, Fray Juan de Zumárraga .
Spanish bishop, Fray Juan de Zumárraga .

According to Catholic accounts of the Guadalupan apparition, during a walk from his village to the city on December 9, 1531, Juan Diego saw a vision of a Virgin at the Hill of Tepeyac. Speaking in Nahuatl, Our Lady of Guadalupe said to build an abbey on the site, but when Juan Diego spoke to the Spanish bishop, Fray Juan de Zumárraga, the prelate asked for a miraculous sign. So the Virgin told Juan Diego to gather flowers from the hill, even though it was winter, when normally nothing bloomed. He found Spanish roses, gathered them on his tilma, and presented these to the bishop. According to tradition, when the roses fell from it the icon of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared imprinted on the cloth. Image File history File links Posada_guadalupe. ... Image File history File links Posada_guadalupe. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Juan de Zumárraga (1468 – 3 June 1548) was a Spanish Franciscan prelate and first bishop of Mexico. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ... Tradition maintains that Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin was an indigenous Mexican who had a vision of the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... In Roman times, Vestal Virgins were strictly celibate or they were punished by death. ... Tepeyac or the Hill of Tepeyac, historically known by the names Tepeyacac and Tepeaquilla, is located inside Gustavo A. Madero, the northernmost delegación or borough of the Mexican Federal District. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Juan de Zumárraga (1468 – 3 June 1548) was a Spanish Franciscan prelate and first bishop of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... A tilmàtli (or tilma) was a type of outer garment worn by men, documented from the late Postclassic and early Colonial eras among the Aztec and other peoples of central Mexico. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Historians evaluate[3] the reality of the apparitions by the sudden, extraordinary success of the evangelizing of the Indians in the decade of 1531–1541, which constitutes the most successful evangelization ever.[citation needed] In this short period close to ten million Indians adopted Christianity, contrasted with the previous decade in which rejection was the norm. Depression and apathy suddenly gave way to enthusiasm and Indians built more churches, as free labor, than many nations had in Europe. In a single small town, Cholula, 365 churches were built; one for each day of the year to commemorate each saint on his own festivity. Puebla acquired its name because the huge bells for the Cathedral were so heavy they had to remain on the ground. One morning they were heard tolling in place, a feat attributed to the angels, thus Puebla's name of "Puebla de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles—Puebla of Our Lady of the Angels."[4]


Symbol of Mexico

Guadalupe's first major use as a nationalistic symbol was in the writing of Miguel Sánchez, the author of the first Spanish language apparition account. Sanchez identified Guadalupe as Revelation's Woman of the Apocalypse, and said that Miguel Sánchez (1594 – 1674) was a Novohispano priest, writer, and theologian. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... Peter Paul Rubens Woman of the Apocalypse The phrase Woman of the Apocalypse refers to a character from the Book of Revelation 12:1-10. ...

"this New World has been won and conquered by the hand of the Virgin Mary...[who had] prepared, disposed, and contrived her exquisite likeness in this her Mexican land, which was conquered for such a glorious purpose, won that there should appear so Mexican an image."[5]

In 1810 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the bid for Mexican independence with his Grito de Dolores, yelling words to the effect of "Death to the Spaniards and long live the Virgin of Guadalupe!" When Hidalgo's mestizo-indigenous army attacked Guanajuato and Valladolid, they placed "the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe, which was the insignia of their enterprise, on sticks or on reeds painted different colors" and "they all wore a print of the Virgin on their hats."[6] Statue of Miguel Hidalgo, Coyoacán, DF Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811) was the chief instigator of Mexicos war of independence against Spain. ... Statue of Miguel Hidalgo in front of church, Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato The Grito de Dolores was the call for insurrection against the authorities of Mexico given by Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810, in the town of Dolores, near Guanajuato. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ...

Flag carried by Hidalgo and his insurgent army.
Flag carried by Hidalgo and his insurgent army.

When Hidalgo died, leadership of the revolution fell to a mestizo priest named Jose Maria Morelos who led insurgent troops in the Mexican south. Morelos was also a Guadalupan partisan: he made the Virgin the seal of his Congress of Chilpancingo, stating Image File history File linksMetadata Guadalupano. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Guadalupano. ... Portrait of José María Morelos, oil painting José María Morelos y Pavón (30 September 1765 - 22 December 1815) was one of the main early leaders of Mexicos struggle for independence from Spain. ... The Congress of Chilpancingo (Spanish: Congreso de Chilpancingo) was a meeting held in the Mexican state of Guerrero from September until November in 1813. ...

"New Spain puts less faith in its own efforts than in the power of God and the intercession of its Blessed Mother, who appeared within the precincts of Tepeyac as the miraculous image of Guadalupe that had come to comfort us, defend us, visibly be our protection."[6]

He inscribed the Virgin's feast day, December 12, into the Chilpancingo constitution, and declared that Guadalupe was the power behind his military victories. One of Morelos' officers, a man named Felix Fernandez who would later become the first Mexican president, even changed his name to Guadalupe Victoria.[6] Simón Bolívar, noticed the Guadalupan theme in these uprisings, and shortly before Morelos' death in 1815 wrote: is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chilpancingo (formally: Chilpancingo de los Bravos) is a city in the state of Guerrero, Mexico, located at 17° 33′0″N, 99° 30′0″W. It is the capital of Guerrero. ... Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix in the state of Durango, served as the first President of Mexico from 1824 to 1829. ... This article is about the South American independence leader. ...

"...the leaders of the independence struggle have put fanaticism to use by proclaiming the famous Virgin of Guadalupe as the queen of the patriots, praying to her in times of hardship and displaying her on their flags...the veneration for this image in Mexico far exceeds the greatest reverence that the shrewdest prophet might inspire."[5] Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ...

In 1914, Emiliano Zapata's peasant army rose out of the south against the government of Porfirio Diaz. Though Zapata's rebel forces were primarily interested in land reform—"tierra y libertad" (land and liberty) was the slogan of the uprising—when Zapata's peasant troops penetrated Mexico City, they carried Guadalupan banners.[7] For other uses, see Emiliano Zapata (disambiguation). ... Porfirio Díaz José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was President of Mexico, considered a dictator, who ruled Mexico from 1876 until 1911 (with the exception of one single four-year period). ... -1... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ...


The Virgin of Guadalupe has also symbolized the Mexican nation since Mexico's War of Independence. Both Miguel Hidalgo and Emiliano Zapata's armies traveled underneath Guadalupan flags. The Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes once said that "...one may no longer consider himself a Christian, but you cannot truly be considered a Mexican unless you believe in the Virgin of Guadalupe."[8] Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Miguel Hidalgo. ... For other uses, see Emiliano Zapata (disambiguation). ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ...


More recently, the contemporary Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) named their "mobile city" in honor of the Virgin: it is called Guadalupe Tepeyac. EZLN spokesperson Subcomandante Marcos wrote a humorous letter in 1995 describing the EZLN bickering over what to do with a Guadalupe statue they had received as a gift.[9] The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ... Subcomandante Marcos in Chiapas Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos (allegedly born June 19, 1957 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), also known as Delegado Cero (Delegate Zero) in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) but, due to his prominence in the EZLN...


Mestizo culture and Mexican identity

Guadalupe is often considered a mixture of the cultures which blend to form Mexico, both racially[10] and religiously[11] Guadalupe is sometimes called the "first mestiza"[12] or "the first Mexican".[13] In the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Mary O'Connor writes that Guadalupe "bring[s] together people of distinct cultural heritages, while at the same time affirming their distinctness."[14] Mestizo (Brazil Portuguese. ...

Graffiti mural in Los Angeles showing Our Lady of Guadalupe in a nopal cactus.

One theory is that the Virgin of Guadalupe was presented to the Aztecs as a sort of "Christianized" Tonantzin, necessary for the clergymen to convert the Indians to their Faith. As Jacques Lafaye wrote in Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe, "...as the Christians built their first churches with the rubble and the columns of the ancient pagan temples, so they often borrowed pagan customs for their own cult purposes."[15] An alternate view is that Guadalupe-Tonantzin gave the native Americans a hidden method to continue worshipping their own goddess in a Christianized form; similar patterns of syncretic worship can be seen throughout the Catholic Americas (e.g. Vodou, Santería). Guadalupan religious syncretism is both lauded[11] and disparaged as demonic.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 827 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Our Lady of Guadalupe ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 827 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Our Lady of Guadalupe ... Guadalupe (or Guadeloupe) may refer to: The Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City Guadalupe, a city part of the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico Villa de Guadalupe, a former town near Mexico City Guadalupe, a village near Tecate, Baja California, Mexico Guadalupe, in Puebla, Mexico Guadalupe, in Zacatecas, Mexico Guadalupe, a... A nopales merchant at his stand in the Merced market of Mexico City Nopals are a vegetable made from the young stem segments of prickly pear, carefully peeled to remove the spines. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... In Aztec mythology, Tonantzin was a lunar mother goddess. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ...


Some theologians also associate the Virgin of Guadalupe with a special relationship between the indigenous peoples of the American continents and the Catholic Church. This perspective developed as the scriptural terms of truths "hid ... from the wise and prudent" but "revealed...unto babes" (Matthew 11:25), but later developed into the "spiritual mestizaje of the Americas",[17] and the "option for the poor" provided by Liberation theology. The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


The author Judy King asserts that Guadalupe is a "common denominator" uniting Mexicans. Writing that Mexico is composed of a vast patchwork of differences—linguistic, ethnic, and class-based—King says "The Virgin of Guadalupe is the rubber band that binds this disparate nation into a whole."[13]


This sentiment was echoed by two celebrants interviewed in the New York Times at the Virgin's feast day in 1998: "We say that we are more Guadalupanos than Mexicans," said the Jesuit Brother Joel Magallan. "We say that because our Lady Guadalupe is our symbol, our identity." David Solanas, another feast-goer, agreed, saying "We have faith in her. She's like the mama of all the Mexicans."[18]


The origin of the name "Guadalupe" is controversial. According to a sixteenth-century report the Virgin identified herself as Guadalupe when she appeared to Juan Diego's uncle, Juan Bernardino.[19] It has also been suggested that "Guadalupe" is a corruption of a Nahuatl name "Coatlaxopeuh", which has been translated as "Who Crushes the Serpent.[20] In this interpretation, the serpent referred to is Quetzalcoatl, one of the chief Aztec gods, whom the Virgin Mary "crushed" by inspiring the conversion of indigenous people to Catholicism. However, many historians believe that the 1533 Guadalupan shrine was dedicated to the Spanish Lady of Guadalupe in Extremadura—not to the Mexican Virgin venerated today. Thus, while the name "Guadalupe" would have had certain connotations to Nahuatl speakers, as noted above, its ultimate origins would be the Arabic-Latin term "Wadī Lupum", meaning "Valley of the Wolf". Juan Bernardino was one of the two Aztec peasants who had visions of Our Lady of Guadalupe in 1531. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ...


María Guadalupe, or just Lupe, is a common female and male name among Mexican people or those with Mexican heritage.


Documentation

A number of documents are used to support the apparition account. The most important may be the Nahuatl-language Huei tlamahuiçoltica ("The Great Event") which contains Nican mopohua ("Here it is recounted"), a tract about the Virgin which contains the aforementioned story. Huei tlamahuiçoltica is said to have been written by Antonio Valeriano in 1556; it was printed in Nahuatl by Luis Lasso de la Vega in 1649. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nican Mopohua. ... The Nican Mopohua (Nahuatl: Here is Recounted) is the second section of Luis Laso de la Vegas ,(1649) (Nahuatl: The Great Happening. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nican Mopohua. ...


Sixteen pages of a battered partial manuscript of the Nican Mopohua, dating c. 1556, can be found at the Public Library of New York. It's been there since 1880 together with two later copies, one of which is complete. The older copy has been recently reprinted in facsimile by Miguel León-Portilla in his Tonanzin Guadalupe. An even older manuscript exists in Nahuatl which precedes the Nican Mopohua: it is known as the "Primitive Relation" of the apparitions, is much shorter, and is conserved in The National Library of México. Well known codices testifying to the apparition—some of which appear listed below as XVI century codices—have been studied, commented on, and published by Mario Cuevas and others.


"El Pregón del Atabal" (The Drummer's Proclamation), attributed to Francisco Plácido—Lord of Azcapotzalco—was performed (according to Florencia who received it from Sigüenza and was later taken up by Cuevas) in the procession which transferred the Image from the primitive Cathedral to the tiny first church at Tepeyac on December 26, 1531. It is famous for the line "God created you, Oh Holy Mary, amongst abundant flowers / and made you born again, by painting you at the bishopric." In other words, the image was not on the ayate when the flowers fell, it appeared suddenly before the Bishop. The poem is part of a manuscript known as "Cantares Mexicanos," which can be found at the Biblioteca Nacional (National Library). is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake - thousands die. ...


There are also several XVI century codices: the "Tira de Tepexpan", "Aztactepec", "Ermitaño", "Heye", etc.; all in museums in several cities: México, Puebla, Paris and New York; and the recently discovered Codex Escalada, a pictographic account of the Virgin on Tepeyac, painted on deerskin and dated 1548. Another valuable XVI Century source is Indian writings in Nahuatl using Latin letters and drawings: "Anales de Juan Bautista", Anales de Tlaltelolco", etc. Full listings are given by de la Torre in "Testimonios históricos guadalupanos". There is also a seventeenth-century engraving by Samuel Stradanus which used the Virgin's image to advertise indulgences.[21] The first Spanish-language narrative about the apparitions, called Imagen de la Virgen María ("Image of the Virgin Mary"), was written by Fr. Miguel Sánchez and printed in 1648. The Codex Escalada The Codex Escalada, also called the Codex 1548, is a Nahuatl-language document which pictographically relates story of the 1531 apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe on the Mexican hill of Tepeyac, an apparition which is credited with converting the indigenous peoples of Mexico to Roman Catholicism. ... Tepeyac or the Hill of Tepeyac, historically known by the names Tepeyacac and Tepeaquilla, is located inside Gustavo A. Madero, the northernmost delegación or borough of the Mexican Federal District. ... A 1948 reproduction printed from the Stradanus engraving. ... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ...

First page of the Nican Mopohua.
First page of the Nican Mopohua.

The apparition account is also strengthened by a document called the Informaciones Jurídicas of 1666, a collection of oral interviews gathered near Juan Diego's hometown of Cuautitlan. In the "Informaciones Jurídicas," various witnesses affirmed, in interview format, basic details about Saint Juan Diego and the Guadalupan apparition story.[22] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (587x896, 25 KB) First page of the Huei tlamahuiçoltica, a religious tract originally published in 1649. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (587x896, 25 KB) First page of the Huei tlamahuiçoltica, a religious tract originally published in 1649. ... Cuautitlán was a village in the Aztec empire about 15 miles northwest of Tenochtitlán (later Mexico City). ...


Some historians and clerics, including the U.S. priest-historian Fr. Stafford Poole, the famous Mexican historian Joaquín García Icazbalceta, and former abbot of the Basilica of Guadalupe, Guillermo Schulenburg, have expressed doubts about the accuracy of the apparition accounts. Schulenburg in particular caused a stir with his 1996 interview with the Catholic magazine Ixthus, when he said that Juan Diego was "a symbol, not a reality."[23][24] The Reverend Stafford Poole, C.M., (born March 6, 1930) is a priest, full-time research historian, formerly a history professor and president of St. ... Joaquín García Icazbalceta (August 21, 1824 – November 26, 1894) was a Mexican philologist and historian. ... Exterior view of the modern Basilica. ... Guillermo Schulenburg Prado, often referred to simply as Guillermo Schulenburg, was the abbot of the Basilica of Guadalupe in Mexico City from 1963 to 1996. ...


The Codex Escalada, a painting on deerskin which illustrates the apparition and discusses Juan Diego's death, was used to shore up Juan Diego's 1990s canonization process. Critics, including Stafford Poole and David A. Brading, find the document suspicious—partly because of when it was discovered, and partly because it contains the handiwork of both Antonio Valeriano (a man many apparition partisans believe to be the true author of the Nican mopohua) and the signature of Bernardino de Sahagún, the Franciscan missionary and anthropologist. Brading said that: The Codex Escalada The Codex Escalada, also called the Codex 1548, is a Nahuatl-language document which pictographically relates story of the 1531 apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe on the Mexican hill of Tepeyac, an apparition which is credited with converting the indigenous peoples of Mexico to Roman Catholicism. ... Tradition maintains that Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin was an indigenous Mexican who had a vision of the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... Tradition maintains that Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin was an indigenous Mexican who had a vision of the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... The Reverend Stafford Poole, C.M., (born March 6, 1930) is a priest, full-time research historian, formerly a history professor and president of St. ... Antonio Valeriano (c. ... The Nican Mopohua (Nahuatl: Here is Recounted) is the second section of Luis Laso de la Vegas ,(1649) (Nahuatl: The Great Happening. ... Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ...

Codex Escalada.
Codex Escalada.

"Within the context of the Christian tradition, it was rather like finding a picture of St. Paul's vision of Christ on the road to Damascus, drawn by St. Luke and signed by St. Peter".[5] Image File history File links Codice1548_chico. ... Image File history File links Codice1548_chico. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκας Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ...

At the time of the apparitions in 1531, Zumárraga was Bishop-elect: he would be formally consecrated in 1533 and became an Archbishop in 1547.[25] There is no explicit mention of Juan Diego nor the Virgin in any of Zumárraga's conserved writings (which historians, mainly Cuevas, attribute to wanton destruction by opponents of the faith). One letter may be an exception, an exultant letter of his to Hernán Cortes which though unsigned with his name, is signed as follows: "De V.S. Capellán, El electo regocijado" - meaning "The rejoicing chosen one (chosen by the Virgin), and Chaplain to your Lordship", and which refers, in 1531, to the festivity of The Immaculate Conception which was celebrated from December 8 to December 17 according to the Sevillian Missal then in use in Mexico. One phrase in the letter, "The great mercy which God and His mother have made to this land you conquered", may refer to the apparitions. This letter was published in the "Album Histórico Guadalupano del IV Centenario" in 1931 by the prominent historian Mariano Cuevas S.J. It is also certain that he did inform on the apparitions officially, as there were witnesses to the fact, and was also established canonically by the Informations of 1666. Additionally, there is a testimony by Pedro Mezquía of a copy being kept in the monastery of Vitoria in Spain many years later. In a catechism published in Mexico before his death, it was stated: “The Redeemer of the world doesn’t want any more miracles, because they are no longer necessary."[22] In this quotation from a catechism, some critics have pretended to read a personal denial of the apparitions, but the author is not Zumárraga and this was not even a first printing; all to the contrary, this was a reprint of an old catechism imported from Spain.[citation needed] Juan de Zumárraga (1468 – 3 June 1548) was a Spanish Franciscan prelate and first bishop of Mexico. ... This article is about the novel by Gaétan Soucy. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ...


Guillermo Schulenburg, the Basílica's abbot for over 30 years, declared in 1996 that Juan Diego was a symbol and myth: a character invented to conquer the hearts of the native people and to direct their religious allegiance to the Vatican. He also commissioned a "serious study out of sheer love for truth", which found the Virgin of Guadalupe to be a man-made painting. However, the Vatican disagreed, citing evidence to the contrary, and Juan Diego was canonized by John Paul II. This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ...


As evidence of divine origin, some point to an infrared photograph of the image taken for the Basilica in 1946 by Jesús Cataño, a professional photographer, published in the Enciclopedia Guadalupana in 1992.[26] According to an analysis, No brush strokes can be discerned, there is no under drawing, sizing, or over-varnish, and the weave of the rough maguey fibers is itself utilized to give portrait depth, no explanation of the portrait is possible by infrared techniques or by any other known means. It is as unique from a scientific standpoint as the Holy Shroud of Turin. Some describe these images as αχειροποίητος, in the classical Greek meaning for supernatural (literally 'painted without use of hands').[27]
The first photo of the Shroud of Turin, taken in 1898, had the surprising feature that the image on the negative was clearer than the positive image. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ...


The image

Artistic symbolism

The image of Our Lady of Guadalupe is often read as a coded image. Miguel Sanchez, the author of the 1648 tract Imagen de la Virgen María, described the Virgin's image as the Woman of the Apocalypse from the New Testament's Revelation 12:1: "arrayed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars." Mateo de la Cruz, writing twelve years after Sánchez, "argued that the Guadalupe possessed all the iconographical attributes of Mary in her Immaculate Conception".[5] Likewise, a 1738 sermon preached by Miguel Picazo argued that the Guadalupe was the "best representation" of the Immaculate Conception.[5] In the context of cryptography, a code is a method used to transform a message into an obscured form, preventing those not in on the secret from understanding what is actually transmitted. ... Peter Paul Rubens Woman of the Apocalypse The phrase Woman of the Apocalypse refers to a character from the Book of Revelation 12:1-10. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ...

Virgin in a maguey.
Virgin in a maguey.

Many writers, including Patricia Harrington and Virgil Elizondo, describe the image as containing coded messages for the indigenous people of Mexico.[17][28] Image File history File linksMetadata Virginmaguey2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Virginmaguey2. ... Mayas at San Juan Chamula, Chiapas Mexico has defined itself, in the second article of its constitution, as a pluricultural nation, in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it. ...

"The Aztecs...had an elaborate, coherent symbolic system for making sense of their lives. When this was destroyed by the Spaniards, something new was needed to fill the void and make sense of New Spain...the image of Guadalupe served that purpose."[29]

Her blue-green mantle was described as the color once reserved for the divine couple Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl;[30] her belt is read as a sign of pregnancy; and a cross-shaped image symbolizing the cosmos and called nahui-ollin is said to be inscribed beneath the image's sash.[31] A dragon robe from Qing Dynasty of China A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. ... In Aztec mythology, Ometecuhtli (two-lord; also Ometeoltloque, Ometecutli, Tloque Nahuaque, Citlatonac) was a god of fire, a creator deity and one of the highest gods in the pantheon, though he had no cult and was not actively worshipped. ... In Aztec mythology, Omecihuatl (also Omeciuatl) was a creator goddess who, along with her husband, Ometecuhtli, was the source of all life on Earth; the pair were aspects of Ometeotl. ... Belt can refer to the following objects: Look up belt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ...


Yet another interpretation of the image is offered by the historian William B. Taylor, who recounted that Guadalupe has also been "acclaimed goddess of the maguey [agave]" and pulque was drunk on her feast day. A 1772 report described the rays of light around Guadalupe as maguey spines.[32][33] William B. Taylor is the current United States ambassador to Ukraine. ... ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ...


Maravilla Americana

Main article: Maravilla Americana

Maravilla Americana[34] (American Marvel) are the first two words of the lengthy title of a literary masterpiece by Miguel Cabrera (1695-1768), “the genial brush turned to a pen” as it was immediately celebrated. Its translation to Italian gave the pen fame in Europe among artists and clergymen beyond what the brush had accomplished in the Vatican, when Pope Benedict XIV felt impelled to exclaim: “Non fecit taliter omni nationi” from Psalm 147:20—God’s done nothing like it for any other nation—in admiring Cabrera’s copy of the Guadalupan image. Maravilla Americana[1] (American Marvel) are the first two words of the lengthy title of a literary masterpiece by Miguel Cabrera (1695-1768), “the genial brush turned to a pen” as it was immediately celebrated, on the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Written in 1756, it is still the standard description of many wonders extant to the portrait. Cabrera and six other master painters were called by the Chapter of the Basilica in 1751 to give their professional opinion on the Guadalupan Portrait from an artistic standpoint; specifically, signalling out the materials and pictorial technique that composed it. After fulfilling this request and presenting a report, Cabrera felt inspired to extend it on his own; but as a courtesy, required a signed opinion of his work from his six colleagues, six professional statements which were also printed in both languages.


Controversies

Eighteenth-century painting of God illustrating the Guadalupe
Eighteenth-century painting of God illustrating the Guadalupe

As early as 1556 Francisco de Bustamante, head of the Colony's Franciscans, delivered a sermon before the Viceroy and members of the Royal Audience. In that sermon, disparaging the holy origins of the picture and contradicting Archbishop Montúfar's sermon of two days before, Bustamante stated: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (518x666, 100 KB) Painting of God painting the Virgin of Guadalupe. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (518x666, 100 KB) Painting of God painting the Virgin of Guadalupe. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ...

"The devotion that has been growing in a chapel dedicated to Our Lady, called of Guadalupe, in this city is greatly harmful for the natives, because it makes them believe that the image painted by Marcos the Indian is in any way miraculous."[35][22]

In those inquisitorial times the accusation leveled against Montúfar for promoting idolatry publicly could have carried one of them to the stake, besides provoking a generalized scandal demanding strong sanctions by itself. This has left several mysteries to be solved by historians: 1) incredibly, there is no known historical outcome.[36] 2) There is no historical evidence of Bustamante having ever been sanctioned by anyone. He was being proposed in Mexico for Bishop of Guatemala on May 1563; posthumously, as the news of his decease in Spain on November 1st, 1562 were still unheard of in New Spain. 3) There is contrary evidence by his contemporaries: historians such as Torquemada (not the inquisitor), and Mendieta, refer to Bustamante always encomiastically, as to a "Most Prudent Man";[37] the only compliment he could have never won by causing one of the two greatest scandals in Colonial History.[38]


In 1611 the Dominican Martin de Leon, fourth viceroy of Mexico, denounced the cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe as a disguised worship of the Aztec goddess Tonantzin.[22] The missionary and anthropologist Bernardino de Sahagún held the same opinion: he wrote that the shrine at Tepeyac was extremely popular but worrisome because people called the Virgin of Guadalupe Tonantzin. Sahagún said that the worshipers claimed that Tonantzin was the proper Nahuatl for "Mother of God"—but he disagreed, saying that "Mother of God" in Nahuatl would be "Dios y Nantzin."[39] This type of worries relative to confussion in Indian minds were due to missionaries feeling responsible for the souls of their flock. In Aztec mythology, Tonantzin was a lunar mother goddess. ... Bernardino de Sahagún Bernardino de Sahagún (1499 – October 23, 1590), was a Franciscan missionary to the Aztec (Nahua) people of Mexico, best known as the compiler of the Florentine Codex, also known as Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (General History of the Things of... Tepeyac or the Hill of Tepeyac, historically known by the names Tepeyacac and Tepeaquilla, is located inside Gustavo A. Madero, the northernmost delegación or borough of the Mexican Federal District. ... In Aztec mythology, Tonantzin was a lunar mother goddess. ... In Aztec mythology, Tonantzin was a lunar mother goddess. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ... For the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico, see Mexican Spanish. ...


In 2002, art restoration expert José Sol Rosales said he examined the icon with a stereomicroscope and that he identified calcium sulfate, pine soot, white, blue, and green "tierras" (soil), reds made from carmine and other pigments, as well as gold. Rosales said he found the work consistent with 16th century materials and methods.[40] ... Calcium sulphate is a common laboratory and industrial chemical. ... Carmine Carminic acid Carmine (IPA: []), also called Crimson Lake, Cochineal, Natural Red 4, C.I. 75470 or E120, is a pigment of a bright red color obtained from the carminic acid produced by some scale insects, such as the cochineal and the Polish cochineal, and is used as a general... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...

Guadalupe of Extremadura
Guadalupe of Extremadura

Norberto Rivera Carrera, Archbishop of Mexico, commissioned a 1999 study to test the tilma's age. The researcher, Leoncio Garza-Valdés, had previously worked with the Shroud of Turin. Upon inspection, Garza-Valdés found three distinct layers in the painting, at least one of which was signed and dated. He also stated that the original painting showed striking similarities to the original Lady of Guadalupe found in Extremadura Spain, with the second painting showing another Virgin with indigenous features. Finally, Garza-Valdés indicated that the fabric on which the icon is painted is made of conventional hemp and linen, not agave fibers as is popularly believed.[41] The photographs of these putative overpaintings were not available in the Garza-Valdés 2002 publication, however.[42] Gilberto Aguirre. a San Antonio optometrist and colleague of Garza-Valdés who also took part in the 1999 study, examined the same photographs and stated that, while agreeing the painting had been tampered with, he disagreed with Garza-Valdes' conclusions. Gilberto Aguirre claims the conditions for conducting the study were inadequate. No control of the lighting and the fact that the painting was shot through an acrylic plate scientifically invalidates any results. He also questions Garza-Valdés' claim of ultraviolet light revealing two underlying images because according to Aguirre, ultraviolet light can't penetrate sub-surfaces. The team did take infrared pictures but those didn't show additional images underneath the present one.[43] Image File history File links Mb-guadalupe_extremadura. ... Image File history File links Mb-guadalupe_extremadura. ... Norberto Rivera Carrera Norberto Cardinal Rivera Carrera (born Norberto Rivera Carrera on 6 June 1942) is a Mexican cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the current Archbishop Primate of Mexico. ... The shrine to Our Lady of Guadalupe was the most important Marian shrine in the medieval kingdom of Castile, located in todays Cáceres province of the Extremadura autonomous community of Spain. ... Capital Mérida Official language(s) Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Species see text. ...


Infrared studies available since 1946 establish a very precise picture: There is only one image, inexplicable to science[44] and now exhibited—both, positive and negative infrared—on the Internet.[45]


Silhouettes bearing any similarity to the outline of the Virgin are lovingly detected by the devout and reported in many cities and towns throughout Mexico; in the Mexican town of Tlaltenango in the state of Morelos, a painting of Our Lady of Guadalupe is claimed to have miraculously appeared in the inside of a box that two unknown travelers left in a hostel. The owners of the hostel called the local priest after noticing enticing aromas of flowers and sandalwood coming out of the box. The image has been venerated on September 8 since its finding in 1720, and is accepted as a valid apparition of an image by the local Catholic authorities.[46] The municipality of Tlaltenango de Sánchez Román is located in the southwestern portion of the Mexican state of Zacatecas. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ...


At least 300 figures bearing a resemblance to the Virgin are found and reported in Mexico every year according to the press, many on burned toast and tortillas. In one of the most recent cases, believers reported a semblance of the Virgin of Guadalupe in a humidity stain in the Mexico City metro. This apparition of an image (different from the personal apparitions of December 9 to 12 of 1531) was called the "Virgin of the Subway."[47] This article is about the Mexican Tortilla. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ...


Alleged miraculous properties

Some consider it miraculous that the tilma maintains its structural integrity after nearly 500 years, since replicas made with the same type of materials lasted only about 15 years before disintegrating.[48] In addition to withstanding the elements, the tilma resisted a 1791 ammonia spill that made a considerable hole, which was reportedly repaired in two weeks with no external help. In 1921, an anarchist placed an offering of flowers next to the image. A bomb hidden within the flowers exploded and destroyed the shrine. However, the image suffered no damage.[49][50] A tilmàtli (or tilma) was a type of outer garment worn by men, documented from the late Postclassic and early Colonial eras among the Aztec and other peoples of central Mexico. ...

Image somewhat resembling a bearded man found in the Virgin's eye.

Photographers and ophthalmologists have reported images reflected in the eyes of the Virgin.[51][52] In 1929 and 1951 photographers found a figure reflected in the Virgin's eyes; upon inspection they said that the reflection was tripled in what is called the Purkinje effect. This effect is commonly found in human eyes.[48] The ophthalmologist Dr. Jose Aste Tonsmann later enlarged the image of the Virgin's eyes by 2500x magnification and said he saw not only the aforementioned single figure, but rather images of all the witnesses present when the tilma was shown to the Bishop in 1531. Tonsmann also reported seeing a small family—mother, father, and a group of children—in the center of the Virgin's eyes.[48] Image File history File links Eyedetl. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Purkinje images are reflections of objects from structure of the eye. ... Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not physical size. ... A tilmàtli (or tilma) was a type of outer garment worn by men, documented from the late Postclassic and early Colonial eras among the Aztec and other peoples of central Mexico. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


In response to the eye miracles, Joe Nickell and John F. Fischer wrote in Skeptical Inquirer that images seen in the Virgin's eyes could be the result of the human tendency to form familiar shapes from random patterns, much like a psychologist's inkblots—a phenomenon known as religious pareidolia.[53] The Skeptical Inquirer is a magazine of the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) dedicated to debunking pseudoscience. ... A black outline of the first of the ten cards in the Rorschach inkblot test. ... Religious pareidolia is pareidolia (the perception of a pattern where none intended) involving religious themes, especially the faces of religious figures. ...


Richard Kuhn, who received the 1938 Nobel Chemistry prize, is said to have analyzed a sample of the fabric in 1936 and said the tint on the fabric was not from a known mineral, vegetable, or animal source.[48] Richard Kuhn (December 3, 1900 – August 1, 1967) was a German biochemist, born in Vienna, Austria. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...


In 1979 Philip Serna Callahan studied the icon with infrared light and stated that portions of the face, hands, robe, and mantle had been painted in one step, with no sketches or corrections and no paintbrush strokes.[54] For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ...


Guadalupe in the Catholic Church

Pontifical Pronouncements on the Virgin of Guadalupe

A mosaic of Our Lady of Guadalupe at the Mary, Queen of the Universe Shrine in Florida.
A mosaic of Our Lady of Guadalupe at the Mary, Queen of the Universe Shrine in Florida.

With the Brief Non est equidem of May 25, 1754, Pope Benedict XIV declared Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of what was then called New Spain, corresponding to Spanish Central and Northern America, and approved liturgical texts for the Mass and Liturgy of the Hours in her honour. Pope Leo XIII granted new texts in 1891 and authorized coronation of the image in 1895. Pope Saint Pius X proclaimed her patron of Latin America in 1910. In 1935 Pope Pius XI proclaimed her patron of the Philippines and had a monument in her honor erected in the Vatican Gardens. Pope Pius XII declared the Virgin of Guadalupe “Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas” in 1945, and "Patroness of the Americas" in 1946. Pope John XXIII invoked her as "Mother of the Americas" in 1961, referring to her as Mother and Teacher of the Faith of All American populations, and in 1966 Pope Paul VI sent a Golden Rose to the shrine.[55] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1,023 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Sharkface217 Date: 25 December 2006 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1,023 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Sharkface217 Date: 25 December 2006 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... This article is about a decorative art. ... Mary, Queen of the Universe Mary, Queen of the Universe Shrine is located in Orlando, Florida at 8300 Vineland Avenue. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 – May 3, 1758 in Rome), was Pope from 17 August 1740 to 3 May 1758. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest pontificate... Pope St. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Golden Rose of Minucchio da Siena (1330), given by Pope John XXII to Rudolph III of Nidau, Earl of Neuchâtel The Golden Rose is a precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes of the Roman Catholic Church have been accustomed for centuries...


Pope John Paul II visited the shrine in the course of his first journey outside Italy as Pope from 26 to January 31, 1979, and again when he beatified Juan Diego there on 6 May 1990. In 1992 he dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe a chapel within St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. At the request of the Special Assembly for the Americas of the Synod of Bishops, he named Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of the Americas on January 22, 1999 (with the result that her liturgical celebration had, throughout the Americas, the rank of Solemnity), and visited the shrine again on the following day. On July 31, 2002, he canonized Juan Diego before a crowd of 12 million, and later that year included in the General Calendar of the Roman Rite, as optional memorials, the liturgical celebrations of Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin (December 9) and Our Lady of Guadalupe (12 December).[55] Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For the General Roman Calendar as it was in 1955, see Traditional Catholic Calendar. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Catholic devotions

Replicas of the tilma can be found in thousands of churches throughout the world, including Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris and the Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome, and numerous parishes bear her name. Notre Dame de Paris: Western Façade For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter, portrayed by Viviano Codazzi in a 1630 painting, is the largest church in Christendom and often used by the Pope. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


Buildings for Guadalupan devotion

Inside the Basilica of Guadalupe in Monterrey, Mexico.
Inside the Basilica of Guadalupe in Monterrey, Mexico.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Exterior view of the modern Basilica. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... Basilica of Guadalupe (south side). ... Nickname: Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: , Country State Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero ( PAN) Area  - City 860 km² (332 sq mi) Elevation 537 m (1,762 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,133,814  - Density 1,989/km² (5... Other Mexican States Capital Monterrey Other major cities Area 64,924 km² Ranked 13th Population (2000 census) 3,826,240 Ranked 9th Governor (2003-09) José Natividad González Parás (PRI/PVEM) Federal Deputies (11) PRI/PVEM = 10 PAN = 1 Federal Senators PAN = 2 PRI = 1 ISO 3166-2... The Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe is a Catholic church building in the Arts District of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA). ... Dallas redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Our Lady of Guadalupe Unfinished Cathedral, best known formerly by its abandonment, is now the Our Lady of Guadalupe Cathedral, located in Zamora, Michoacán. ... Zamora is a city in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. ...

Further reading

Panoramic view of San Miguel de Allende. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... The Codex Escalada The Codex Escalada, also called the Codex 1548, is a Nahuatl-language document which pictographically relates story of the 1531 apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe on the Mexican hill of Tepeyac, an apparition which is credited with converting the indigenous peoples of Mexico to Roman Catholicism. ...

References

Books

  • Brading, D.A. Mexican Phoenix. Our Lady of Guadalupe: Image and Tradition Across Five Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Elizondo, Virgil. Guadalupe. Mother of a New Creation. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1997.
  • Krauze, Enrique. Mexico, Biography of Power. A History of Modern Mexico 1810-1996. New York:HarperCollins, 1997.
  • Lafaye, Jacques. Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe. The Formation of Mexican National Consciousness 1531-1813. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
  • Poole, Stafford. Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997.
  • Sousa, Lisa, et al, eds. The Story of Guadalupe. Luis Laso de la Vega's Huei tlamahuicoltica of 1649. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.
  • Taylor, William B. Drinking, Homicide, and Rebellion in Colonial Mexican Villages. Stanford University Press: Stanford, 1979.
  • Ernesto de la Torre Villar, y Ramiro Navarro de Anda. "Testimonios Históricos Guadalupanos." Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982
  • de Guerrero Osio y Rivas Luis. "No Se Puede Tapar el Sol con un Dedo", 1999. México D.F.
  • Xavier Escalada. "Enciclopedia Guadalupana", México D.F.
  • Mariano Cuevas, S.J. "Album Histórico Guadalupano del IV Centenario", 1930. México D.F.
  • Guerrero Rosado, José L.: "El Nican Mopohua"; "Los dos mundos de un indio santo"; "El Manto de Juan Diego".
  • León-Portilla, Miguel. "Tonanzin Guadalupe", Fondo de Cultura Económica 2000, México D.F.

Websites

  • Ashburne, Elyse. "Catholic relic's authenticity questioned by researcher." Daily Texan. June 4, 2002. [27], accessed 5 December 2006
  • Goeringer, Conrad. "Virgin of Guadalupe a Fraud, Says Abbot." [28], accessed 9 July 2007
  • Beckwith, Barbara. "A View From the North." St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online. December 1999. [29], accessed 3 December 2006
  • Conchiglia. "Movimento d'Amore San Juan Diego dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe", October 24, 2001. [30] accessed 6 March 2007
  • Daily Catholic. December 7, 1999. [31]
  • De Guerrero Osio, Luis "Mandatory Images" An Image to Decipher the World, the Powerful Convergences on Guadalupe in Geography, Holy Scripture, Discovery of America, and the Stars in the Heavens. [32]
  • De Guerrero Osio y Rivas, Luis. http://g-infrared.blogspot.com/
  • Elizondo, Virgil. "Our Lady of Guadalupe. A Guide for the New Millennium." St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online. December 1999. [33], accessed 3 December 2006
  • Fray Bernaerdino de Sagahun y el culto de Guadalupe." Proyecto Guadalupano [34], accessed 1 December 2006
  • Garduño, Thalia Ehrlich. "Virgen de Tlaltenango." mariologia.org[35], accessed 29 November 200
  • Guerra, Giulio Dante. "La Madonna di Guadalupe. 'Inculturazione' Miracolosa." Cristianità. n. 205-206, 1992. [36], accessed 1 December 2006
  • King, Judy. "La Virgen de Guadalupe—Mother of All Mexico." [37], accessed 29 November 2006
  • La Virgen de Guadalupe," panam.edu [38], accessed 30 November 2006
  • "Los Ojos de Guadalupe: Un misterio para la ciencia." fluvium.org [39], accessed 30 November 2006
  • Mendoza, Rubi. "Coatlaxopeuh or Guadalupe?" xispas.com [40], accessed 3 December 2006
  • Nickell, Joe. "'Miraculous' Image of Guadalupe." Skeptical Briefs, June 2002. [41] accessed 29 November 2006.
  • Our Lady of Guadalupe." catholic.org [42], accessed 30 November 2006
  • Our Lady of Guadalupe." [43]
  • "Our Lady of Guadalupe." livingmiracles.net [44], accessed 30 November 2006
  • "Our Lady of Guadalupe. Historical sources." L'Osservatore Romano. 23 January 2002, page 8.[45]
  • Scheifler, Michael. "The Aztec Goddess Tonantzin and the Feast of Guadalupe." Bible Light Homepage. [46], accessed 3 December 2006
  • Subcomandante Marcos, "Zapatistas Guadalupanos and the Virgin of Guadalupe." 24 March 1995 [47], accessed 11 December 2006
  • "The Eyes." Interlupe. [48], accessed 3 December
  • The Image." Interlupe. [49], accessed 3 December 2006
  • "The Lady of Guadalupe. An Invented Myth or a Strange Reality?" laermita.org [50], accessed 30 November 2006
  • "Why the name 'of Guadalupe'?" sancta.org [51], accessed 30 November 2006
  • Sennott, Br. Thomas Mary. "The Tilma of Guadalupe: A Scientific Analysis." [52], accessed 3 December 2006 (.pdf)
  • Vera, Rodrigo. "La Guadalupana, tres imagenes en uno." Proceso, May 25, 2002. [53], accessed 29 November 2006
  • Zwick, Mark and Louise. "Why San Juan Diego, a Saint for Nobodies, Means So Much to the Houston Catholic Worker." Houston Catholic Worker newspaper, September-October 2002[54]

Periodicals

  • Bushnell, John. "La Virgen de Guadalupe as Surrogate Mother in San Juan Aztingo." American Anthropologist: Vol 60, Number 2, p. 261. 1958
  • "Divided By an Apparition." New York Times. September 5, 1896; p. 3
  • Herszenhorn, David M. "Mexicans Unite to Honor Their Spiritual Mother." December 13, 1998, New York Times, Section 1, Page 51.
  • Lopez, Lydia. "'Undocumented Virgin.' Guadalupe Narrative Crosses Borders for New Understanding." Episcopal News Service. December 10, 2004.
  • Notitiae, bulletin of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2002, p. 194-195
  • O'Connor, Mary. "The Virgin of Guadalupe and the Economics of Symbolic Behavior." The Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. Vol. 28, Issue 2. p. 105-119. 1989
  • Peterson, Jeannette Favot. "The Virgin of Guadalupe. Symbol of Conquest or Liberation?" Art Journal. Vol. 51, Issue 4, p. 39. 1992

is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Footnotes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Our Lady of Guadalupe
  1. ^ Guerrero Rosado, José L. (1991). Los dos mundos de un indio santo. Coyoacán, Mexico: Ediciones Cimiento. OCLC 26199807. 
  2. ^ Demarest, Donald (1996 isbn=0965204421). "Guadalupe Cult...In the Lives of Mexicans", in Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate: A Handbook on Guadalupe. Waite Park MN: Park Press, 114. 
  3. ^ José L. Guerrero Rosado "El Manto de Juan Diego", & others
  4. ^ Mexican Tourist Department
  5. ^ a b c d e Brading, D.A. Mexican Phoenix. Our Lady of Guadalupe: Image and Tradition Across Five Centuries. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2001.
  6. ^ a b c Krauze, Enrique. Mexico, Biography of Power. A History of Modern Mexico 1810-1996. HarperCollins: New York, 1997.
  7. ^ Documentary footage of Zapata and Pancho Villa's armies entering Mexico City can be seen here—Zapata's men can be seen carrying the flag of the Guadalupana about 38 seconds in.
  8. ^ Demarest, Donald. "Guadalupe Cult...In the Lives of Mexicans." p. 114 in A Handbook on Guadalupe, Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate, eds. Waite Park MN: Park Press Inc, 1996
  9. ^ Subcomandante Marcos, "Zapatistas Guadalupanos and the Virgin of Guadalupe." 24 March 1995 [1], accessed 11 December 2006.
  10. ^ Beckwith, Barbara. "A View From the North." St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online. December 1999. [2], accessed 3 December 2006.
  11. ^ a b Elizondo, Virgil. "Our Lady of Guadalupe. A Guide for the New Millennium." St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online. December 1999. [3], accessed 3 December 2006.
  12. ^ Lopez, Lydia. "'Undocumented Virgin.' Guadalupe Narrative Crosses Borders for New Understanding." Episcopal News Service. December 10, 2004.
  13. ^ a b King, Judy. "La Virgen de Guadalupe—Mother of All Mexico." [4], accessed 29 November 2006
  14. ^ O'Connor, Mary. "The Virgin of Guadalupe and the Economics of Symbolic Behavior." The Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. Vol. 28, Issue 2. p. 105-119. 1989.
  15. ^ Lafaye, Jacques. Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe. The Formation of Mexican National Consciousness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1976
  16. ^ Scheifler, Michael. "The Aztec Goddess Tonantzin and the Feast of Guadalupe." Bible Light Homepage. [5], accessed 3 December 2006
  17. ^ a b Elizondo, Virgil. Guadalupe, Mother of a New Creation. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1997
  18. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. "Mexicans Unite to Honor Their Spiritual Mother." December 13, 1998, New York Times, Section 1, Page 51.
  19. ^ "Why the name 'of Guadalupe'?" sancta.org [6], accessed 30 November 2006
  20. ^ Mendoza, Rubi. "Coatlaxopeuh or Guadalupe?" xispas.com [7]
  21. ^ "Our Lady of Guadalupe. Historical sources." L'Osservatore Romano. 23 January 2002, page 8
  22. ^ a b c d Poole, Stafford. Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. University of Arizona Press: Tucson, 1995.
  23. ^ Daily Catholic. December 7, 1999. [8], accessed November 30, 2006
  24. ^ Schulenburg was not the first to disbelieve the traditional account nor the first Catholic prelate to resign his post after questioning the Guadalupe story. In 1897 Eduardo Sanchez Camacho, the Bishop of Tamaulipas was forced to leave his post after expressing similar disbelief. "Divided by an Apparition." New York Times. September 5, 1896; p. 3. However, Bishop Camacho's objections—based on García Icazbalceta's arguments—were taken up immediately by Fr. Agustín de la Rosa in his "Defensa de la aparición de Ntra. Sra. de Guadalupe" (1896); de la Torre Villar, Ernesto, y Navarro de Anda, Ramiro. "Testimonios Históricos Guadalupanos." Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982
  25. ^ Camillus Crivelli (1913). "Juan de Zumárraga". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  26. ^ Guadalupan Infra-red. Luis de Guerrero Osio y Rivas. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  27. ^ Sennott, Thomas Mary (1999). Acheiropoeta: Not Made By Hands: The Miraculous Image of Our Lady of Guadalupe and the Holy Shroud of Turin. Ignatius Press. OCLC 41136016. 
  28. ^ "The Image." [9], accessed 3 December 2006
  29. ^ Harrington, Patricia. "Mother of Death, Mother of Rebirth: The Virgin of Guadalupe." Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Vol. 56, Issue 1, p. 25-50. 1988
  30. ^ "La Virgen de Guadalupe," panam.edu [10], accessed 30 November 2006
  31. ^ "The Lady of Guadalupe. An Invented Myth or a Strange Reality?" laermita.org[11], accessed 30 November 2006
  32. ^ Taylor, William B. Drinking, Homicide, and Rebellion in Colonial Mexican Villages. Stanford University Press: Stanford, 1979.
  33. ^ Bushnell, John. "La Virgen de Guadalupe as Surrogate Mother in San Juan Aztingo." American Anthropologist: Vol 60, Number 2, p. 261. 1958
  34. ^ Ernesto de la Torre Villar, y Ramiro Navarro de Anda. "Testimonios Históricos Guadalupanos." Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982
  35. ^ "Marcos" may have referred to the Aztec painter Marcos Cipac de Aquino, who was active in Mexico when the icon appeared.
  36. ^ Ernesto de la Torre Villar, y Ramiro Navarro de Anda. "Testimonios Históricos Guadalupanos." Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982
  37. ^ Cervantes Aguirre, Rafael. El Incidente Bustamante, Cuarto Encuentro Nacional Guadalupano, México D.F. 1979. p. 13-27
  38. ^ Ernesto de la Torre Villar, y Ramiro Navarro de Anda. "Testimonios Históricos Guadalupanos." Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982
  39. ^ "Fray Bernaerdino de Sagahun y el culto de Guadalupe." Proyecto Guadalupano [12], accessed 1 December 2006
  40. ^ Vera, Rodrigo. "La Guadalupana, tres imagenes en uno." Proceso, May 25 2002. [13], accessed 29 November 2006
  41. ^ Vera, Rodrigo. "La Guadalupana: tres imagenes en una." Proceso. 25 May 2002. [14], accessed 5 December 2006
  42. ^ Peterson, Jeannette Favot. "The Virgin of Guadalupe. Symbol of Conquest or Liberation?" Art Journal. Vol. 51, Issue 4, p. 39. 1992
  43. ^ Ashburne, Elyse. "Catholic relic's authenticity questioned by researcher." Daily Texan. June 4, 2002. [15], accessed 5 December 2006]
  44. ^ Escalada, Xavier. "Enciclopedia Guadalupana" vol. III. México
  45. ^ http://g-infrared.blogspot.com/
  46. ^ Garduño, Thalia Ehrlich. "Virgen de Tlaltenango." [16], accessed 29 November 2006.
  47. ^ Monsivais, Carlos. "Estampas al borde de la piedad." El Universal.com.mx [17], accessed 11 December 2006
  48. ^ a b c d Guerra, Giulio Dante. "La Madonna di Guadalupe. 'Inculturazione' Miracolosa." Christianita. n. 205-206, 1992. [18], accessed 1 December 2006
  49. ^ "Our Lady of Guadalupe" livingmiracles.net [19], accessed 30 November 2006
  50. ^ "Our Lady of Guadalupe" catholic.org [20], accessed 30 November 2006
  51. ^ "The Eyes." Interlupe. [21], accessed 3 December
  52. ^ "Los Ojos de Guadalupe: Un misterio para la ciencia." fluvium.org, accessed 30 November 2006 [22]
  53. ^ Nickell, Joe. "'Miraculous' Image of Guadalupe." Skeptical Briefs, June 2002. [23] accessed 29 November 2006.
  54. ^ Sennott, Br. Thomas Mary. "The Tilma of Guadalupe: A Scientific Analysis." [24]
  55. ^ a b Notitiae, bulletin of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2002, pages 194-195

Coordinates: 19°29′04″N, 99°07′02″W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Patron Saints Index: Our Lady of Guadalupe (1145 words)
Guadalupe is, strictly speaking, the name of a picture, but the name was extended to the church containing the picture and to the town that grew up around the church.
The bishop did not immediately believed the messenger, had him cross-examined and watched, and he finally told him to ask the lady who said she was the mother of the true God for a sign.
Pope Benedict XIV decreed that Our Lady of Guadalupe should be the national patron, and made 12 December a holiday of obligation with an octave, and ordered a special Mass and Office.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Shrine of Guadalupe (1122 words)
Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the picture and to the town that grew up around.
The lay viceroy, Enríquez, while not opposing the devotion, wrote in 1575 to Philip II asking him to prevent the third archbishop from erecting a parish and monastery at the shrine; inaugural pilgrimages were usually made to it by viceroys and other chief magistrates.
The present pontiff [1910] is the nineteenth pope to favour the shrine and its tradition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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